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Sex AaC (2-amino-9H-pyrido [2,3-b]indole), 280-284 passim* absinthe, 202 Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI), 321, 324, 431-432 achlorhydria, 172, 393 acrylonitrile, 13, 315, 332; see also food additives additives, food, see food additives adriamycin, 292 aflatoxins, 12, 26, 42, 87, 112-115 passim, 142, 151, 204, 234-240, 257, 291, 392, 401, 402, 435; see also mycotoxins agar, 133 Agaricus bisporus (mushroom), 240, 242, 257 agaritine, 240 age, and cancer, 376-377 air, 1, 23, 24, 162, 253, 279 alcohol consumption alimentary tract cancer and, 205 and cancer, 11, 16, 108, 202-208, 383 carcinogens and, 206-208 passim cigarette smoking and, 11, 16, 205-206, 207, 208, 391 colon cancer and, 203, 400 colorectal cancer and, 11, 202-203, 208, 400 epidemiological evidence on, 202-206 esophageal cancer and, 11, 140, 144, 202-208 passim, 391-393, 402 experimental evidence on, 206-208 gastrointestinal cancer and, 16, 202 head and neck cancer and, 206 intestinal cancer and, 108, 400 kidney cancer and, 202 laryngeal cancer and, 11, 139, 145, 202, 204, 208, 383, 391 liver cancer and, 11, 204, 208, 401-402 lung cancer and, 202, 204 malnutrition and, 206 mechanisms for cancer induction, 205, 206-208 microsomal enzymes and, 207 Mormons and, 381 nutritional status and, 206 oral cavity cancer and, 11, 202-208 passim, 383, 391 pancreatic cancer and, 202, 403 pharyngeal cancer and, 202, 204 Plummer-Vinson syndrome and, 206 prostate cancer and, 202 rectal cancer and, 202, 203, 208, 400, 401 renal cancer and, 406 respiratory tract cancer and, 11, 16, 205, 206, 208 *Subject mentioned at intervals throughout page range cited. 457 stomach cancer and, 202 urinary bladder cancer and, 406 vinyl chloride and, 313 see also specific a l cohol ic beverages alcoholic beverages, see alcohol consumption and speck f ic a l cohol ic beverages aldicarb, 319, 323, 324 aldrin, 319 alfalfa, 133, 245, 364 alimentary tract cancer alcohol consumption and, 205 cigarette smoking and, 205 iron and, 173 alkyl derivatives, 285 alkylating agents, 39, 277 allylic benzene deriva- tives, 243-244 almonds, 235 American Cancer Society, 381 Ames test, 39, 185, 207 243-251 passim, 257, 278, 307, 311, 314, 315, 317, 328, 330, 331; see also mutagenicity tests; Salmonella typhimurium amides, 145, 252, 396 amines, 144, 145, 247, 252, 253, 254, 285, 396 amino acids deficiency, 109-112 hydrolysate, 89 leukemia and, 110 mutagens from, 279-284 protein and, 42-43, 109-112, 114

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458 Index pyrolysates, 279-284 passim, 290, 292 carcinogenesis and, 109-112; see also specific amino acids 2-aminoacetylfluorene (2-AAF), 86-87, 114, 164, 177, 290, 312, 326 aminofluorene (AF), 113, 291 aminopyrene, 148 aniline dyes, 20 animal protein, 392 animal studies, see experimental evidence; labora- tory methods anise, 243 anticarcinogens, 27, 164 antimony, 162 antioxidants, 13, 291-292, 311-313, 360-362, 364; see also anticarcino- gens; inhibitors; and specific ant i oxidants antipyrine, 365 AOM (azoxymethane), 83, 87, 88, 92, 132-133 aplastic anemia, 318 apple juice, 249 apples, 182, 184, 289, 290 apoenzymes, 151 Aroclor 1254, 326 aromatic amines, 39, 277, 365 aromatic isothio- cyanates, 359, 362-363, 366 arsenic and cancer, 10-11, 162, 163, 179, 181-184 cigarette smoking and, 183 cocarcinogenicity, 183 epidemiological evidence on, 182, 183-184 experimental evidence on, 182-183, 184 drinking water and, 10, 181, 182, 183 liver cancer and, 182 lung cancer and, 182, 183 mutagenicity, 183 250, skin cancer and, 182, 183 toxicity, 181 wine drinking and, 182 see also minerals aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH), 363 asbestos, 20 ascorbic acid, see vitamin C aspartame, 310-311; see also food additives aspartic acid, 310 Aspergillus sp., 235, 237, 287 atherosclerosis, 30, 77, 398 atmospheric dust, 184 automobile exhaust, 184 azaserine, 87 azo dyes, 306, 364 B vitamins calories and, 150 bile cancer and, 7, 149-152 colon cancer and, 151 epidemiological evidence on, 150 experimental evidence on, 150-152 hepatic cancer and, 150, 151 protein and, 150 see also vitamins and specific B vitamins Bacillus subtilis rec assay, 180, 183, 185, 244 bacon, 253, 395; see also salt-cured (salt-pickled) foods; nitrites; nitrosamines baked goods, 252 bananas, 393 beans, 53, 54 beef, 62, 74, 76, 87, 88, 108, 109, 278, 280, 284-285, 289, 316, 397, 399, 407, 408, 410 . beer, 11, 108, 202, 208, 251, 253, 286, 392, 398, 400, 406; see also alcohol con- sumption benz [a] anthracene (BA), 328-329, 331; see also polycyclic aromatic hydro- carbons benzo [a] pyrene (BaP), 12, 68, 141, 142, 146, 207, 278, 279, 290, 291, 292, 328, 329, 330, 331, 361, 362, 363; see also polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons benzpyrene, 68; see also polycyclic aromatic hydro- carbons benzyl isothiocyanate, 362, 363; see also aromatic isothiocyanates beriberi, 30 beryllium, 179 betel nuts, 249 beverages, see alcohol consumption; coffee; tea; and specific beverages _ acids, 5, 80, 81-83, 89, 90, 92, 130, 132, 133; see also bile salts; fecal steroids bile duct cancer, cholesterol and, 78 bile salts, 82; see also bile acids; fecal steroids biliary cancer, body weight and, 68 bioassays, see laboratory methods biological markers, 35-36; see also dietary data bladder cancer, see urinary bladder cancer body wastes, measurement of substances in, 35 bologna, 315 bone marrow cancer, cell behavior and, 19 Botrylio cinerea, 24 8 bowel, large, see colon cancer bowel cancer, see colon cancer bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum), 244- 245, 406

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Index 459 brain cancer carcinogens and, 27 vinyl chloride and, 314 bran, 7, 133, 134 brandy, 202, 249, 288 bread, 123, 251, 285, 289, 393, 408 breakfast cereals, 60 breast cancer body weight and, 67-68, 407, 408 cadmium and, 179 calories and, 67, 106, 407 carbohydrates and, 123, 126 cholesterol and, 79, 80, 408 cigarette smoking and, 382 copper and, 174 dairy products and, 61, 73 DES and, 316 diet and, 2, 25, 42, 372, 382, 383, 407-409 DMBA and, 84 endometrial cancer and, 109, 409 ethnic groups and, 73, 373, 375, 382, 383, 408, 410 epidemiological evidence on, 407-409 fats and, 4, 5, 14, 42, 73-74, 76, 77, 89-93 passim, 106-107, 382, 383, 384, 407, 408, 440 fibers and, 383 height and, 67-68, 407, 408 hormones and, 316-317, 409 . . Incidence correlations, 378-380, 384 iodine and, 176, 177 Japanese and, 382, 383, 408 migration and, 374, 376, 407 Mormons and, 382, 384, 410 mortality from, 409 NMU and, 85 ovarian cancer and, 410 Parsi/Hindu com- munities and, 382 protease inhibitors and, 363 protein and, 73, 74, 106-107, 407, 408 risk factors in, 407-408 selenium and, 163, 164 Seventh-Day Adventists and, 73-74, 381, 384 socioeconomic status and, 379-381, 384 starches and, 123 sugars and, 73, 123 vinyl chloride and, 314 zinc and, 169, 170 broccoli, 11, 60, 62, 289, 290, 359, 362, 364, 366, 399; see also cruciferous vegetables bronchogenic cancer copper and, 174 zinc and, 170, 171 brussels sprouts, 11, 290, 359, 362, 364, 365, 366, 399; see also cruciferous vegetables Burkitt's lymphoma, 24 butter, 58, 61, 249, 313, 408, 410 butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), 291, 311-313, 360-362, 364; inhibition (table), 361; see also antioxidants; food additives butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), 291, 311-313, 365; see also antioxidants; food additives cabbage, 11, 60, 289, 290, 359, 362, 364, 365, 366, 395, 399; see also cru- ciferous vegetables cadmium and cancer, 10-11, 162, 163, 179-181 breast cancer and, 179 endometrial cancer and, 179, 180 epidemiological evidence on, 179-180 experimental evidence on, 180 intestinal cancer and, 179 leukemia and, 179 liver cancer and, 180 lung cancer and, 179 oral cavity cancer and, 179 pharyngeal cancer and, 179 prostate cancer and, 179, 180, 181, 410-411 renal cancer and, 180, 181, 406 selenium and, 167 skin cancer and, 179 toxicity, 179 tumors and, 179, 180 uterine cancer and, 179, 180 urinary bladder cancer and, 179 see al so minerals caffeine carcinogenesis and, 224, 246-247 mutagenesis and, 247-248, 287 see also coffee calcium, 52, 62, 392 calories and cancer, 66-70 B vitamins and, 150 animal experiments and, 68-70 breast cancer and, 67, 106, 407 carbohydrates and, 66 colorectal cancer and, 67, 132 colon cancer and, 67, 400 diets high in, 69, 404 diets low in, 69 epidemiological evidence on, 66-68, 69 experimental evidence on, 68-70 fats and, 36, 66 fiber and, 66 laboratory methods for, 43 rectal cancer and, 67, 400 total caloric intake, 3-4, 15, 43, 51, 52, 53, 59, 66-70, 83

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460 Index cancer affluence and, 384 age and, 376-377 alcohol consumption and, 11, 16, 108, 202-208, 383 allylic and pro- penylic benzene derivatives and, 243 animal metabolites and, 250-251 arsenic and, 10-11, 162, 163, 179, 181- 184 B vitamins and, 7, 149-152 body weight and, 66-70 bracken ferm toxins and, 244 carbohydrates and, 6, 123-127 causes of, 23-28 cadmium and, 10-11, 162, 163, 179-181 cell heredity and, 19-20 cholesterol and, 4, 5, 73-93 passim choline and, 27, 86, 149-150 coffee and, 246-247 contaminants and, 3, 13-14, 15, 23, 31, 51, 217-228, 317-332 copper and, 173-175 coumarin and, 2SO cycasin and, 248 dietary patterns and, 3, 56, 371, 372, 382-383, 384, 437-440 epidemiological methodology, 31-38, 43-46 estrogenic compounds and, 245-246 ethnic groups and, 73, 74, 78-79, 131-132, 372-374, 375, 382, 383, 402, 404, 408, 410 fats and, 4-5, 42, 73-93 passim, 382-383, 384 fermentation products and, 251 fiber and, 6-7, 33, 61, 82, 130-134 food additives and, 11, 13, 14, 15, 51, 217-228, 304-317, 332 geographical differences and, 372-384 passim hormones and, 251 hydrazines and, 12, 240-242 incidence, 20-21, 23-26, 38, 58-59, 63, 66, 73, 74, 75, 372-384 incidence correla- tions, 378-379, 380 (table), 384 iodine and, 10, 175-178 iron and, 9, 10, 172-173, 179 laboratory methodology, 38-46 lead and, 10-11, 162, 179, 184-186 n lifestyle" and, 439-440 lipids and, 4-5, 73-93 methylxanthines and, 247-248 migration and, 20, 23-25, 374-376, 384, 398, 403, 407 minerals and, 9-11, 162-186, 359 molybdenum and, 10, 178-179 mortality, 25, 38, 67-68, 73, 74, 75, 372-384, 440 mutagens and, 12, 21-22, 26, 217, 277-292 mycotoxins and, 12, 26, 243-240, 257 naturally occurring carcinogens and, 12, 38, 42, 217, 234-258 nature of, 17-28 nitrate, nitrite, and N-nitroso come pounds and, 252, 257, 258 nonnutrients and, 3, 11, 15, 62, 217-228, 304-333 nutrients and, 3, 11, 51-63 parasorbic acid and, 250 promoters (agents) of, 21, 22, 28, 359-360 protein and, 5-6, 106- 116, 382-383 pyrrolizidine alkaloids and, 242-243 radiation and, 24 relationship to diets, 2, 3-4, 17-28, 391- 411, 437-440 relationship to other diseases, 384 religious groups and, 73-74, 76, 381-382, 384, 398, 402, 403, 410 risk to human health, 14, 430-440 selenium and, 9-10, 162-169 socioeconomic status and, 379-381 tannins and, 249 thiourea and, 248-249 time trends and, 376-378 total caloric intake and, 3-4, 66-70 tryptophan and, 250 vegetables and, 358- 359, 366 vitamin A and, 7-8, 138-144 vitamin C and, 7-8, 138, 144-147 vitamin E and, 7, 8-9, 138, 147-149 vitamin K and, 7, 138 vitamins and, 7-9, 11, 138-152, 359 zinc and, 10, 169- 172 see also specific types of cancer cancer, tests for, see epidemiological evidence; epidemio- logical methods; experimental evi- dence; laboratory methods cancer risk Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) and, 431-432 assessment of, 430-440 contribution of diet to, 14, 439-440 diet and, see specific foods, nutrients, and nonnutritive dietary components

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Index 461 diet-related car- c~nogenes~s and, 437-439 dietary guidelines for lowering, 14-16 epidemiological studies and, 436-437 estimation of, 436-437 food additives and, see food additives; and specific f ood additives Food Safety Council and, 432, 433 inhibitors of, 11, 358-366 initiators of, 430-434 mathematical models for, 432-434, 437-438 modifiers of, 430-431, 434-435 mutagenicity tests and, 435-436 quantitation of, 437-438 Recommended Dietary Allowances and, 438 canthaxanthin, 143 captan, 320 caramel, 249, 286 carbamates, 318, 319, 324; see also aldicarb; carbaryl carbamoyl phosphate, 251 carbaryl, 323, 324 carbohydrates and cancer, 6, 123-127 breast cancer and, 123 diets high in, 61 epidemiological evidence on, 123-124, 126-127 epidemiological methods for, 36 esophageal cancer and, 123-124 experimental evidence on, 124-127 fiber and, 61, 130 mutagens and, 285-286 stomach cancer and, 123 total caloric intake and, 66 see also specific carbohydrates carcinogenesis chemically induced, 26-28 early stages, 26-27 experimentally induced, 21-23, 26-28 inhibitors of, 11, 358-366 initiators of, 21-22, 26-28, 431-434 late stages, 27-28 modifiers of, 434-435 "spontaneous, n 22-23, 26 see also cancer; carcinogens carcinogens alcohol and, 207-208 passim anticarcinogens, 27, 164 cocarcinogens, 27, 81, 173, 177, 183, 207, 247 enzyme systems and, 364-365 laboratory methods for, 38-43 naturally occurring, 12, 38, 42, 217, 234-258, 277-278 nonspecific, 22 procarcinogens, 130, 167, 207 regulation of, 218, 219 see also carcinogenesis cardiovascular disease, 77, 384, 400 carotenes, 7, 8, 11, 15, 36, 58, 60, 61, 62, 138, 140-144 passim, 366, 405; see also vitamin A carrots, 140, 395, 406, 410; see also carotenes casein, 110, 111-116 passim, 280, 290 cassava, 170, 393 cassia, 249 cattle, 316, 406 cauliflower, 11, 362, 364, 366 celery, 358, 364, 395 cells abnormal, 17, 18-20, 21, 39-40 behavior, 18-19, 430-431 cultures, 45, 146, 167 division, 17-18 heredity, 19-20 multiplication, 17-20 passim, 277 normal, 17-18, 21 cellulose, 7, 123, 130, 131, 133, 134, 398 cereals, 6, 7, 8, 15, 51, 60, 123, 134, 163, 252, 318, 398, 399 cervical cancer body weight and, 68 cigarette smoking and, 377, 382 DES and, 316, 317 diet and, 382 incidence cor- relations and, 380 Mormons and, 382 protein and, 382 charcoal-broiled steak and, 278-279 cheese, 61, 109, 279, 288, 325, 408, 410 chenodeoxycholic acid, 83; see also bile acids chicken, 280, 290 Chinese hamster ovary cells, 285-286, 291, 312, 328; see also mutagenicity tests chlordane, 318, 319, 321, 325 chlorinated compounds, 277, 319 chlorinated hydrocarbons, 325 chlorinated naphtha- lenes, 325 chlorogenic acid, 247 chlorophyll, 290 chocolate, 406 cholangiofibrosis, 113 cholesterol and cancer, 4, 5, 73-93 passim bile duct cancer and, 78 breast cancer and, 79, 80, 408 cardiovascular disease and, 77 colon cancer and, 77-81, 90-91, 131, 383, 396-401 passim colorectal cancer and, 79, 132, 398 coronary heart disease and, 79, 398

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462 Index dietary, 77, 80, 90 epidemiological evidence on, 77-81, 90 epidemiological methods for, 34, 35 esophageal cancer and, 79 ethnic groups and, 78- 79 hematopoietic system and, 79 Hodgkin's disease and, 79 leukemia and, 79 liver cancer and, 78, 79 lung cancer and, 79 lymphatic system and, 79 noncoronary heart disease and, 79 oral cavity cancer and, 79 plasma, 78 pancreatic cancer and, 78, 79 rectal cancer and, 78, 80 serum, 77-81 stomach cancer and, 78 see also fats; lipids cholestyramine, 83 cholic acid, 81, 83 choline, 27, 86, 149-150, 151; see also B vitamins chromatic exchange assay, 312 chromium, 162, 179 chronic toxicity tests, 432; see also experimental evidence; labora- tory methods chrysene, 207 cigarette smoking alimentary tract cancer and, 205 alcohol consumption and, 11, 16, 205-206, 207, 208, 391 arsenic and, 183 breast cancer and, 382 cervical cancer and, 377, 382 endometrial cancer and, 382 esophageal cancer and, 11, 140, 144, 205, 208, 391 gastrointestinal tract cancer and, 16 laryngeal cancer and, 11, 139, 145, 208, 391 lung cancer and, 11, 20-21, 23, 25, 139, 372, 378, 404, 405 Mormons and, 381-382 oral cavity cancer and, 11, 205, 206, 208, 391 ovarian cancer and, 382 pancreatic cancer and, 403 pharyngeal cancer and, 205 renal cancer and, 406 respiratory tract cancer and, 1, 11, 16, 205, 206, 208 Seventh-Day Adventists and, 381 skin cancer and, 378 stomach cancer and, 140, 358, 377, 382, 396 / urinary bladder cancer and, 139, 304, 405 cinnamic acid, 362 cirrhosis, 11, 113, 164, 165, 204, 208, 238, 391, 402; see also liver cancer citrus fruits, 15, 36, 60-61, 144, 395 clofibrate, cancer and, 78 clover, 245 coconut oil, 83, 85, 88 coenzymes, 151 cobalt, 179 cocoa, 286 coffee, 139, 224, 246- 247, 249, 279, 286, 287, 365, 381, 399, 402, 403, 405, 406, 410; see also caffeine coffee beans, 365 cole slaw, 358, 395 co. on cancer alcohol consumption and, 203, 400 B vitamins and, 151 body weight and, 68 calories and, 67, 400 cholesterol and, 77-83, 90-91, 131, 383, 396-401 passim coronary heart disease and, 398 cruciferous vegetables and, 359, 401 diet and, 2, 14, 25, 42, 372, 383, 396- 401 passim dietary fiber and, 7, 75, 130-134 passim, 359, 383, 384, 396-401 passim endometrial cancer and, 410 ethnic groups and, 132, 373, 374, 375 fats and, 4, 5, 7, 14, 42, 75-77, 81-83passim, 92, 93, 383, 384, 396-401 passim fecal steroids and, 36, 81-83 glucose and, 125 incidence correlations, 378-380, 384 meat and, 396-401 passim migration and, 374-376, 398 Mormons and, 382, 384, 398 mycotoxins and, 237 Pa rs i/Hi ndu communi- ties and, 382 protein and, 107-108, 400 selenium and, 163, 397 Seventh-Day Adventists and, 76, 381, 384, 394 p-sitosterol and, 364 socioeconomic status and, 379-381, 397 vegetables and, 359, 396-401 passim vitamin A and, 142 vitamin C and, 145, 146 zinc and, 170 colorectal cancer alcohol consumption and, 11, 202-203, 208, 400

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Index 463 calories and, 67, 132 cholesterol and, 79, 132, 396-401 passim diet and, 382, 396-401 passim cholesterol and, 79, 132 fats and, 76, 132, 382, 440 fiber and, 6-7, 130-134 passim, 399 incidence correlations, 378, 384 migration and, 396 protein and, 106, 107, 132 selenium and, 164, 397 Seventh-Day Adventists and, 381 socioeconomic status and, 384 vegetables and, 359, 400 vitamin A and, 140, 399 vitamin C and, 132 contaminants, environ- mental and cancer, 3, 13-14, 15, 23, 31, 51, 217-228, 317-332 animal drugs as, 218, 221 bioassayed chemicals (table), 225 carcinogenicity of, 224-228 direct additives, 218-221 passim epidemiological evidence on, 317-332 passim experimental evidence on, 317-332 passim fat-soluble,:59, 62 heavy metals as, 222, 224 human exposure to, 222 indirect additives, 218-221 passim industrial chemicals as, 218, 222, 224 mutagenicity of, 224-225 naturally occurring, 15, 225 pesticide residues as, 218, 221, 222, 224, 317-325 polyvinyl chloride as, 313 recommendations for, 15-16 toxicity, 224 trace elements, 162- 163 unavoidably added constituents, 218, 221 see also specific contaminants cooking fats, 58, 59 copper and cancer, 10, 173-175 breast cancer and, 174 bronchogenic cancer and, 174 epidemiological evidence on, 174, 175 experimental evidence on, 175 intestinal cancer and, 174 leukemia and, 174 liver tumors and, 175 lung cancer and, 174 selenium and, 174 skin cancer and, 174 stomach cancer and, 169, 174 thyroid cancer and, 174 toxicity, 175 zinc and, 169, 170 see al so minerals copper salts, 175 coprostanol, 81 coprostanone, 81 corn, 83-88 passim, 111, 169-170, 222, 235, 392, 393, 408 coronary heart disease, 32, 79, 384, 398 corpus uteri, see uterine cancer cottage cheese, 61 coumarin, 249-250, 257, 365 coumestrol, 245, 246 cranberries, 250 cream, 61, 410 Crotal aria (rattleboxes), 242 croton oil, 22, 143, 149 cruciferous vegetables, 11, 60, 61, 62, 145, 359, 362, 364, 365, 366, 401; see al so broccoli; Brussels sprouts; cabbage; cauli- flower; raw vege- tables; vegetables cured foods, see salt- cured (salt-pickled) foods cuttlefish, 280 cycad nuts, 248, 257, 401 cycasin, 248, 401 cyclamates, 304, 305, 308-309; see also food additives; saccharin cyclodienes, 318; see also organochlorine compounds cyclohexylamine, 309 cystic lesions, 113 cystine, 110 D dairy products, 53, 54, 61, 73, 318, 326, 398, 399, 408; see also specific dairy products Delaney Clause, see Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act deoxycholic acid, 81; see also bile acids; bile salts deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), 21, 26, 27, 39, 40, 114, 167, 177, 183, 185, 248, 250, 256, 277, 278, 279, 286, 307, 317 desserts, sweet, 74, 408 dextrin, 124 dextrose, 222 diabetes, 306, 308, 403 diazinon, 319, 322 dibenz [a ~lanthracene (DBA), 328, 331, 361 3,4,9,10-dibenzpyrene, 148 dichlorodiphenyltri- chloroethane (DDT), 318, 319, 320 dieldrin, 319, 320; see also organochlorine compounds

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464 Index diepoxybutane, 292 dietary data analysis of, 36, 37-38 bias and, 35 biological markers, 35-36 diet history, 34, 44, 145 food diaries, 75 food disappearance data, 33, 44, 163, 174, 383, 397 food models, 34 food records, 34, 44, 145 group, 32-33, 44 household food inventories, 32, 44 individual, 33, 44 interviews, 35 per capita intake, 32, 33 recent recall, 33, 44, 145 see al so epidemi- ological methods dietary fiber, see fiber dietary intake, methods for determining, 32-36 dietary patterns, see diets diethylstilbestrol (DES), 316-317; see al so food additives; contaminants dietary guidelines alcohol consumption and, 16 calories and, 15 cancer risk and, 14-16 carotenes and, 15 cereals, whole grain, and, 15 cigarette smoking and, 16 contaminants and, 15 cruciferous vege- tables and, 15 fats and, 14-15 food additives and, fruits and, 15 mutagens and, 16 nonnutritive components and, 15-16 dimethylamide, 145 nutrient supplements 7,12-dimethylbenz [a] - and, 15 anthracene, see dimethylbenz [a] - anthracene salt-cured (salt- pickled) foods and, 15 smoked foods and, 16 vegetables and, 15 diets dietary patterns 3, 56, 371, 372, 382-383, 384, 437-440 epidemiological methods for, 31-38 fiber free, 133 high calorie, 69, 404 high carbohydrate, 61 high fat, 3, 4-5, 14- 15, 42, 73, 76, 77, 82, 84-88 passim, 92, 399, 404, 408 high fiber, 6-7, 61, 131, 133 high protein, 112-115 passim high selenium, 164 lacto-ovovegetarian, 381, 398 lipotrope-deficient, 151 low calorie, 69 low fat, 3, 4-5, 14-15, 69, 82, 84, 87, 88, 92 low fiber, 6-7, 76, 130, 133, 399 low protein, 112-115 passim low selenium, 165 relationship to cancer, 2, 3-4, 17-28, 391-411, 437-440 vegetarian, 363, 399, 411 see al so dietary data; foods 3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid (caffeic acid), 362 3,3'-diindolylmethane, 362, 365 diketopiperazine (DKP), 310, 311 15 dill weed, 286 3.2'-dimethvl-4- dimethylbenz [a] anthracene (DMBA), 84-86 passim, 88, 114, 115, 124, 148, 168, 171, 177, 183, 245, 329, 361, 362, 363 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH), 83, 88-89, 91, 114, 125, 132, 142, 146, 149, 173, 363 dimethylsulfoxide, 279 diseases, see specific diseases distilled spirits, and cancer, 203, 288, 400; see also alcohol consumption diverticulitis, 384 diverticulosis, 398 dose-response models, 432-433; see also cancer risk drinking water E aminobiphenyl (DAB, DMAB), 88, 132-133, 326 eggplant, 289 eggs, 8, 54, 108, 109, 147, 279, 288, 325, 382, 402, 403, 407, 410 Ehrlich ascites cells, 167, 170 electrophiles, 364 endemic goiter and, 175, 176, 177 endocrine glands, 17 body weight and, 68, 409 endometrial cancer body weight and, 68, 409 breast cancer and, 109, 409 cadmium and, 179, 180 caloric intake and, 68

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Index 465 cigarette smoking and, 382 colon cancer and, 409 DES and, 316 diet and, 2, 25, 372, 382, 409 ethnic groups and, 373, 375 estrogens and, 409 fats and, 382, 384, 409 incidence correla- tions, 20-21, 378-380, 384 iodine and, 176, 177 Mormons and, 382 obesity and, 409 ovarian cancer and, 410 protein and, 106, 109 socioeconomic status and, 409 vitamin C and, 145 environmental con- taminants, see contaminants Environmental Protection Agency, 317, 325, 434 epithelial cells, and cancer, 17, 18, 19, 141, 143, 330 epidemiological evidence alcohol consumption, 202-206 arsenic, 182, 183-184 B vitamins, 150 cadmium, 179-180 calories, 66-68 carbohydrates, 123-124, 126-127 cholesterol, 77-81, 90 contaminants, 317-332 passim copper, 174, 175 criteria for assessment. 43-44 cyclamates, 308, 309 dietary fiber, 130- 132, 134 fats, 73-77, 89-90, 91-93 food additives, 304- 317 passim, 332 hydrazines, 240, 242 iodine, 176, 177, 178 iron, 172-173 lead, 184, 185 minerals, 162 molybdenum, 178, 179 .. 37-38, mycotoxins, 236-237, 238-239 plant metabolites, 244, 246 nitrate, nitrite, and N-n itroso com- pounds, 253-254, 256 protein, 106-109, 116 selenium, 163-164, 168 total caloric intake, 66-68, 69 vitamin A, 138-140 vitamin C, 144-145 vitamin E, 147 zinc, 169-170, 171, 172 see al so dietary data; epidemio- logical methods epidemiological methods assessment of, 37-38, 436-437 bias and, 37 case-control studies, 31, 34, 35, 37, 44, 46, 436 cohort studies, 32, 35, 37, 44, 436, 437 correlation studies, 31, 38, 44, 437 criteria for assessment of, 37-38, 43-44 descriptive studies, 31, 44 intervention studies, 32 interviews, 37 limitations of, 31-32, 37-38 see al so dietary data; epidemio- logical evidence epidemiology, see epidemiological evidence; epidemio- logical methods Epstein-Barr virus, 24 Escherichia cod i, 178 180, 183, 250, 314, 315, 317 esophageal cancer alcohol consumption and, 11, 140, 144, 202-208 passim, 391-393, 402 carbohydrates and, 123-124 cholesterol and, 79 cigarette smoking and, 11, 140, 144, 205, 208, 391 coffee and, 249 diet and, 15, 372, 391-393 ethnic groups and, 373, 374 fats and, 392 hot beverages and, 392, 393 incidence correla- tions, 379-380, 384 iron and, 170, 172 moldy foods and, 392, 393 molybdenum and, 10, 178, 179, 392 mycotoxins and, 237, 392, 393 nitrate, nitrite, and N-nitroso com- pounds and, 253, 256, 258 pickled foods and, 237, 392, 393 socioeconomic status and, 381 vegetables and, 139-140, 392, 393 vitamin A and, 139-140, 144, vitamin C and, 144-145, 147, 179, 392 zinc and, 169-170, 171 essential fatty acids, 85, 86, 91 estragole, 243-244, 257 estrogenic compounds, 245-246 estrone, 245 ethanol, 203-207 passim, 251, 391, 400; see also alcohol consumption ethnic groups 73, 74, 78- 79, 131-132, 372- 374, 375, 383, 402, 404, 408, 410 ethnic groups, cancer incidence in (tables), 373, 375 ethyl carbamate (urethan), 251 eugenol, 257 experimental evidence alcohol consumption, 206-208 arsenic, 182-183, 184 B vitamins, 150-152 cadmium, 180 calories and, 68-70 carbohydrates and, 124-127 392 8, 140, 178,

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466 Index carcinogenesis inhibitors, 358-366 contaminants, 31t-332 passim copper, 175 dietary fiber, 132-134 fats, 83-89, 91-93 fermentation products, 251 food additives, 304- 317 passim, 332 hormones and, 251 iodine, 177-178 iron, 173 lead; 184, 185 minerals, 162-163 molybdenum, 178, 179 mycotoxins, 237-238 nitrate, nitrite, and N-nitroso com pounds, 254, 257 nitrosamines, see n~trate,-nitrite, and N-nitroso . compounds plant metabolites, 242-250 passim protein, 109-116 selenium, 164-168 total caloric intake, 68-70 tryptophan and, 250 vitamin A, 141-144 vitamin C, 145-147 vitamin E, 147-149 zinc, 170-172 F FANFT (N-[4-(5-nitro-2- furyl)-2-thiazolyl]- formamide), 141, 146, 307 FAD/WHO Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives, 219, 224 fats and cancer, 4-5, 33, 73-93 passim, 382-383, 384 breast cancer and, 42, 73-74, 76-77, 89-90, 106-107, 382, 383-384, 407, 408, 440 colon cancer and, 4, 5, 7, 14, 42, 75-77, 81-93 passim, 383, 384, 396-401 passim colorectal cancer and, 7,8, 76, 132, 382, 440 dietary, 4, 5, 68-69, 73-93 passim, 106-107 dietary guidelines for, 14-1S diets high in, 3, 4-5, 14-15, 42, 73, 76, 77, 82, 84-88 passim, 92, 393, , . 404, 408 diets low in, 3, 4-5, 14-15, 69, 82, 84, 87, 88, 92 endometrial cancer and, 382, 384, 409 epidemiological evidence on, 78-77, 89-90, 92-93 epidemiological methods for, 36 esophageal cancer and, 392 experimental evidence on, 83-89, 91-93 fiber and, 6-7 gastrointestinal tract cancer and, 75-77 hepatic cancer and, 86-87 intestinal cancer and, 75, 76, 87-89, 92, 383 mutagens, 279 organochlorine compounds and, 318 ovarian cancer and, 74, 382, 384, 409 pancreatic cancer and, 75, 76, 87, 382, 384, 402 polyunsaturated, 4, 5, 15, 36, 73, 77, 89-93 passim, 290, 384 prostate cancer and, 4, 74, 89, 246, 383, 410, 411 protein and, 5-6, 106-107, 383 rectal cancer and, 75, 76, 107, 384, 396-401 passim renal cancer and, 406 reproductive organs and, 74-75 saturated, 4, 5, 15, 36, 67, 73-77 passim, 80, 85-93 passim, 132, 290, 384, 399, 400, 401, 408, 440 stomach cancer and, 75 total caloric intake and, 66 urinary bladder cancer and, 382, 405 see also cholesterol; lipids; and specific fats fecal steroids, 36, 81- 83, 90-91; see al so bile acids; bile salts Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, 13, 217-218, 219, 220-221, 332 fermentation products, 251 fermented milk products, 398 fiber and cancer, 6-7, 33, 61, 82, 130-134, 359 breast cancer and, 383 caloric intake and, 4 carbohydrates and, 61, 130 colon cancer and, 7, 75, 130-134 passim, 359, 383, 384, 396-401 passim colorectal cancer and, 6-7, 130-134 passim, 399 crude, 130, 132 dietary, 6-7, 123, 130-134 diets high in, 6-7, 61, 131, 133 diets low in, 6-7, 76, 130, 133, 399 epidemiological evidence on, 130-132, 134 experimental evidence on, 132-134 pentosan fraction and, 130, 131, 133, 398 rectal cancer and, 131, 359, 396-401 passim total caloric intake and, 66 vegetables and, 131 see al so speci f ic f ibers

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Index 467 fiddlehead greens and, 244, 406 Finnish Cancer Registry, 402 fish, 12, 53, 54, 60, 181, 279, 285, 292, 318, 325, 326, 329, 330, 395, 399; see al so seafood fish protein, 392 flavones, 11, 12, 51, Food 359, 363, 435 flavonoids, see flavones; plant flavonoids Flavor and Extracts Manufacturing Food Association (FEMA), 224 flour, 51, 53, 54, 55, 56, 123 fluorine, 162 folate, 149, 151; see al so B vitamins follicular carcinoma, 176, 177 food additives ADI and, 432 and cancer, 11, 13, 14, 15, 217-228, 304-317, 332 annual use in United States (table), 223 . . carclnogenlalty, 224-228, 277, 304-317 passim . . carcinogenic, suspected or proven (table), 226-227 coloring agents, 55, 218, 220, 224 direct, 218-221 passim epidemiological evidence on, 304-317 passim, 332 experimental evidence on, 304-317 passim, 332 flavoring ingredients, 218, 220, 224 human exposure to, 222 indirect, 218-221 passes intentional, 218, 219, 220, 222, 226-227 mutagenicity, 224-225, 304-317 passim recommendations for, 15 regulation of, 218, 219 toxicity, 224 unintentional, 218, 219, 221, 222, 227 see al so Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act; and speck fic food additives Additives Amendment, see Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act Food and Agriculture Organization, 235 and Drug Administration, 13, 164, 177, 181, 217, 219, 222, 254, 305, 310, 311, 313, 316, 318, 321, 325, 326, 332, 434 food constitutents, categories of, 220-221; see also food additives; contaminants food disappearance data, 33, 44, 163, 174, 383, 397; see al so dietary data foods pickled, 393, 394 processed, 51-63 passim, 217-228 passim, 304-317 passim salt-cured, 3, 15 salt-pickled, 3, 15, 396 salty, 59, 395 smoked, 12, 15, 59, 279, 292, 329, 330, 331, 394, 396 spiced, 393 starchy, 285 see also carcino- gens; contaminants; diets; food addi- tives; mutagens; nonnutrients; nutrients; and speck fic food s forage crops, 163 french-fried potatoes, 60 fruit juices, 55, 252; see also specific f ruit juices fruits, 3, 6, 7, 8, 15, 53, 54, 55, 56, 58, 134, 140, 147, 181, 249, 286, 288, 289, 329, 363, 381, 392, 393; see al so Food Safety Council, speck fic fruits Scientific fumaric acid, 222 Committee of the, fungi, 392 432, 433 2-(2-furyl)-3-(5- changes in supply, 51-62, 217 cooked, 278-286, 292, 329, 331 cured, 3, 15, 396 dried, 55, 59, 395 effects on enzyme systems, 364-365 epidemiological methods for, 32-36, 41-43 extracts, 43, 287-288 fermented, 237 fresh, 51-63 passim, 394 fried, 395, 408 laboratory methods for, 38-43 moldy, 59, 237, 392, 393 mutagens in, 277- 292 mutagens in (tables), 281, 282, 283 nitrofuryl)acrylamide (AF-2), 278 Fusarium molds, 245, 392 galangin, 286 gallbladder cancer body weight and, 68 diets and, 404 ethnic groups and, 373, 375, 404 incidence correla- tions, 380 gallium, 162 gallstones, 404 gastric cancer, see stomach cancer gastrointestinal tract cancer alcohol consumption and, 16, 202 cigarette smoking and, 16

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4~68 Index diet and, 2, 372 ethnic groups and, 372-373 fats and, 75-77 PAM's and, 330 selenium and, 163, H 164, 168 vegetables and, 358 vinyl chloride and, 314 genistein, 245, 246 genitourinary tract cancer, selenium and, 163 germanium, 162 ginger, 289 Glu-P-1, 280-284 passim, 290 Glu-P-2, 280-284 passim glucose, 124, 125, 285 -glucosidase, 248, 257 L-glutamic acid, 280-284 passim glutathione peroxidase, 167 glutathione S-trans- ferase, 167, 360- 365 passim gluten, 280 glycosides, 12, 248, 287, 292 geographical differences, and cancer, 372-384 passim grains, 6, 7, 15, 51, 53, 56, 134, 178, 179, 329, 381, 393; see also specific grains grape juice, 249, 288 grapes, 250 GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) substances, 218, 219, 220, 311; see also Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act; food additives green and yellow vege- tables, 11, 138-140, 143, 243, 358-359, 366, 396; see also cruciferous vegetables; raw vegetables; vegetables; and speck fic vegetabl es green peppers, 289 groundnuts, 236 gums, 130 Gyromitra esculenta hypochlorhydria, 172, (mushroom), 393 241-242, 257 I ham, 254, 406 hamburgers, 285 hard liquor, see liquor barman, 289-290 heart diseases, see cardiovascular disease; coronary heart disease; noncoronary heart disease heliotrine, 242, 243 Heliotropium (heliotropes), 242 Belix pomatia ( snail), 287 hematochromatosis, 172 hematopoietic system, cholesterol and, 79 hemicellulose, 130 hemin, 290 hepatic cancer, see liver cancer hepatitis, 204 hepatitis B virus, 204, 236-237, 240, 401, 402 hepatitis-associated antigen (HAA), 202 hepatomas, see liver cancer heptachlor, 318, 319, 320, 325; see also organo- chlorine compounds heredity, and cancer, 23 hexachlorobenzene (HCB), 319, 320, 325; see also organo- chlorine compounds Hodgkin's disease, 79, 164 hormones, 18, 66, 251, 316-317, 409 human studies, see dietary data; epidemiological evidence; epidemio- logical methods; cancer risk, assessment of hydrazines, 12, 240-242, 257 hydroxylating enzymes, 167 indium, 162 indole-3-carbinol, 362, 365 indoles, 11, 62, 359, 362, 365, 366 inhibitors, see cancer risk; carcinogenesis inositol, 151; see also B vitamins International Agency for Research on Cancer, 224, 234, 306 intestinal cancer alcohol consumption and, 108, 400 cadmium and, 179 caloric intake and, 67 causes, 23 copper and, 174 diet and, 382 fats and, 75, 76, 77 87-89, 92, 383 fiber and, see colon cancer lead and, 184 protein and, 107-108, 114 zinc and, 169 see also colon cancer; colorectal cancer; gastro- intestinal tract cancer; rectal cancer insecticides, see pesticides . ~ lOC , lne and cancer, 10, 175-178 breast cancer and, 176, 177 deficiency, 177 endometrial cancer and, 176, 177 epidemiological evidence, 176, 177, 178 experimental evidence 177-178 ovarian cancer and, 176, 177 thyroid cancer and, 10, 176, 177, 178 see al so minerals

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Index 469 IQ, 282, 283, 285; see also amino acids, pyrolysates iron proteins and, 106 vinyl chloride and, 314 see also renal cancer alimentary tract cancer and, 172 and cancer, 9, 10, 172-173, 179 deficiency of, 10, 172, 173, 393-394 epidemiological evidence on, 172-173 esophageal cancer and, 170, 172 experimental evidence on, 173 heme, 62 hepatic cancer and, 173 high concentrations of, 10 laboratory studies, laryngeal cancer and, 172 lung cancer and, 172 nutritional status and, 206 Plummer-Vinson syndrome and, stomach cancer 10, 172, 173 supply, 51 vitamins and, 172 ischemic heart disease, 78, 384 isorhamnetin, 286 isothiocyanates, 11, 51, 62 jams, 286 K 206 and, ksempferol, 12, 286, 288, 292 kahweol palmitate, 365 kale, 60, 329 Kanechlor 400, 325, 326 Kepone (chlordecone), 319, 321, 324: see also organo- chlorine compounds kidney, cancer of alcohol consumption and, 202 ethnic groups and, 373, 375 lead and, 184 L laboratory animals, see experimental evidence laboratory methods carclnogenesls and, 38-43 evaluation of, 43-46 molecular structure analysis, 38-39 short-term tests, 39-40 see experimental evidence; laboratory methods laburnum shrubs, 248 lactose, 125, 126 lamb, 399 lard, 58, 59, 83, 85, 88 laryngeal cancer alcohol consumption and, 11, 139, 145, 202, 204, 208, 383, 391 cigarette smoking and, 11, 139, 145, 208, 391 diet and, 383 iron and, 172 vegetables and, 139 vitamin A and, 7, 139, 143, 145 vitamin C and, 139, 145 lasiocarpine, 242, 243 lead and cancer, 10-11, 162, 179, 184-186 carclnogen~cley, 184-185 drinking water and, 184-185 epidemiological evidence on, 184-185 experimental evidence on, 184-185 intestinal cancer and, 184 kidney cancer and, 184 leukemia and, 184 mutagenicity, 18S ovarian cancer and, 184 stomach cancer and, 184 lead compounds, and cancer, 181-185 lecithin, 222 legumes, 108 leiomyomas, 19 lemons, 250 lettuce, 289-290, 358, 395, 396; see also raw vegetables leukemias amino acids and, 110 ascorbic acid and, 110 cadmium and, 179 caloric intake and, 67 cholesterol and, 79 copper and, 174 lead and, 184 pesticides and, 318 proteins and, 114 types of, 19, 22 selenium and, 163 zinc and, 169, 170 lignin, 130 lima beans, 363 lime, 174 1indane, 318, 319, 321, 325 linear dose-response model, 432 linoleate, 84; see also essential fatty acids; poly- unsaturated fatty acids linoleic acid, 85, 86, 87, 132, 290; see also essential fatty acids; poly- unsaturated fatty acids lentils, 392 lip, cancer of the, see oral cavity cancer lipids, 4-5, 73-93, 148; see also choles- terol; fats lipoperoxides, 167 lipoproteins, 81 liposomes, 82 lipotropes, 86, 89, 91, 151, 206 liquor, 329, 406; see also alcohol consumption liver (food), 7, 138, 139, 140, 410

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470 Index liver cancer AAF and, 86-87 aflatoxins and, 401, 402 alcohol consumption and, 11, 204, 208, 401-402 arsenic and, 182 B vitamins and, 150, 151 cadmium and, 180 carbohydrates and, 126 cholesterol and, 78, 79 choline and, 26, 27 cigarette smoking and, 11 cycasin and, 248 diets and, 372, 401-402 ethnic groups and, 373, 374, 375, 402 fats and, 86-87 incidence correlations, 379-380, 384 iron and, 173 Mormons and, 402 mycotoxins and, 236-240 passim, 257, 401, 402 PCB's and, 326 passim, 285; see selenium and, 164, 165 also amino acids socioeconomic status and, 381 vinyl chloride and, 314 see also cirrhosis log-linear model, 432 log-logistic model, 432, 433 log-normal model, 432, 433 low fat diets, see diets low fat milk, 61 lung cancer acrylonitrile and, 315 alcohol consumption and, 202, 204 arsenic and, 182, 183 cadmium and, 179 carotenes and, 139, 143, 405 cholesterol and, 79 cigarette smoking and, 1, 20-21, 23, 25, 139, 372, 378, 404, 405 copper and, 174 diet and, 14, 25, 404-405 ethnic groups and, 373 incidence correlations, 20-21, 379, 384 iron and, 172 PAM's and, 329, 331 pesticides and, 319 selenium and, 163 socioeconomic status and, 379-381 vegetables and, 139, 143, 404 vinyl chloride and, 314 vitamin A and, 138-139, 143, 405 zinc and, 170 lymphatic system cholesterol and, 79 vinyl chloride and, 314 lymph node cancer, behavior and, Lys-P-1, 280-284 254, 279, 284-285, 292, 318, 326, 329, 330, 381, 382, 397, 398, 403, 406, 408; see also specific meats MeAaC, 280-284 passim MeIQ, 282, 283 MeIQx, 282, 283 mercury, cadmium and, 167 methionine, 86, 110, 151; see also amino acids methodology, see 7, 404 cell 19 passim; see a l so amino acids, pyrolysates lysine, 280-284 M macaroni, 58 macrozamine, 248 magnesium, 51, 52, 170, 393 maize, 202, 393 malathion, 319, 322; see al so organo- phosphates malonaldehyde, 167 mammary tumors, see breast cancer manganese, 175 maple syrup, 249 margarine, 58, 313, 315, 408, 410 Market Basket Surveys, 13, 179, 181, 222, 318, 321, 332 mathematical models, 432-434 meats, 12, 53, 54, 60, 62, 73, 74, 76, 106, 107-108, 109, 163, 181, 252, 253, dietary data; epidemiological methods methoxychlor, 321 metrifonate, 360 metronidazole, 360 3-methyl-4-aminoazo- benzene (3'-DMAB), 326 methyl donors, 26 methyl parathion, 319, 322; see also organophosphates methylazoxymethanol (MAM), 132-133, 248, 361 methylxanthines, 247-248, 257 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MCA), 69, 81, 83, 110, 114, 141, 146, 148, 290, 311, 329 methylquanidine, 174 methylurea, 145 migrants, see migration migration, 20, 23-25, 374-376, 384, 398, 403, 407 milk, 61, 109, 139, 140, 235, 245, 279, 288, 325, 396, 398, 399, 402, 406, 407, 408, 410 milk products, 61, 410 millet, 170, 393 mineral oil, 331 minerals and cancer, 9-11, 162-186, 359 availability in food supply, 51 epidemiological evidence on, 162 experimental evidence on, 162-163 toxicity, 30

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Index 471 carcinogenicity of, 284, 287 comutagens, 278, 288-292 passim cooked foods and, 278-286, 292 cooked foods and (tables), 281, 282, 283 fatty acids and, 290 in food and beverage extracts, 287-288 low-temperature meat and, 284-285 nitrites and, 290-291 plant flavonoids and, 286-287, 292 see al so speck f ic mutagens mutton, 330, 394 mycotoxins and cancer, 12, 26, 234-240, 257 carcinogenicity and mutagenicity (table), 239 colon cancer and, 237 epidemiological evidence on, 236-237, 238-239 experimental evidence on, 236-238, 257 esophageal cancer and, 237, 392, 393 liver cancer and, 236-240 passim, 257, 401 tumors and, 236, 238, 257 see al so speck f ic mycotoxins myocardial infarction, 398 myricetin, 286, 288 see al so speck f ic mineral s mint leaf, 289 mirestrol, 245 miticides, 318 molds, see mycotoxins molybdenum and cancer, 10, 178-179 ascorbic acid and, 1 deficiency of, 178, 179 epidemiological evidence on, 178, 179 esophageal cancer and, 10, 178, 179, 392 experimental evidence on, 178, 179 stomach cancer and, 10 monocrotaline, 242, 243, 257 Mormons, 381-382, 384, 398, 402, 403, 410 morpholine, 145 mouth cancer, see oral cavity cancer multihit model, 433 multistage model, 433, 434 mushrooms, 12, 240-242, 257, 289; see al so hydrazines; and speck f ic mushrooms mustard greens, 290 mutagenesis antioxidants and, 291-292 cancer experiments and, 21-22, 26-28 carbohydrates and, 285-286 laboratory methods for, 39-40, 41-43 modifiers of, 289-292 N tests for, 277-278, N-methyl-N'-nitro- see also mutagens mutagenicity tests, 277-278, 435-436; see al so mutagens mutagens and cancer, 12, 21-22, 26, 217, 277-292 antimutagens, 288-292 passim _78 N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), 82, 89, 142, 174, 291 N-methylaniline, 145 N-nitroso compounds, 8, 11, 15, 145, 146, 147, 148, 151, 237, 252-258 passim, 324, 330, 392, 393, 396; see al so carbamates; nitrosamines; pesticides N-nitrosocarbaryl, 324 N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), 326 N-nitrosomethylurea (NMU), 83, 85, 88, 133, 307, 309, 364 N-nitrosonornicotine, 207 N-nitrosopyrrolidine, 207, 253 N-nitrososarcosine, 178 p-naphthoflavone, 363 National Cancer Institute, 305, 372 National Cancer Institute Carcino- genesis Bioassay Program, 224 National Cancer Survey (1959-1971), third, 378 National Research Council, 234 nickel, 162, 175, 179 nicotinic acid, 51, 52, 170, 393; see al so B vitamins niobium, 162 nitrate, nitrite, and N-nitroso compounds and cancer, 252-257, 258 dietary guidelines for, 15 epidemiological evidence on, 253-254, 256 esophageal cancer and, 253, 256, 258 experimental evidence on, 254-257 in foods, levels of human exposure to,. 252-254, 258 stomach cancer and, 253, 254, 256, 258, 393-394 urinary bladder cancer and, 254 see al so nitrates; nitrites; N- nitroso compounds nitrates, 172, 178, 179, 252-258 passim, 393, 394, 395, 396; see al so nitrate, nitrite, and N-nitroso compounds

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472 Index nitrites, 145, 148, 172, 179, 247, 252-258 passim, 290, 324, 330, 394, 396; see al so nitrate, nitrite, and N-nitroso compounds 2-nitrofluorene, 290 nitrofuran, 250 nitrosamines, 8, 10, 144, 149, 172, 119, 207, 247, 253, 258, 291, 324, 331, 392, 396, 406; see also N-nitroso compounds nitrosodiethylamine, 255, 361 nitrosodimethylamine, 248, 255, 312 nitrosomethylbenzylamine (NMBA), 171 nonnutritive dietary components, 3, 11, 15, 62, 217-228, 234-258, 277-292, 304-332, 358-366; see also specific nonnutrients; non- nutritive dietary components norharman, 289-290 nucleic acid, 169 nutrients and cancer, 3, 11, 51-63 annual per capita intake of, 53-56 daily per capita intake of, 51-53 dietary guidelines for, 14-16 epidemiological studies on, 32, 33, 36, 66-68 .total caloric intake and, 66-70 see also specific nutrients nutritional status, alcohol and, 206 nuts, 53, 235, 249; see also speck fic nuts o obesity, 3, 28, 30, 66, 67-68, 69, 91, 404, 409 79 organochlorine pesticides (table), 320-323, 332 organophosphates, 318, 319, 324; see also specific compounds Office of Technology Assessment (OTA), 434 oils, 73, 402, 405, 410; see also specific oils oleic acid, 132, 290 olive oil, 315, 331 onions, 280, 288 opium, 392 oral cavity cancer alcohol consumption and, 11, 202-208 passim, 383, 391 cadmium and, 179 cigarette smoking and, 11, 205, 206, 208, 391 cholesterol and, coffee and, 246 diets and, 383 socioeconomic status and, 379-381 zinc and, 170 orange juice, 36, 55 oranges, 36, 250 organic compounds, natural and synthetic, 317 organochlorine compounds, 14, 317-325 passim: see also contaminants; organochlorine pesticides; pesticides iodine and, 176, 177 lead and, 184 Mormons and, 382 selenium and, 163 zinc and, 170 oxytetracycline, 145 p pai-kan, 202 palladium, 162, 163 palm kernels, 245 palmitic acid, 290 pancreatic cancer alcohol consumption and, 202, 403 cholesterol and, 78, 79 cigarette smoking and, 403 coffee and, 246, 403 diabetes and, 403 diets and, 372, 382, 402-403 ethnic groups and, 373, 374, 375 fats and, 75, 76, 86-87, 382, 384, 402 incidence correla- tions, 379-380, 384 migration and, 403 Mormons and, 403 proteins and, 106, 108, 402 saccharin and, 306, 308 selenium and, 163 socioeconomic status and, 381 sugar and, 123 parasorbic acid, 250, 257 parathion, 319, 322, 324; ovarian cancer see also organo- phosphates Parsi/Hindu communities, 382 parsley, 290 peaches, 288 peanut oil, 82, 236 peanuts, 170, 235, 236, 393 pears, 250 peas, 53 pecans, 235 pectin, 130, 133 pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB), 320 pentosans, 130, 131, 133, 398; see also fiber body weight and, 68 breast cancer and, cigarette smoking and, 382 colon cancer and, 410 diets and, 372, 382, 409-410 endometrial cancer and, 410 ethnic groups and, 373 fats and, 74, 382, 384, 409 incidence correlations, 378-380 incidence rates, 378-380, 384 410

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Index 473 perchlorate, 177 polYchlorinated pernicious anemia, 172, 394 pesticides, 14, 60, 62, 182, 219, 221, 222, 224, 317-325; see also contaminants: organochlorine compounds; organo- chlorine pesticides; and speck f ic pesticides pharyngeal cancer alcohol consumption and, 202, 204 cadmium and, 179 cigarette smoking and, 205 Phe-P-1, 280-284 passim; see a l so amino acids, pyrolysates phenacetin, 365 phenanthrene, 207 phenethyl isothiocyanate, 362 phenols, 11, 149, 252, 256, 359, 360-362, 366; see also butylated hydroxy- anisole; butylated hydroxytoluene; and specific antioxidants phenylalanine, 310; see al so amino acids; Phe-P-1 phorbol esters, 22, 307, 364; see also cancer, promoters (agents) of phosphorus, 52 phytohemagglutinin, 312 pickled vegetables, 237, 392, 395 pickles, 286, 392, 393 pineapple, 289 piperazine, 145 pistachios, 235 pituitary gland, 111 plant flavonoids, 286-287, 292; see also flavones plant metabolites, 242-250, 257 Plummer-Vinson syndrome, 172, 173, 206 polybrominated biphenyls (PBB's), 328; see also contaminants biphenyls (PCB's), 14, 279, 325-327, 328, 332; car- cinogenicity of (table), 327; mutagenicity of (table), 327; see also contaminants polychlorinated dibenzofurans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's), 14, 39, 141, 207, 277, 278-279, 292, 328-331, 332, 364, 396; see also contaminants 325 polypopsis, 398 polyunsaturated fatty acids, 165, 167, 168 polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 313 pork, 74, 108, 383, 398, 408, 410 potassium arsenite, 182 potatoes, 53, 54, 55, 56, 58, 60, 123, 126, 131, 181, 285, 393, 398, 402, 408 poultry, 53, 54, 60, 109, 181, 318 powdered milk, 182, 245 praziquantel, 360 primary hepatocellular carcinoma (PHC), 236-237 probit model, 433 propenylic benzene derivatives, 243-244 p-propiolactone, 291 prostate cancer alcohol consumption and, 202 cadmium and, 179, 180, 181, 410-411 coffee and, 246, 410 DES and, 316 diet and, 372, 383, 410-411 ethnic groups and, 74, 373, 374, 375, 410 fats and, 4, 74, 89, 246, 383, 410, 411 incidence correla- tions, 378, 384 Mormons and, 410 protein and, 106, 109, 410, 411 selenium and, 163 vegetables and, 411 vitamin A and, 140, 410, 411 zinc and, 169, 170 protease inhibitors, 359, 360, 363-364 protein and cancer, 5-6, 33, 106-116, 382-383 B vitamins and, 150 breast cancer and, 73, 74, 106-107, 407, 408 cervical cancer and, 382 colon cancer and, 107-108, 400 colorectal cancer and, 106, 107, 132 diets high in, 112-115 passim diets low in, 112-llS passim endometrial cancer and, 106, 109 epidemiological evidence on, 106-109, 116 epidemiological methods for, 36 experimental evidence on, 109-116 fats and, 5-6, 106- 107, 383 intestinal cancer and, 107-108, 114 kidney cancer and, 106 laboratory diets and, 43 pancreatic cancer and, 106, 108, 402 prostate cancer and, 106, 109, 410, 411 pyrolyzed, 279-284 passim, 292 renal cancer and, 109, 406 selenium and, 164, 168 stomach cancer and, 382 pyridoxine, 149, 152; see al so B vitamins pyrolyzed amino acids, 279-284 passim, 290, 292; see also speci fic pyrolysis products

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474 Index pyrolyzed proteins, 279-284 passim, 292 pyrrolizidine alkaloids, 242-243, 257, 401 Q quercetin, 12, 245, 286, 287, 288, 292 quercetin pentamethyl ether, 363 R radiation, 24, 173, 364 radioactive substances, natural and synthetic, 317 raisins, 288 raspberries, 288 Recommended Dietary Allowances, 169, 438 raw vegetables, 358, 359, 395, 396; see also cruciferous vegetables; vege- tables; and spe- cific vegetables rectal cancer alcohol consumption and, 202, 203, 208, 400, 401 body weight and, 68 calories and, 67, 400 cholesterol and, 78, 80 diet and, 372, 396-401 passim ethnic groups and, 373, 375 fats and, 75, 76, 107, 384, 396-401 passim fiber and, 131, 359, 396-401 passim migration and, 376 incidence correlations, 378-380, 384 Mormons and, 382 Pars i/Hindu communities and, 382 protein and, 107, 400 selenium and, 163 socioeconomic status and, 379 vegetables and, 396-401 passim red cabbage, 358; see also raw vegetables religious groups, 73-74, 76, 381-382, 384, 398, 402, 403, 410; see also Mormons; Pars i/Hi ndu communities; Seventh-Day Adventists renal cancer alcohol consumption and, 406 cadmium and, 180, 181, 406 cigarette smoking and, 406 coffee and, 246, 406 diet and, 406 fats and, 406 migration and, 376 protein and, 109, 406 socioeconomic status and, 379 respiratory tract cancer alcohol consumption and, 11, 16, 205, 206, 208 cigarette smoking and, 1, 11, 16, 205, 206, 208 diets and, 2, 372 vinyl chloride and, 314 see al so lung cancer; and other specific cancers retinoids, 8, 141, 142, 144; see al so vitamin A retinal, preformed, see v itamin A retinyl acetate, 142 retrorsine, 242, 243 rhodium, 162, 163 riboflavin, see vitamin B2 ribonucleic acid (RNA) 177, 279 rice, 288 rice gruel, tea-cooked, 392 rice oil, 325 risk assessment, see cancer risk roughage, 131, 398 rutin, 363 S saccharin, 13, 57, 304-309, 332, 406; see also food additives Saccharomyces cerevisiae, 185, 244, 249 Safe Drinking Water Committee, 431, 434, 435 safflower oil, 89 safrole, 243-244, 257, 401 Salmonella sp., see Ames test; Salmonella typhimurium Salmonella /microsome assay, see Ames test; Salmonella typhimurium Salmonella typhimurium, 39, 173, 241, 242, 244, 247, 249, 278, 279, 285-291 passim, 307; see also Ames test salt, 222 salt-cured (salt-pickled) foods, 3, 15, 396; see also pickled vegetables; pickles salted fish, 395 sardines, 280, 282, 289 sassafras, 243 sausages, 254, 406 Schizasaccharomyces pombe, 314 scurvy, 30, 51 seafood, 109, 163, 279, 329; see also fish seeds, 363 Select Committee on GRAS Substances (SCOGS), 224 selenate, 163, 164, 165 selenides, 164 seleniferous grains, 164 selenite, 162, 165 selenium and cancer, 9-10, 162, 163-168 as an antioxidant, 291 antitumor effects, 165-167, 168 breast cancer and, 163, 164 cadmium and, 167

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Index 475 carcinogenicity, 164-165 colon cancer and, 163, 397 colorectal cancer and, 164, 397 copper and, 174 dietary levels of, 9-10, 163-165 diets high in, 164 diets low in, 165 drinking water and, 164 epidemiological evidence on, 163-164, 168 experimental evident on, 164-168 gastrointestinal tract cancer and, 163, 164, 168 genitourinary tract cancer and, 163 leukemia and, 163 liver cancer and, 164, 165 lung cancer and, 163 mercury and, 167 mutagenicity of, 167 ovarian cancer and, 163 pancreatic cancer and, 163 prostate cancer and, 163 protein and, 164, 168 rectal cancer and, 163 skin cancer and, 163 toxicity, 9, 163, 167, 168 urinary bladder cancer and, 163 Senecio (ragworts), 242 senkirkine, 242, 243 serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), 148 Seventh-Day Adventists, 73-74, 381, 384, 398, 399 shallot, 289 sheep, 316 shellfish, 279, 329; see also seafood shochu, 202 short-term tests, see mutagenicity tests shortening, 58, 59; see also fats single-hit model, 433 p-sitosterol, 359, 364 skim milk powder, 68 skin cancer arsenic and, 182, 183 cadmium and, 179 cigarette smoking and, 378 copper and, 174 experimentally induced, 21-22 PAM's and, 329, 331 retinoids and, 143, 144 selenium and, 163 sunlight and, 24 vinyl chloride and, 314 vitamin A and, 143, 144 zinc and, 169 smoked foods, 12, 15, 59, 279, 292, 329, 330, 331, 394, 396; see also specific foods socioeconomic status, 379-381, 384, 397, 409 sodium ascorbate, 291 sodium chenodeoxycholate, 82; see also bile salts sodium cyclamate, 308, 309; see al so cyclamates sodium lithocholate, 82; see al so bile salts sodium nitrite, 148, 290; see also nitrate, nitrite, and N- nitroso compounds sodium saccharin, 304, 307; see also saccharin soft drinks, 55, 310, 406 soil, 279 sorbic acid, 255-256 Sorbus aucuparia (mountain ash), 250 soybeans, 53, 56, 182, 245, 280, 281, 363 spices, 289; see also specific spices spinach, 290, 329, 364; see also raw vegetables squamous cells, 141, 142 starches, 58, 62, 108, 123, 124, 126, 279 stearic acid, 290 steroid hormones, 365 stomach cancer alcohol consumption and, 202 cadmium and, 180 caloric intake and, 67 carbohydrates and, 123, 126 cholesterol and, 78 cigarette smoking and, 140, 358, 377, 382, 396 copper and, 169, 174 decreased incidence of, 378 diet and, 14, 15, 372, 382, 383, 393-396 ethnic groups and, 373, 374, 375 fats and, 75 incidence cor- relations, 378-380 incidence rate, 21 lead and, 184 migration and, 374, 394, 395, 396 milk and, 396 molybdenum and, 10 Mormons and, 382 nitrate, nitrite, and N-nitroso com- pounds and, 253, 254, 256, 258, 330, 393-394 PAM's and, 329-330, 331 pesticides and, 319, 324 protein and, 382 salt-cured foods and, 254, 256, 258, 324, 331, 393-396 passed smoked foods and, 329-330, 331, 394, 396 socioeconomic status and, 379 starches and, 123 vinyl chloride and, 314 vegetables and, 358 vitamin A and, 140 vitamin C and, 8, 144, 147, 395, 396 zinc and, 169 strawberries, 288 stress, and cancer, 24 sucrose, 111, 124, 125 sugars, 13, 53, 54, 73, 108, 123, 124, 126,

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476 Index 222, 285, 286, 310, 382, 402; see also speck fic sugars and nonnutritive sweeteners sunlight, and cancer, 24 supplements (dietary), 8, 9, 139, 144, 169 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program, 372, 378 sweet potatoes, 53, 60 sweeteners, nonnutritive, see aspartame; cyclamates; saccharin; sugars symphytine, 242, 243 Symphy f us s p. (comfrey), 243 tannin acid, see tannins tannins, 249-250, 257 tarragon, 243 tea, 224, 247, 249, 286, 287-288, 381, 403, 406 tellurium, 162 testicular cancer, incidence cor- relations, 378 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro- dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 173 theobromine, 247 theophylline, 247 thiamine, 30, 149, see al so B vitamins thiocyanate, 256 thiourea, 248-249, thyroid cancer copper and, 174 iodine and, 10, 176 tin, 162 tissues abnormal, 18-20 normal growth of, 17-18 titanium, 162 tobacco, 329, 381; see also alcohol consumption; cigarette smoking; lung cancer 152; a-tocopherol, see vitamin E tofu, 279, 288 o-toluenesulfonamide, 306 tomato products, 55, 56 tomatoes, 60, 250, 395 tongue cancer, see oral cavity cancer tonka beans, 249 total caloric intake, see calories total fat, see fats total proteins, see protein toxaphene, 318, 319, 321, 325; see also organochlorine compounds trace elements, 11, 162- 163, 179, 181, 184, 392; see also specific elements trace minerals, 51, 317, 393; see also specific minerals tris(2,3-dibromopropyl)- phosphate, 278 trout, 330, 394 Trp-P-1, 280-284 passim, 290; see also amino acids, pyrolyeates Trp-P-2, 280-284 passim, 290; see also amino acids, pyrolysates tryptophan, 151, 250, 280-284 passim, 289 tumors, see car- cinogenesis; and specific nutrient or nonnutritive component Turner's syndrome, 316 257 Tussilago farfara (coltsfoot), 243, 257 type IV hyperlipoprotein- emia, 404 U United Nations Environ- ment Program, 235 ,-unsaturated esters, 243 upper alimentary tract, see alimentary cancer upper respiratory tract, see respiratory tract cancer and lung cancer urethane, 183, 312, 361 uridine diphosphate (UDP), 360 urinary bladder cancer alcohol consumption and, 406 aniline dyes and, 20 cadmium and, 179 cigarette smoking and, 139, 304, 405 coffee and, 246, 405, 406 cyclamates and, 304, 305, 309 diet and, 2, 372, 382, 405-406 ethnic groups and, 373, 374, 375 fats and, 382, 405 incidence cor- relations, 378 nitrate, nitrite, and N-nitroso com- pounds and, 254 nonnutritive sweeteners and, 405, 406 saccharin and, 304-306, 307, 309, 406 selenium and, 163 vegetables and, 143, 406 vitamin A and, 7, 8, 139, 141, 143, 406 socioeconoimc status and, 381 zinc and, 170 U.S. Congress, 434 U.S. Department of Agriculture, 36, 240, 316 uterine cancer, see endometrial cancer V vaginal cancer, DES and, 316, 317 vanadium, 162 vegetable oils, 8, 36, 59, 147, 279, 329; see al so fats, polyunsaturated vegetables, 3, 6, 7, 8, 11, 12, 15, 36, 53,

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Index 477 54, 55, 56, 60, 61, 62, 131, 134, 138, 139, 140, 143, 145, 147, 178, 181, 243, 252, 279, 288, 289, 290, 292, 329, 358-359, 363, 364, 365, 366, 381, 392, 393, 394, 395, 396, 398, 399, 400, 403, 404, 411, 435; see also speck tic vegetabl es Verticil l sum albo~atrum, 248 vinegars, 286, 313 vinyl chloride, 13, 313-315, 332; see also food additives vitamin A and cancer, 7-8, 138-144 as an antioxidant, 291 bladder calculi and, 125 p-carotene and, 138, 140, 143 colon cancer and, 142 colorectal cancer and, 140, 399 deficiency, 7, 125, 126, 141-142, 206 epidemiological evidence on, 138 epidemiological methods for, 35 esophageal cancer and, 139-140, 144, 392 excess, 142 experimental evidence on, 141-144 foods containing, and cancer, 138-144 passim laryngeal cancer and, 7, 139, 143, 145 lung cancer and, 7, 138-139, 143, 404, 405 naturally occurring, 143 preformed, 62, 138, 405 prostate cancer and, 140, 410, 411 retinoids and, 138, 141, 143, 144 stomach cancer and, 140 toxicity of, 141-144 urinary bladder cancer and, 7, 8, 139, 141, 143, 406 vegetable consumption and, 61 see al so vitamins vitamin B1, 51, 52; see al so ~ vitamins; vitamins vitamin B2 (riboflavin), 51, 52, 149, 150, 152, 170, 206, 392, 393; see also B vitamins; vitamins vitamin Be, 52, 151; see al so P. vitamins; vitamins vitamin B12, 52, 149, 151, 152; see also B vitamins; vitamins vitamin C (ascorbic acid) added, 58 and cancer, 7-8, 138, 144-147 antioxidant proper- ties, 291 citrus fruits and, 60-61, 144 colon cancer and, 145, 146 colorectal cancer and, 132 deficiency, 51, 146 endometrial cancer and, 145 epidemiological evidence on, 144-145 epidemiological methods for, 36 esophageal cancer and, 8, 140, 144-145, 147, 178, 179, 392 experimental evidence on, 145-147 foods containing, and cancer, 144-147 pass ~ m high concentrations, 8 laryngeal cancer and, 139, 145 low concentrations, 8 nitrate, nitrite, and N-nitroso com- pounds and, 252, 253, 255 stomach cancer and, 8, 144, 147, 395, 396 scurvy and, 51 see also vitamins vitamin E (~-tocopherol) and cancer, 7, 8-9, 138, 147-149 antioxidant proper- ties, 291 epidemiological evidence on, 147 experimental evidence on, 147-149 nitrate, nitrite, and N-nitroso com- pounds and, 253, 256 see also vitamins v i tamins and cancer, 7-9, 11, 138-152, 359 iron and, 172 nutritional status and, 206 supply, 51 toxicity, 30 see also specific vitamins Vivonex, 89 W walnuts, 235 wheat, 169-170, 393 wheat breads, 398 wheat germ oil, 148 wheat sprouts, 289 whiskies, 202, 288, 329 whole grain products, 6, 8, 15, 51, 147; see also cereals; grains whole milk, 61, 138 whole wheat products, 7, 55, 134 wieners, 408 wines, 182, 202, 203, 208, 249, 251, 287, 288, 392, 400, 403, 406; see also alcohol consumption woodruff, 249 World Health Organiza- tion, 181, 235, 321 X xenobiotic compounds, 146 xylitol, 125-126, 127

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478 Index y yams, 170, 393 yeast, 39, 286 yogurt, 61, 251 Yusho disease, 325 yttrium, 162 Zzearalenone, 245, 257 zinc and cancer, 10, 169-172 bowel cancer and, 170 breast cancer and, 169, 170 bronchogenic cancer and, 170, 171 copper and, 169, 170 deficiency, 206, 393 epidemiological evidence on, 169-170, 171, 172 esophageal cancer and, 169-170, 171 experimental evidence on, 170-172 intestinal cancer and, 169 leukemia and, 169, 170 lung cancer and, 170 oral cavity cancer and, 170 ovarian cancer and, 170 prostate cancer and, 169, 170 skin cancer and, 169 stomach cancer and, 169 urinary tract cancer and, 170 see al so minerals zirconium, 162 Zymbal's gland, cancer, of, and vinyl chloride, 314