Appendix II - Parameters of Importance for Understanding the Ocean's Role in Global Change

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PARAMETER

TOOLS

SOCIETAL BENEFIT

GENERAL ATMOSPHERE-OCEAN MEASUREMENTS

wind

air temperature

humidity

precipitation

sea state

ships

buoys

satellites

aircraft

coastal stations

shipping; structures; search & rescue; offshore operations; meteorological models; weather forecasts; recreation

PROFILING ATMOSPHERE-OCEAN MEASUREMENTS

ballon profiles

acoustic profiles

optical profiles

ships

buoys

weather forecasts; air quality; air-sea chemical fluxes

SEA-LEVEL

sea-level

tide gauges

bottom pressure guages

tides; storm surge; navigation; coastal zone management; coastal development; salt water intrusion; climate change; recreation

CURRENTS

currents

ships

buoys

drifters

navigation; search and rescue; emergency response; beach erosion; sediment and pollutant transport; global circulation models

1  

Adapted from a table in First Steps Toward a U.S. GOOS (see Appendix III)



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OCR for page 67
The Ocean's Role in Global Change: Progress of Major Research Programs Appendix II - Parameters of Importance for Understanding the Ocean's Role in Global Change1 PARAMETER TOOLS SOCIETAL BENEFIT GENERAL ATMOSPHERE-OCEAN MEASUREMENTS wind air temperature humidity precipitation sea state ships buoys satellites aircraft coastal stations shipping; structures; search & rescue; offshore operations; meteorological models; weather forecasts; recreation PROFILING ATMOSPHERE-OCEAN MEASUREMENTS ballon profiles acoustic profiles optical profiles ships buoys weather forecasts; air quality; air-sea chemical fluxes SEA-LEVEL sea-level tide gauges bottom pressure guages tides; storm surge; navigation; coastal zone management; coastal development; salt water intrusion; climate change; recreation CURRENTS currents ships buoys drifters navigation; search and rescue; emergency response; beach erosion; sediment and pollutant transport; global circulation models 1   Adapted from a table in First Steps Toward a U.S. GOOS (see Appendix III)

OCR for page 67
The Ocean's Role in Global Change: Progress of Major Research Programs PARAMETER TOOLS SOCIETAL BENEFIT TEMPERATURE sea-surface temperature subsurface temperature ships buoys VOS climate change; coastal meteorology; environmental quality; sea-level change; fisheries SALINITY surface salinity deep salinity ships buoys ecosystem health; fisheries; environmental quality; recreation coastal ocean models ICE ice edge and extent coastal observations satellites aircraft navigation; climate change; meteorology; climate models; ecosystem health; fisheries SHORT AND LONG WAVE RADIATION aerosols gas exchange chemical precipitation photosynthetically available radiation satellites ground stations ships climate change; water quality; ecosystems health; status and trends; fisheries OPTICAL MEASUREMENTS pigment detritus clarity sediment load spectral properties buoys ships satellites water quality; ecosystem health; eutrophication; navigation; toxic blooms

OCR for page 67
The Ocean's Role in Global Change: Progress of Major Research Programs PARAMETER TOOLS SOCIETAL BENEFIT NUTRIENTS NO3, PO4, NH3, NO2, and O2 ships buoys satellites water quality; ecosystem health; eutrophication; fisheries; recreation; status and trends PLANKTON phytoplankton fluorometric measurements species identification growth ships buoys biochemical and molecular techniques environmental quality (blooms); ecosystem health; recreation; fisheries; global change ZOOPLANKTON biomass abundance species identification ships (incl. VOS) acoustics optics biochemical and molecular techniques ecosystem health; fisheries; global change; fisheries CHEMISTRY POC, DOC, PCO2, DIC ships submersibles ROVs, AUVs environmental quality; ecosystem health; living resources; recreation; human health GEOLOGY sediment types grain size, porosity movement, morphology bathymetry-topography benthic biology coastal erosion-run off cores grab samples echo sounder nets landers-incubators coastal zone management; environmental quality; ecosystem health; navigation; living resources

OCR for page 67
The Ocean's Role in Global Change: Progress of Major Research Programs This page in the original is blank.