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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 64

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 64 CARL SHIPP MARVEL September 11, 1894-January 4, 1988 BY NELSON J. LEONARD CARL S. MARVEL had a spectacular career of seventy-two years in organic chemistry. It was during the same period that the chemical industry in the United States experienced its greatest growth. The two careers were synergistic. From 1920 to 1961, Dr. Marvel was on the staff of the University of Illinois in Urbana, and from the date of his first retirement through 1987 he was a faculty member at the University of Arizona. He consulted for nearly sixty years for the DuPont Experimental Station. He was a dominant figure in American organic chemistry and has been recognized as the "father" of synthetic polymer chemistry. The impact of his teaching, research, and consultation was matched by his important contributions to government, foundations, and the professional community. It was at the personal level, however, that his influence was most pervasive, reaching beyond the 176 Ph.D. students and 150 postdoctoral students whom he trained to thousands of chemists, friends, colleagues, and acquaintances with whom he shared common interests or goals. His personality was so memorable that his influence will continue to affect and guide the lives of all those with whom he came in contact. Carl Marvel was born on a farm three miles south of Waynesville, Illinois, during the forenoon of September 11,

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 64 1894. His father, John Thomas Marvel, who was a farmer from a farm family, was of Norman, English, and Irish ancestry. The Marvel family migrated from Normandy to Cambridgeshire, England, in 1091 and eventually to Sussex County, Virginia (later Maryland), during the period 1630-1707. John Marvel had a limited grade school education with a very short period at the preparatory school of Illinois Wesleyan University. Carl's mother, Mary Lucy Wasson, who was also from a farm family, had grade school and high school training. She qualified for college, but her father disapproved of college training for women, so she taught country school until her marriage. She was of Danish, Scotch-Irish descent. The Wasson family is supposed to have moved from Denmark to Scotland during the Danish invasion and colonization period. Carl grew up on the Illinois farm with three sisters and did the usual farm work during vacation periods. He did not, however, drop out of school to help on the farm during the spring and fall work seasons, which was contrary to the usual custom of the community. His father believed Carl's schooling came first. Carl was interested in flowers, birds, animals—in short, in all of nature. He spent much time hunting on winter weekends after he was six or seven years old. He also ran trap lines for muskrat, mink, and skunk to earn spending money. He related that after he had skinned one skunk the others were sold without preliminary treatment. He attended the West Hull District School in Barnett Township, Dewitt County, Illinois, through the eighth grade, which he completed in 1907. He remembered with special gratitude three teachers at that school, Mary Keys, Grace Barr, and Ida Jeffrey, who stressed proper study habits for their pupils and who insisted that only the best work possible was acceptable. He was the last graduate of Waynesville Academy, which

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 64 he attended from 1907 to 1911, when it was turned into a township high school. The school was four miles from the Marvel home, and Carl either drove or rode a horse back and forth every day. He singled out Professor W. H. Smith, a retired minister, as being a superb teacher of English, mathematics, history, Latin, Greek, and German (!), who also suggested books to read covering physics, zoology, and botany when he learned that Carl was ambitious enough to go to college. Carl learned to classify and identify the flowers of central Illinois and to know them thoroughly. He considered that this self-instruction method did much to improve his self-reliance. At Illinois Wesleyan University, which he attended during 1911-15, receiving A.B. and M.S. degrees in 1915, he was introduced to chemistry as a freshman. An uncle, who had been a high school teacher, advised his nephew to take this subject if he expected to be a farmer, since the next generation of farmers would require scientific knowledge to get the most out of their work. During most summers while Carl was attending high school and college, he worked as a farmhand, but during one summer he was an auto mechanic and a driving teacher for another uncle who sold cars in Lincoln, Illinois. At Illinois Wesleyan, he took as much biology as possible under Professor F. E. Wood. Mr. Wood found, in botany class, that Carl was familiar with the flowers of the region and asked that he choose another family to study. The result was a semester spent in identifying the mosses of central Illinois and in the assembly of a collection of fifty to sixty specimens. One of Carl's first successful scientific experiments was carried out during the summer vacation between his junior and senior years in college. His father was skeptical of the importance of bees in the fertilization of red clover blossoms. For his benefit, Carl selected a healthy red clover

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 64 plant in the farm yard and carefully covered half of it with a fine screen shelter. The other half was allowed to grow exposed. He was pleased to be able to show his father a good crop of clover seed in the heads that grew outside the screen and the absence of seed in the sheltered heads. This experiment convinced his father that scientific study might be useful to a prospective farmer and persuaded him that perhaps Carl might even profit from graduate study when the opportunity developed in due course. It was the excellent teaching and personal attention received from Professor Alfred W. Homberger at Illinois Wesleyan that was directly responsible for Carl's decision to specialize in chemistry. During his final year at Illinois Wesleyan, Carl was a teaching assistant and did a thesis problem with Professor Homberger that resulted in his first publication. The same professor succeeded in obtaining for his prize student a $250 scholarship in chemistry at the Graduate College of the University of Illinois to enable him to study further. Carl's graduate education started in 1915 with an overload of course work, including four lab courses, in order to ''catch up." When he was not studying, he worked late at night in the laboratory. As a result, he slept as late as possible but still got to the breakfast table before the dining room door closed at 7:30 a.m. His student colleagues decided that was the only time he ever hurried, and they nicknamed him "Speed." A nickname was appropriate to his friendly spirit, but it causes us to smile in retrospect because it was really an accurate moniker indicative of his chemical thinking, his human insight, his fishing and bird-watching prowess, the way in which he took care of his correspondence, and the alacrity with which he helped a student or colleague who had a chemistry or personal problem. As a chemistry graduate student, Speed Marvel delighted in the synthesis of organic compounds and earned an early

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 64 and lasting reputation for his ability to classify and identify volatile organic compounds by odor alone. When he entered graduate school, Germany was the center of chemical manufacture and research, but the start of the war in Europe had interrupted the supply of chemicals to the United States. The shortage, which included research chemicals, led Professor Clarence Derick to organize a group of graduate students at Illinois to work during the summer of 1916 making chemicals to fill the needs of the departmental research programs. An A.M. degree was awarded to Speed in 1916. When the size of the Organic Chemical Manufactures group was increased by Roger Adams, who had arrived from Harvard to be head of the Department of Chemistry, Marvel joined the group in the summer of 1917 and stayed with it for two years. He went back to full-time graduate work in 1919, received a DuPont fellowship for his final year of graduate study, and in 1920 received his Ph.D. in chemistry under the direction of Professor William Albert Noyes with a thesis entitled "A Study of the Possible Asymmetry of Aliphatic Diazo Compounds," which was published in the same year in the Journal of the American Chemical Society. That study represented an initiation of his interest in organic stereo-chemistry. He also received great stimulation from three teachers, Roger Adams, Oliver Kamm, and H. B. Lewis. Adams hired Marvel as an instructor in chemistry at the University of Illinois in 1920, a rank he held during 1920-22, followed by associate, 1922-25; assistant professor, 1925-27; associate professor, 1927-30; professor of organic chemistry, 1930-53; and research professor of organic chemistry, 1953-61. In his early teaching days, Wallace H. Carothers and John R. Johnson were also instructors at the University of Illinois. Marvel, Carothers, and Johnson, along with several graduate students, including Paul Salzberg and M. M.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 64 Brubaker, organized a special seminar in organic chemistry that met weekly in Marvel's home to discuss controversial questions in organic chemistry. They called the seminar "Chemistry 398," since they were not quite at the "400" (graduate course) level of organic chemistry at the time. Marvel gained wide-ranging experience in synthesis by submitting and checking preparations for Organic Syntheses. This publication, the first annual volume of which appeared in 1921, is a collection of preparations of organic compounds for which checked directions are provided in detail. Collective Volume I of Organic Syntheses, which contained the preparations that appeared in the first nine volumes, was published in 1932 and was reprinted in 1941. Nearly 20 percent of the 264 preps in that volume were either submitted by Marvel or checked by him, which represented a most energetic and devoted contribution to synthetic organic chemistry. Marvel's early published papers reflected both his love of synthesis and the need of the chemical community for pure organic compounds—for example, the amino acids that were to form the basis of Professor William C. Rose's classical research on human nutritional requirements, in particular the essential amino acids. Marvel prepared dialkylmercury compounds and investigated their reactions, synthesized hexasubstituted ethanes and studied their dissociation, synthesized polyines and dienynes and determined their modes of rearrangement or cyclization, and made and studied the reactions of alkyllithium and Grignard reagents, quaternary phosphonium, and ammonium compounds. In addition, he perfected the synthesis of organic chemical reagents needed in the early years for characterization, identification, and analysis. His seminal research on intermolecular hydrogen bonding performed prior to infrared capability was based on solubilities and heats of mixing.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 64 Trained as an organic chemist, Professor Marvel's interest in polymer chemistry emerged from studies of organic reactions. His approach to polymer chemistry was characterized by the same skills in synthesis, structure determination, and technique improvisation that marked his early contributions to organic chemistry. To him, polymers represented a logical extension of his research on simple organic molecules, and he thought of their synthesis, analysis, and characterization in a similar vein. Guided by this philosophy, he made major fundamental contributions to the polymer field. In 1933 he determined that γ-halopropyldimethylamines yielded open-chain polymeric products and subsequently found that, by contrast, the diethyl, di-n-propyl, and di-n-butyl analogs yielded monomeric cyclic ammonium salts. He introduced high dilution to produce the dimethylammonium four-membered ring compound and delineated the conditions under which it converted to polymer. His extended studies of olefin/sulfur dioxide polymers provided key chemical methodology for all subsequent investigations of addition polymerization. In 1934, Marvel and his students, following earlier reports of Solonia (1899), Matthews and Elder (1914), and Seyer and King (1933), and contemporaneously with Staudinger, found that a polymeric sulfone was produced by the reaction of sulfur dioxide and an olefin, cyclohexene, in the presence of a peroxide catalyst. Determinations of elemental analysis, average molecular weight, end-group analysis, and the products of alkaline fusion established the principal structural features of the high-molecular-weight polymer. Reaction of sulfur dioxide with monosubstituted olefins and acetylenes and with mixtures of olefins established the generality of the addition polymerization. Polypropylenesulfone was found to have a head-to-head, tail-to-tail orientation, while the

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 64 polymer from vinyl chloride and sulfur dioxide was found to have a head-to-tail array of two units of olefin to one of SO2. In an exploration of various initiators of olefin/SO2 polymerization, Marvel demonstrated that identical structures were obtained from catalysis with peroxide, ultraviolet light, and amine oxides. Marvel's success in elaborating the structures resulting from olefin/SO2 polymerization led him, starting in 1938, to investigate the structures of other vinyl polymers, particularly homopolymers from monosubstituted olefins. He used the reactions of the carbonyl group in the polymers of methyl vinyl ketone and isopropenyl methyl ketone and of the hydroxyl group in polyvinyl alcohol to establish that these were head-to-tail polymers. He showed similarly that the copolymer of vinyl chloride/vinyl acetate had a head-to-tail structure. He supplemented end-group analysis with the finding that the kinetics of addition polymerization could be followed through the use of a vinyl monomer containing an optically active group. It should be noted that Marvel was among the first to recognize the significance of stereo-regular polymers, which he endeavored to prepare by the principle of asymmetric induction using optically active initiators and monomers. Marvel began to receive recognition for his innovations in research. He gave the Foster Lecture at the University of Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, in 1937. He was elected to membership in the National Academy of Sciences in 1938 and served, during 1944-47, as chairman of the Section on Chemistry. He gave the Julius Stieglitz Memorial Lecture before the Chicago Section of the American Chemical Society in 1943 and received the Nichols Medal of the New York Section of the American Chemical Society in 1944. With the onset of the second World War, Marvel became involved in U.S. Government service. In September 1940

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 64 he became associated with Section C-2, Synthetic Problems, of Division B of the National Defense Research Committee, performing various tasks until the reorganization of the NDRC in September 1942, when he served as chairman of Section B-3, Synthetic, Analytical, and Inorganic Problems, until a further reorganization of the section as Division 9 took place in December 1942. Then, at the request of the Office of the Rubber Director, he joined the Rubber Reserve Corporation program on synthetic rubber synthesis. The U.S. government launched a major program to alleviate the critical shortage of natural rubber, without which tires for automobiles, trucks, military vehicles, and aircraft could not be made. Speed Marvel organized a research group at the University of Illinois, with the aid of his colleagues in organic, physical, and analytical chemistry, that concentrated on the synthesis and polymerization of 2-substituted butadienes and styrene. He also helped coordinate work on the project that involved other universities, including MIT, Chicago, Minnesota, Cornell, and Case, and industrial laboratories, including Bell Laboratories, ESSO Research, DuPont, and Union Carbide. Within one year's time, this effort brought forth adequate formulation, additives, modifiers, and processes for synthetic rubber and thereby provided successful resolution, not broadly recognized, of a potentially catastrophic situation. There was, however, recognition for Dr. Marvel's role with the award of the President's Certificate of Merit for Civilians in World War II. When hostilities ceased, Marvel went on a technical intelligence mission to Germany to learn of innovations that their rubber industry had made in butadiene-styrene copolymers. Their rapid polymerization technique, known as redox-polymerization, was adapted to low-temperature polymerization in the United States, thereby improving the

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 64 synthetic product to the point where it became a most useful general-purpose rubber. Marvel's laboratory at the University of Illinois went on to prepare, in large number, unusual butadiene copolymers with vinylsulfonic acid derivatives, anthracene and other polynuclear hydrocarbons, aconitic esters, substituted styrenes, and methyl acrylate, the latter for lithium aluminum hydride reduction to a diene/allyl alcohol copolymer. Another major contribution to the synthetic rubber program stemmed from Marvel's extensive studies of reactions of thiols with olefins. He was the first to demonstrate the preparation of high-molecular-weight polymers by adapting the reaction to bifunctional thiols and bifunctional olefins, with the goal of imparting rubbery character to the polymers. He extended the work further to include polythiol esters, polymercaptals, and polymercaptols. The advent of coordination catalysis provided opportunities for new kinds of polymers that Marvel was quick to perceive. He made polymers of the terpenes pinene, myrcene, and alloocimene and of linear compounds containing 1,6-diene functionality that resulted in ring-containing polymers. About 1955 the Materials Laboratory of Wright Patterson Air Force Base approached Professor Marvel, asking him to study organic polymeric materials that would withstand high temperature without loss of strength. His association with the U.S. Air Force's high-temperature polymer research program as its principal contributor, which began toward the end of his first career at the University of Illinois, continued throughout his entire second career at the University of Arizona. His basic research on condensation polymers with aromatic and heteroaromatic recurring units led to a series of products with progressively better and better properties and finally to polybenzimidazole (PBI). This was commercialized due to its exceptional resistance to fire and

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 64 1939 With W. H. Sharkey. Structural identity of polysulfones prepared by peroxide catalysis and under the influence of ultraviolet light. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 61:1603. With C. L. Levesque. The structure of vinyl polymers. III. The polymer from alpha-angelica lactone. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 61:1682-84. With M. B. Mueller, C. M. Himel, and J. F. Kaplan. The disproportionation of hexa-p-alkylphenylethanes and the effect of ortho-, meta-, and para-alkyl groups on dissociation of hexaarylethanes. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 61:2771-75. With J. C. Cowan. The structure of vinyl polymers. IV. The polymers of the methyl alpha-haloacrylates. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 61:3156-60. With M. J. Copley and E. Ginsberg. Hydrogen bonding by S-H. VII. Aryl mercaptans. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 61:3161-62. With C. L. Levesque. Structure of vinyl polymers. V. Some reactions of the polymer of methyl vinyl ketone. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 61:3234. With J. H. Sample and M. F. Roy. The structure of vinyl polymers. VI. Polyvinyl halides. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 61:3241-44. With C. L. Levesque. The structure of vinyl polymers. VII. Polyacrylyl chloride. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 61:3244-46. With M. J. Copley and G. F. Zellhoefer. Hydrogen bonds involving the C-H link. VIII. The solubilities of completely halogenated methanes in organic solvents. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 61:3550-52. 1940 With N. S. Moon. The structure of vinyl polymers. VIII. Polystyrene and some of its derivatives. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 62:45-49. With M. J. Copley and G. F. Zellhoefer. Hydrogen bonds involving the C-H link. IX. Nitriles and dinitriles as solvents for hydrogen containing halogenated methanes. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 62:227-28. With F. C. Dietz and M. J. Copley. Hydrogen bonds involving the C-H link. X. The solubility of donor solutes in halogenated hydrocarbons. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 62:2273-75. With E. H. Riddle. The structure of vinyl polymers. IX. Catalysts. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 62:2666-70. With M. J. Copley and E. Ginsberg. Hydrogen bonds involving the

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 64 C-H link. XI. Effect of structure on bonding of donor and acceptor molecules. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 62:3109-12. With J. Dec and H. G. Cooke, Jr. Optically active polymers from active vinyl esters. A convenient method of studying the kinetics of polymerization. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 62:3499-3504. 1941 With M. J. Copley, E. Ginsberg, and G. F. Zellhoefer. Hydrogen bonding and the solubility of alcohols and amines in organic solvents. XIII. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 63:254-56. With J. Harkema and M. J. Copley. Hydrogen bonds involving the C-H link. XIV. Solubility of donor solutes in hydrogen bonding solvents. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 63:1609. With J. F. Kaplan and C. M. Himel. Alkyl substituted hexaarylethanes. XI. Symmetry and steric effects as factors in dissociation. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 63:1892-96. With J. Harkema. Hydrogen bonds involving the C-H link. XV. Non-bonding of triphenylmethane hydrogen atoms. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 63:2221-22. 1942 With L. F. Audrieth and W. H. Sharkey. Non peroxide catalysts for the reaction between sulfur dioxide and olefins. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 64:1229-30. With R. L. Frank. Copolymerization of alkyl acrylates and alkyl maleates. Some kinetic studies on copolymerization. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 64:1675-78. With G. D. Jones, T. W. Mastin, and G. L. Schertz. The structure of copolymers of vinyl chloride and vinyl acetate. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 64:2356-62. 1943 With R. L. Frank and E. Prill. Optically active acyl peroxides. Preparation, decomposition, and use as catalysts for vinyl polymerization. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 65:1647-52. With G. E. Inskeep. End group structure of polyvinyl alcohol. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 65:1710-14. With G. L. Schertz. Copolymers of chlorostyrene and methyl methacrylate. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 65:2054-58.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 64 1944 With W. H. Sharkey. The stabilization of polysulfones toward heat. J. Org. Chem. 9:113-16. With C. G. Overberger. An optically active styrene derivative and its polymer. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 66:475-77. 1946 With W. J. Bailey and G. E. Inskeep. Sodium-catalyzed copolymerization of 1,3-butadiene and styrene. J. Polym. Sci. 1:275-88. With J. R. Elliott, F. E. Boettner, and H. Yuska. The structure of urea-formaldehyde resins. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 68:1681-86. 1947 With N. Rabjohn, R. J. Dearborn, W. E. Blackburn, G. E. Inskeep, and H. R. Snyder. Emulsion polymerization at high temperature. J. Polym. Sci. 2:488-502. 1948 With R. Deanin, C. G. Overberger, and B. M. Kuhn. Reduction activation of emulsion copolymerization of butadiene and styrene: The benzoyl peroxide-ferrous pyrophosphate system. J. Polym. Sci. 3:128-37. With R. R. Chambers. Polyalkylene sulfides from diolefins and dimercaptans. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 70:993-98. With G. E. Inskeep, R. J. Dearborn, J. H. Saunders, H. W. Johnston, D. A. Shepherd, A. J. Deutschman, J. A. Damman, and A. L. Oppegard. Use of cobalt complexes as activators in emulsion copolymerization of butadiene and styrene. J. Polym. Sci. 3:181-94. With R. L. Myers and J. H. Saunders. The preparation of 2-alkylbutadienes. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 70:1694-99. With R. Deanin, C. J. Claus, M. B. Wyld, and R. L. Seitz. Hydrogen peroxide as catalyst for emulsion polymerization of butadiene and styrene. J. Polym. Sci. 3:350-53. Unusual feeding habit of a Cape May warbler. The Auk 65(4):599. 1949 With J. L. R. Williams and H. E. Baumgarten. Emulsion polymerization of 2-alkyl-1,3-butadienes. J. Polym. Sci. 4:583-95.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 64 1950 With E. H. H. Shen and R. R. Chambers. Polymercaptals and polymercaptols. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 72:2106-9. With D. J. Shields. Emulsion copolymerization of butadiene and styrene at low temperatures. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 72:2289-90. With H. W. Hill, Jr. Polyazines. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 72:4819-20. 1951 With O. Keplinger. Copolymerization of butadiene-styrene by means of an oxygen, dodecyl mercaptan, and iron and cobalt pyrophosphates system. J. Polym. Sci. 6:83-91. With H. E. Baumgarten. Polyalkylene sulfides with rubberlike properties. J. Polym. Sci. 6:127-43. With R. Gilkey, C. R. Morgan, J. F. Noth, R. D. Rands, Jr., and C. H. Young. Cationic polymerization of butadiene and copolymerization of butadiene and styrene. J. Polym. Sci. 6:483-502. With C. H. Young. The effect of cis and trans olefinic groups on the properties of polyurethanes and polyesters. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 73:1066-69. With N. A. Meinhardt. Copolymerization of butadiene and styrene in the oxygen-l-alkanesulfinic acid system. J. Polym. Sci. 6:733-43. With A. H. Markhart, Jr. Polyalkylene sulfides. VI. New polymers capable of cross-linking. J. Polym. Sci. 6:711-16. 1953 With E. D. Weil, L. B. Wakefield, and C. W. Fairbanks. The structure of the polymers of alpha-haloacrylates. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 75:2326-30. With H. Z. Friedlander, S. Swann, Jr., and H. K. Inskip. Diazonium fluoborates as initiators of vinyl polymerization. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 75:3846-48. With W. S. Anderson. Copolymerization of anthracene with 1,3-butadiene. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 75:4600-4601. Solvent for polyacrylonitrile. U.S. Patent 2,649,427, August 18, 1953. C.A. 47:10895. 1955 With A. J. Costanza, R. J. Coleman, R. M. Pierson, and C. King. bisType modifiers in polymerization. II. Comparison of effective

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 64 ness of various compounds in emulsion butadiene and bulk styrene polymerizations. J. Polym. Sci. 17:319-40. 1957 With R. D. Vest. The formation of a cyclic recurring unit in free radical polymerization. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 79:5771-73. 1958 With M. M. Martin. Polymeric basic beryllium carboxylates. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80:619-22. With J. H. Rassweiler. Polymeric phthalocyanines. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80:1197-99. With M. M. Martin. Polymeric phthalocyanines. II. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80:6600-6604. 1959 With J. R. Hanley, Jr., and D. T. Longone. Polymerization of ß-pinene with Ziegler-type catalysts. J. Polym. Sci. 40:551-55. 1960 With R. G. Woolford. The formation of a cyclic recurring unit in the polymerization of diallyldimethylsilane. J. Org. Chem. 25:1641-43. With E. J. Gall. Intramolecular-intermolecular polymerizations of some phenyl substituted nonconjugated diolefins. J. Org. Chem. 25:1784-86. Intramolecular-intermolecular polymerization of nonconjugated diolefins. J. Polym. Sci. 48:101-8. 1961 With J. E. Mulvaney. Synthesis of polymers containing recurring thiazole rings. J. Org. Chem. 26:95-97. With C. J. Abshire. Some oxadiazole and triazole polymers. Makromol. Chem. 44-46:388-97. With H. Vogel. Polybenzimidazoles, new thermally stable polymers. J. Polym. Sci. 50:511-39. With J. E. Mulvaney. Disiloxane benzimidazole polymers. J. Polym. Sci. 50:541-47.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 64 1962 With D. M. Paisley. Some polymers and copolymers of vinyldiphenylphosphine. J. Polym. Sci. 56:533-38. With J. E. Mulvaney and J. J. Bloomfield. Polybenzborimidazolines. J. Polym. Sci. 62:59-72. 1963 With H. Vogel. Polybenzimidazoles. II. J. Polym. Sci. A-1:1531-41. With B. Reichel and R. Z. Greenley. Transannular polymerization of 1,5-cyclooctadiene. J. Polym. Sci. A-1:2935-43. 1964 With L. Plummer. Polybenzimidazoles. III. J. Polym. Sci. A-2:2559-69. 1965 With R. T. Foster. Polybenzimidazoles. IV. Polybenzimidazoles containing aryl ether linkages. J. Polym. Sci. A-3:417-21. With F. Dawans. Polymers from ortho aromatic tetraamines and aromatic dianhydrides. J. Polym. Sci. A-3:3549-71. 1966 With H. Jadamus, F. DeSchryver, and W. DeWinter. Model compounds and polymers with quinoxaline units. J. Polym. Sci. A-1, 4:2831-42. With C. H. H. Neufeld. The use of dialysis in polymer purification. J. Polym. Sci. A-1, 4:2907-8. 1967 Thermally stable polymers with aromatic recurring units. J. Macromol . Sci. A-1:7-28. With F. DeSchryver. Polymers with quinoxaline units. II. J. Polym. Sci. A-1, 5:545-52. With T. V. Lakshmi Narayan. Polybenzimidazoles. VI. Polybenzimidazoles containing aryl sulfone linkages. J. Polym. Sci. A-1, 5:1113-18. Polyaromatic heterocycles. Proceedings of the Robert A. Welch Foundation Conference on Chemical Research. X. Polymers, pp. 59-87.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 64 1968 With M. Okada. Polymers with quinoxaline units. III. Polymers with quinoxaline and thiazine recurring units. J. Polym. Sci. A-1, 6:1259-71. With R. Wolf and M. Okada. Polymers with quinoxaline units. IV. Polymers with quinoxaline and oxazine units. J. Polym. Sci. A-1, 6:1503-14. Thermally stable polymers. Pure Appl. Chem. 16:351-68. 1969 With R. Wolf. Polymers with quinoxaline units. V. Polymers with quinoxaline and dioxin units. J. Polym. Sci. A-1, 7:2481-91. 1970 With J. Higgins. Benzimidazole polymers from aldehydes and tetraamines. J. Polym. Sci. A-1, 8:171-77. With J. O. Szita. Sulfoalkylation of a polybenzimidazole with propanesulfone. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 8:2019-24. With R. Pense. Polymers containing anthraquinone units: polyimidazoles and polypyrrolones from 1,2,5,6-tetraaminoanthraquinone. J. Polym. Sci. A-1, 8:3189-98. With H. Kokelenberg. Polymers containing anthraquinone units: benzimidazole and benzothiazole polymers. J. Polym. Sci. A-1, 8:3199-209. With A. Banihashemi. Polymers containing anthraquinone units: Polycondensations 1,2,5,6-tetraaminoanthraquinone with some tetrachloroquinoxaline compounds. J. Polym. Sci. A-1, 8:3211-24. With H. Kokelenberg. Benzimidazole, benzothiazole, and benzoxazole polymers with anthracene recurring units. J. Polym. Sci. A-1, 8:3235-49. 1971 With J. Szita. Partial ladder polymers with anthraquinone units. Reaction of 1,2,5,6-tetraaminoanthraquinone with p-benzoquinone derivatives. J. Polym. Sci. A-1, 9:415-21. With J. Szita and L. H. Brannigan. Ladder pyrrolone structures with anthraquinone recurring units. J. Polym. Sci. A-1, 9:691-700.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 64 1972 With S. A. Hurley and P. K. Dutt. New thermally stable polymer with a graphite-type structure. J. Polym. Sci. A-1, 10:1243-61. 1974 With F. L. Hedberg. A new single-step process for polybenzimidazole synthesis. J. Polym. Sci.: Polym. Chem. Ed. 12:1823-28. New thermally stable adhesive resins. Pure Appl. Chem. 39:57-63. 1975 With K. P. Sivaramakrishnan, C. Samyn, I. J. Westerman, and D. T. Wong. Aromatic polyethers, polysulfones, and polyketones as laminating resins. IV. Polymers with p-cyclophane units for crosslinking. J. Polym. Sci.: Polym. Chem. Ed. 13:1083-94. With R. Kellman. Polymers with a graphitic-type structure. II. J. Polym. Sci.: Polym. Chem. Ed. 13:2125-31. 1977 With A. Banihashemi. Aromatic polyether, -ketone, -sulfones as laminating resins. XII. Derivatives of 2',2'-diphenylethynyldiphenyl which cure by an intramolecular cyclization. J. Polym. Sci.: Polym. Chem. Ed. 15:2667-70. With R. J. Swedo. Biphenylene as a crosslinking unit in polyaromatic ether-ketone-resins. XIII. J. Polym. Sci.: Polym. Chem. Ed. 15:683-86. 1978 With R. A. Brand, M. Bruma, and R. Kellman. Low-molecular-weight polybenzimidazoles from aromatic dinitriles and aromatic diamines. J. Polym. Sci.: Polym. Chem. Ed. 16:2275-84. With M. P. Hanson. A synthesis of dimethyl 2,7-biphenylene di-carboxylate and its use as a crosslinking agent in a polymer. J. Polym. Sci.: Polym. Lett. Ed. 16:653-56. 1979 With R. A. Brand and R. J. Swedo. Oligomeric benzimidazoles with reactive end groups. J. Polym. Sci.: Polym. Chem. Ed. 17:1145-52. With R. J. Swedo. 2,6-Diaminobiphenylene as a crosslinking unit in

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 64 an aromatic polyamide. J. Polym. Sci.: Polym. Chem. Ed. 16:2711-13. New heat stable processable aromatic polymers. Contemp. Top. Polym. Sci. 3:7-12. 1980 With V. Sankaran. New processable polyaromatic amides curable by Diels-Alder cycloaddition. J. Polym. Sci.: Pollm. Chem. Ed. 18:1835-40. With V. Sankaran. New processable polyaromatic ether-keto-sulfones curable by Diels-Alder cycloaddition. J. Polym. Sci.: Polym. Chem. Ed. 18:1821-34. 1981 With P. Y. Chen. New processable polyaromatic esters curable by intramolecular cyclization. XVIII. J. Polym. Sci.: Polym. Chem. Ed. 19:619-27. 1982 With B. H. Lee. New processable polyaromatic ether-keto-sulfones as colorless, clear film-forming materials. J. Polym. Sci.: Polym. Chem. Ed. 20:393-99. With S. Lin and G. R. Kriek. New processable polyaromatic keto-sulfones with internal acetylene units. J. Polym. Sci.: Polym. Chem. Ed. 20:401-7. With A. Sutter and P. Schmutz. Polyaromatic ether-ketones containing various biphenylene units as crosslinking sites. J. Polym. Sci.: Polym. Chem. Ed. 20:609-17. With K. Ishizu, U. D. G. Prabhu, D. Draney, and B. H. Lee. New acetylene-terminated quinoxaline oligomers. J. Polym. Sci.: Polym. Chem. Ed. 20:2851-62. With V. Sankaran. Polyaromatic ether-keto-sulfones curable by Diels-Alder cycloaddition. U.S. 4356292 A, 26 Oct. 1982, 5 pp. 1983 With B. H. Lee. Rigid-ladder polymers: Polymers containing anthraquinone recurring units. J. Polym. Sci.: Polym. Chem. Ed. 21:83-87. With S. Lee. Polyaromatic ether-sulfone-ketones with fluorosubstituted

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 64 p-cyclophane units as crosslinking sites. J. Polym. Sci.: Polym. Chem. Ed. 21:1151-7. 1986 With D. L. Trumbo. Synthesis of acetylene-terminated monomers using a polymer-supported palladium catalyst. J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Symp. 74:45-53. 1987 With T. Ogawa. Crosslinking of polyaromatic ether-ketones with biphenylene derivatives. J. Polym. Sci. (Part A) Polym. Chem. 25:251-57. With D. L. Trumbo. Synthesis of acetylene-terminated polymers using supported palladium (II) catalysts. J. Polym. Sci. (Part A) Polym. Chem. 25:847-56.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 64 This page in the original is blank.