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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 64 NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS The National Academy Press was created by the National Academy of Sciences to publish the reports isssued by the Academy and by the National Academy of Engineering, the Institute of Medicine, and the National Research Council, all operating under the charter granted to the National Academy of Sciences by the Congress of the United States.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 64 This page in the original is blank.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 64 Biographical Memoirs NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 64 This page in the original is blank.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 64 NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Biographical Memoirs VOLUME 64 NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS WASHINGTON, D.C. 1994

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 64 The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by Act of Congress as a private, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation for the furtherance of science and technology, required to advise the federal government upon request within its fields of competence. Under its corporate charter the Academy established the National Research Council in 1916, the National Academy of Engineering in 1964, and the Institute of Medicine in 1970. INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER 0-309-04978-4 INTERNATIONAL STANDARD SERIAL NUMBER 0077-2933 LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOG CARD NUMBER 5-26629 Available from NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 CONSTITUTION AVENUE, N.W. WASHINGTON, D.C. 20418 PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 64 CONTENTS     PREFACE   vii     LIBERTY HYDE BAILEY BY HARLAN P. BANKS   3     FELIX BLOCH BY ROBERT HOFSTADTER   35     BART J. BOK BY J. A. GRAHAM, C. M. WADE, AND R. M. PRICE   73     LEON FESTINGER BY STANLEY SCHACHTER   99     DAVID TRESSEL GRIGGS BY IVAN A. GETTING AND JOHN M. CHRISTIE   113     FELIX HAUROWITZ BY FRANK W. PUTNAM   135     COLUMBUS O'DONNELL ISELIN BY HENRY M. STOMMEL   165     EUGENE MARKLEY LANDIS BY JOHN R. PAPPENHEIMER   189

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 64     ABBA PTACHYA LERNER BY DAVID S. LANDES   209     CARL SHIPP MARVEL BY NELSON J. LEONARD   233     HENRY WILLIAM MENARD BY ROBERT L. FISHER AND EDWARD D. GOLDBERG   267     CARL VERNON MOORE BY OLIVER H. LOWRY   279     GEORGE PETER MURDOCK BY WARD H. GOODENOUGH   305     THEODORE MEAD NEWCOMB BY PHILIP E. CONVERSE   321     WILLIAM ALBERT NOYES, JR BY JOHN M. WHITE WITH PAMELA J. COOK   341     CHARLES H. RAMMELKAMP, JR. BY FREDERICK C. ROBBINS   355     HERMANN IRVING SCHLESINGER BY GRANT URRY   369     CALVIN PERRY STONE BY ERNEST R. HILGARD   397     RALPH H. WETMORE BY JOHN G. TORREY   421     SEWALL WRIGH BY JAMES F. CROW   439     CUMULATIVE INDEX   471

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 64 PREFACE On March 3, 1863, Abraham Lincoln signed the Act of Incorporation that brought the National Academy of Sciences into being. In accordance with that original charter, the Academy is a private, honorary organization of scientists, elected for outstanding contributions to knowledge, who can be called upon to advixe the federal government. As an institution the Academy's goal is to work toward increasing scientific knowledge and to further the use of that knowledge for the general good. The Biographical memoirs, begun in 1877, are a series of volumes containing the life histories and selected bibliographies of deceased members of the Academy. Colleagues familiar with the discipline and the subject's work prepare the essays. These volumes, then, contain a record of the life and work of our most distinguished leaders in the sciences, and witnessed and interpreted by their colleagues and peers. They form a biographical history of science in America—an important part of our nation's contribution to the intellectual heritage of the world. PETER H. RAVEN Home Secretary

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 64 This page in the original is blank.