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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 65 Photograph by Bassano, Ltd.
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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 65 GEORGE WASHINGTON CORNER December 12, 1889-September 28, 1981 BY ELIZABETH M. RAMSEY THE NINE DECADES OF George Corner's life spanned a period of profound change in world history. Equally dramatic and fundamental developments in scientific history took place in that period. Upon the segment of science which was his own field, reproductive anatomy and physiology, Corner made an indelible imprint. In keeping with the broad scope of his talents and interests Corner's mark was also made upon a wide range of other fields. In addition to being a distinguished scientist he was an internationally recognized medical historian, a biographer, a scholar, a humanist and philosopher, a leading medical educator and administrator. The ninety years of Corner's life were incredibly full and richly productive. SCHOOL DAYS George Washington Corner, the third in succession to bear that name, was born on December 12, 1889, in Baltimore, Maryland. He was descended from a long line of Corners, of English origin, who lived in Maryland from the mid-17th century. His immediate forebears moved to Baltimore around 1850 and pursued prosperous careers in business, establishing a successful family mercantile and ship-
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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 65 ping firm. All generations of the family were staunch Methodists and practiced the firm and restrained life pattern characteristic of devoted Church members. But teetotalism and the eschewing of theater, dancing, and so on, did not prevent a buoyant, happy and unaffected family life. Numerous family members, both men and women, served as leading laymen in various church capacities, while their strong sense of civil obligation led them into responsible community positions. His grandfather was one of the early trustees of Johns Hopkins Hospital and president of the board of the Samuel Ready School. His father was a trustee of Goucher College, president of the Baltimore YMCA, and followed his own father as president of the Samuel Ready School. Corner's maternal heritage was also English-derived and Baltimore-nutured through several generations. Methodism and commercial activity were prominent on this side too. His Evans grandfather was a pioneer in the food packing business and designed the machinery for large-scale canning of oysters. Neither Corner's parents nor any of his close relatives had advanced academic education, but all were well read and studious with great respect for learning. Their homes had well-stocked libraries and their friends and associates were professional people and community leaders in Baltimore and more widely throughout the United States. Family feeling and stability were particularly strong among the Corners and those with whom they married. Our George (whom we may identify as "Dr. Corner," as he was the first medical man in the family—though the title anticipates our story by some years!) was surrounded by a closely knit circle of kinfolk, embracing his parents, his two siblings, two sets of grandparents, and a bevy of aunts and uncles and cousins of varying degrees of relationship.
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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 65 The home in East Baltimore where Dr. Corner was born was close to the newly established Johns Hopkins Hospital and Medical School. East Baltimore at that time was a quite remarkable neighborhood of congenial families constituting in effect a small village within the larger Baltimore community with which in fact they had little affinity. A graphic account of turn-of-the-century life in this little enclave, more southern than northern like all of Maryland, is incorporated in Dr. Corner's two autobiographies (Anatomist at Large and The Seven Ages of a Medical Scientist). Both make delightful reading and provide classic vignettes worthy on their own merits of inclusion in any treatise on American life. That fifty years later he remembered it all in such vivid detail is testimony to its influence in the building of his own tastes and the judgments that characterized his career. Young George enjoyed his early school days, at first in the local public schools, later at the Boys' Latin School. He did well enough, if not brilliantly, but his standard education was significantly augmented by voracious reading of the magazines and books present in abundance on his family's bookshelves and especially by the cultivated and interesting conversation of the numerous distinguished guests whom his parents entertained. There was little science taught in his elementary schools, but avid curiosity and a high degree of manual dexterity led him to fabricate simple electrical and optical instruments, and summers on the working farm of favorite relatives, one a veterinarian, gave him an early taste of natural history and animal medicine. Above all, an abiding interest in the classes was instilled in him by a gifted teacher at the Boys' Latin School, where he also got a firm grounding in English and mathematics.
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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 65 COLLEGE, MEDICAL SCHOOL AND POST GRADUATE WORK His interest in the classics led Corner, upon entering Johns Hopkins University, to register as a prospective major in the classics. However, a growing interest in biology manifesting itself very shortly prompted him to change his major to science at the beginning of his sophomore year. In retrospect he was able to put his finger on the actual circumstance that triggered the decision, namely, reading an article on Texas cattle fever by Theobald Smith published in an old issue of U.S. Department of Agriculture Reports, which he found in his veterinarian uncle-in-law's files. It "opened for me the doors to a whole new world of scientific exploration. Before I finished reading it I knew that I wanted to become a biologist." His judgment was confirmed when, in the first week of the college fall term, he "sat down to work with a microscope for the first time in my life. There was no longer any question about my place in the world; this was where I belonged. . . . I was intellectually at home at last." One course in his senior year made a lasting impression upon him. It was a course in psychology given by John Broadus Watson. In it Watson told of his own work and that of other members of the new "behaviorist school" of which he was a recognized leader and expressed the belief that understanding of the higher levels of human thought must be based upon study of man as an animal, subject to the same physical laws as other animals. This concept stayed with Corner, influencing his future work and thought. In the summer following graduation from college, still undecided how to shape his future course into medicine or zoology, Corner spent several productive months at the U.S. Fisheries Laboratory in Beaufort, North Carolina, where the Johns Hopkins Biology Department had special privi-
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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 65 leges. There he became intensely interested in protozoa, which were to be found in abundance in Beaufort Sound. He collected them and studied them closely, working particularly with Cothurnia. At the end of the summer his observations and sketches were published in Notes from the Johns Hopkins Biological Laboratory, 1909, and thus became his first scientific publication. As he worked that summer he came to recognize that by nature he was more comfortable with simple organisms than with complicated ones, with embryos rather than with adult bodies. Thus the scales of his decision tipped toward zoology for his life's work, but the worldly wisdom of a surgeon cousin—to the effect that with a medical degree one could still be a biologist yet have a practical profession to fall back on—won the day, and in October 1909 he entered the Johns Hopkins Medical School. The years 1909-13 were an ideal time to be at the Johns Hopkins Medical School. It was then the ranking medical school in the United States with a faculty roster that included some of the most distinguished men in their fields in both basic science and clinical departments. The student body was relatively small, seventy to eighty per class, and equally superior. Both men and women came from all parts of the country and were college and university graduates. Instruction was carried out stimulatively on modern lines. This was particularly so in the Anatomy Department under Franklin P. Mall. Small, tidy, quiet rooms had supplanted the traditional large, dirty, noisy dissecting hall. Lectures were a very minor feature compared to the emphasis upon individual initiative in dissecting and reading. Corner promptly established himself as an enthusiastic student. Very soon he launched upon a research project that occupied him throughout his four years of medical school: investigation of the previously unknown minute structure of the pancreas.
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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 65 Medical history had always been of prime interest at Johns Hopkins and Corner early commenced attendance at the meetings of the Medical History Club. Additionally, he was given access to a fine collection of classic works on the history of medicine housed behind locked doors in the physiology building. Vesalius's Fabrica, Diemerbroeck's Anatomy, and De Graaf's De succo pancreaticum, among others, gave background to his growing interest in the honored drugs Mithridatium and Theriac, on which he prepared an essay that he presented to the Medical History Club. Faithful attendance at all the lectures, laboratories, clinics, ward duty, and the multitudinous requirements of a superior medical school still left Corner with free summers. In 1911 he made a European tour that included attendance at courses at the University of Freiburg-im-Breisgau and widened his Baltimore-based horizon by a walking tour in the Black Forest and visits to a number of German and French cities. In the summers of 1912 and 1913 he served as a volunteer medical assistant at the Grenfell Medical Mission in Battle Harbor, Labrador. This provided some adventure and splendid experience in basic medical practice in a frontier environment. His success was such that several offers were made to him to establish a practice in an arctic community. A highly important byproduct of the Grenfell summers was meeting an attractive young New England lady, Betsy Lyon Copping, a volunteer school teacher at the Mission. She eventually became Mrs. Corner. In planning his course after medical school Corner had to choose between two appealing opportunities. As a member of the upper segment of the graduating class he was entitled to consideration for an internship in one of the hospital's clinical services. He selected gynecology under
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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 65 Professor Howard Kelly and was accepted. At the same time Professor Mall offered him an assistantship for teaching and research in the Department of Anatomy and urged him to build a strong foundation in embryology and reproductive system physiology before setting forth upon a clinical career. This argument and the opportunity offered prevailed and Kelly agreed to postpone the gynecology internship for a year. During the year in anatomy Corner tried his wings as a teacher with good success. At Mall's insistence he also embarked upon a study of the development of the corpus luteum of the ovary.1 His animal model was the sow, a nearby slaughter house providing a wealth of fresh material. Mall, whose interest in early human embryos would later culminate in his establishment and directorship of the Carnegie Department of Embryology, hoped to use the corpus luteum as a measure of the age of early embryos. This hope proved false but Corner learned a great deal about pregnancy in the sow, which would prove useful to him later on. In the following year, 1915, during his internship in the Department of Gynecology, Corner had excellent training under leading specialists in gynecology, surgery, anesthesia, and patient care. But as the year went on he had increasing doubts about his temperamental fitness for a career as a clinician. He also began to be concerned by the observation that despite superior skill as surgeons and teachers, the best gynecologists knew remarkably little about the physiology of the female reproductive cycle. Worst of all, little research was being done in the field. With the conjunction of these two considerations, and especially because he was developing ideas about how such physiological research might be conducted, Corner was in a highly receptive state of mind for a proposal from Herbert Evans, one of the members of Mall's staff with whom he
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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 65 had become friendly and for whom he had particular regard. Evans had just been appointed professor of anatomy at the University of California School of Medicine in Berkeley, and asked Corner to accept an instructorship in his department. As Corner reflected in his autobiography, ''I accepted Evans' offer with a comfortable feeling that I had found the way to a career.'' BERKELEY AND TWO MORE YEARS AT JOHNS HOPKINS From the standpoint of our present, late twentieth century knowledge, it is difficult for us to appreciate the paucity of knowledge about reproductive system phenomena available in the years prior to World War I. The factors controlling the menstrual cycle, the time of ovulation, the origin and function of the corpus luteum, when and how the embryo implants in the endometrium—all were unknown. It was to the elucidation of these mysteries that Corner now proposed to devote his talents and his energies. And step by step through the years, he did so. One may roughly chart his course by saying either that he progressed from the sow to the monkey to man or that his progress was from anatomy to physiology then via pharmacology and endocrinology to therapeutics. Some of the work was done alone, some with distinguished colleagues. And always, combined with research, were the two other great interests: teaching and medical history. Corner enjoyed teaching and was exceedingly successful and popular both in the classroom and on the lecture stage. He once calculated that he had given his lecture on "Medicine in Chaucer," by request, twenty times between Los Angeles, California and Oxford, England! But beyond these aspects, teaching was to him a significant duty. The problem "research or teaching," which harasses our present medical schools, was never a problem for him. At the time, when
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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 65 he decided against clinical medicine as a career, he expressed regret at no longer being "directly helpful to ailing people," but he confidently undertook "the responsibilities of the scientist-teacher: unswerving devotion to the search for knowledge, faithful guidance of younger intellects." From this credo he never deviated. The love of medical history combined easily and usefully with teaching. Aside from his own scholarly work in the field he inaugurated courses for students that were well attended and in several cases established lifelong interest in medical history and the founding of recognized rare book collections. Furthermore, into all his routine courses in anatomy he injected provocative accounts of ancient ideas and concepts and frequently required a simple thesis on historical aspects of work in hand from each student. The four years in Berkeley found him active upon the first stages of his projected career. Evans was pleased to find him an eager and popular teacher and administrator helping to set the operations of the department upon a strong and progressive base. Corner in turn relished the contract with an active and able staff under a brilliant head. Evans was able to obtain for him the equipment and animals (sows) necessary for his research and, as a first accomplishment, Corner succeeded in showing that the sow's fertilized ovum undergoes maturation in a fashion similar to that of the few other animals in which the process had been observed. This lent further weight to the opinion that the sow is a valid animal for study of the mammalian reproductive system. Continued studies of the corpus luteum advanced the understanding of that organ substantially and answered an old question as to the origin of the luteal cells: both granulosa and theca interna contribute to their formation. The keen interest and pleasure of participating in the
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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 65 life of the vast western university was enhanced by having his wife join him. They had been married in New Hampshire in December 1915, and their son was born in San Francisco a year later. California had indeed become the Corners' home—but not for long. In 1919 a compelling call came from Lewis Weed, who had just been appointed to succeed the late F. P. Mall as professor of anatomy at Johns Hopkins. Weed wanted Corner to join him as third in rank in the department with very favorable arrangements for teaching and facilities for research. Corner accepted, returning once more to his native city and alma mater and entering an exciting and productive era of his career. Weed's department was a hotbed of activity in both teaching and research, staffed by such experts as Florence Sabin, George Wislocki, and Sidney Cunningham, among others. Once more the convenient propinquity of Hohman's Slaughter House to the medical school made it possible for Corner to obtain so large and so well timed a series of uteri of pregnant sows that by 1921 he could report the whole sequence of uterine changes occurring in this mammal during the reproductive cycle as well as those occurring in the corpus luteum. A classic article in the Carnegie Contributions to Embryology records the complete story. Corner was now ready for the next step, namely, to turn his attention to a menstruating animal. He selected the Macacus rhesus as the most suitable one, and with funds Weed obtained for him bought eleven females which he housed on a balcony in the Hunterian Laboratory of the Anatomy Department. This was the first experimental breeding colony of monkeys in the United States and numerous important discoveries were made employing it. His organization and maintenance of his monkey colony set the standard for such work in primate research centers to the present
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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 65 this scheme and the future of the ongoing investigation of uterine muscle was assured. ROCKEFELLER In the late summer of 1955 the Corners moved to a pleasant apartment near the Rockefeller Institute and a very agreeable interlude commenced. It was soon apparent that the time Corner spent on the Rockefeller history outstripped that devoted to the uterine studies. The latter quickly slipped into the realm of advanced modern physiology and biochemistry with which Corner felt that Csapo was better equipped to cope than he, though his advisory role was maintained with great mutual benefit. Writing the history of the institute involved a mighty task of research into records both written and alive. The files of the institute were a vast treasure trove in which Corner, with his experience of academic institutions and his sympathetic interest in human beings, was able to find material for a fascinating story far removed from standard, dry-as-dust histories of organizations. As for the living portion of the archives, fifty years is not so long a time but that many of the performers on the Rockefeller's distinguished stage were still alive and well, and in other cases relatives and knowledgeable friends were available for interviews. It was a very different sort of medical history research from the study of Salernitan surgery in the twelfth century that he made in 1937. The Rockefeller history called for mature judgment and in many instances supreme tact. But the famous people, many of them household names, come alive on Corner's pages, complete with ambitions, frustrations, intrigues, and instances of heroic unselfishness, good nature, and personal charm. It took far longer to write than originally projected, in
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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 65 fact a full five years rather than two. When complete the Rockefeller Institute had a fine account of its early years to which Bronk added a foreword with glowing praise of its author. The years in New York and the many trips in the United States and abroad formed an active background to the historical work. The travels included lecture tours, society meetings, and trips to institutions that were bestowing honors and degrees upon him (a grand total of ten of the latter: seven in the United States, and three foreign). Again in 1960 a decision as to future course had to be made, but there was no interval, for "a job came looking for me." Henry Allen Moe, newly elected president of the American Philosophical Society, offered him the post of executive officer of the society. AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY It was an ideal post for Corner. He had an intimate acquaintance with historical Philadelphia through the work on Benjamin Rush's autobiography. The Philosophical Society itself was founded in that time and Rush was its vice president from 1797 to 1801. Knowledge of the work of the society continuously to the present day kept Corner in touch with the scientific and cultural life of the parent city, and his own participation as a member of the society since 1940 gave him current insight. He found Philadelphia a pleasant place to live and was happy in a large circle of scientific and history-oriented friends. His duties at the society were not too demanding but were varied, interesting, and responsible: daily business and correspondence, preparing the annual budget and overseeing expenditures, editing the society's publications, chairing the committee directing grants, and other in-house committees, plus close association with the librarian and his
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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 65 work. Corner's time at the society bridged the terms of four presidents and in the course of that interval his activities constantly widened, including such things as envisaging, instituting, and managing the society's musical evening, of which he said, "I was something of an impressario!" He had contact with a passing parade of prominent people (including three U.S. Presidents), as well as the wide range of the society's own membership. In persuading Corner to accept the post, Moe had assured him that he would have ample time for writing. As his duties increased those precious times shrank, but still the Philadelphia "Age" was highly productive. In addition to the array of smaller pieces, four major works emerged. First, George Whipple and His Friends: The Life Story of a Nobel Prize Pathologist, commissioned by the Rochester Medical Alumni. This was a real labor of love, for Corner's friendship and admiration for Whipple dated back to his medical school days, then to the stirring times in the founding of the Rochester Medical School. The association had continued ever since. Writing the book was particularly pleasant because Whipple himself participated in it. Retired after thirty-one years at Rochester, he was available for consultation and to read and approve the manuscript. A second agreeable commission was the writing of the history of the Medical School of the University of Pennsylvania. Titled Two Centuries of Medical Education, it appeared in 1965 in time for the 200th anniversary of the school's founding. Again Corner's acquaintance with the subject, from the work on Benjamin Rush, made the task appropriate and enjoyable. The third book written in Corner's Philadelphia period, Doctor Kane of the Arctic Seas, gave him particular personal satisfaction, for it tied together several strands of his own life's history and abiding interests. First, perhaps, the re-
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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 65 membered tales of his seafaring ''Grandpap'' Evans. Then, his own recollections of boyhood haunting of the docks at the foot of Broadway in East Baltimore, a few blocks from his own home—great seagoing cargo vessels lay in Baltimore's inner harbor in those days, fraught with a boy's vision of voyages and adventures. And even before he could read, there was the marvelous volume of Kane's Arctic Adventures in the Years 1853, 54, 55 in Grandfather Corner's library. Initially the wonderful pictures alone drew him on, then when he could read and reread them, the stirring accounts of the adventures of his hero lost in Arctic ice. There was even a mercantile connection between Kane and Corner's own grandfather Evans, the pioneer in the food-packing industry, who provided supplies for some of the great Kane expeditions. Corner's summers with the Grenfell Mission in Labrador were another closely related and vividly remembered strand in the tapestry, and through the years he collected Kane memorabilia, contacted Kane survivors who supplied family papers, and visited every available Arctic collection and research institute. Even when not connected with the Kane story, Corner's unwavering love of the sea was a strand. He always traveled by ship when possible and, especially charmingly, in 1972 took his two grandsons with him when he attended an international congress of medical historians in London, crossing the Atlantic on the Queen Elizabeth II, just so that they could have the experience of a voyage on one of the fast disappearing great ocean liners. Thus, writing his fourteenth book on Doctor Kane of the Arctic Seas, in 1972, was the gratifying fulfillment of a long-held resolve. But it was not his last book. In 1981, his fifteenth book and masterful autobiography, The Seven Ages of a Medical Scientist, appeared, happily in time for him to see it in the
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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 65 final months of the remarkable life it records. All the reviewers of the book commented on the delightful literary style, upon the value to the history of twentieth century science of the recollections of his own research career, and of the activities of all the contemporary greats whom he knew personally. The reviewers cited his titles "Discoverer of Progesterone" and "Father of the Pill" among the others. All are impressive titles but cold, whereas The Seven Ages is the unstudied revelation of a wise, witty, sympathetic personality. In 1977 Corner felt that it was time for him to assume elder statesman status and with the assistance of his warm friend, Jonathan Rhoads, then president of the American Philosophical Society, it was arranged that Whitfield Bell, the society's librarian, should take Corner's place as executive officer while still continuing as librarian. To lighten Bell's executive duties in this dual post Corner retained his work as editor of the society's publications and his chairmanship of the Committee on Research. Life under these new arrangements—he described this era as "Retired but not Retiring" in his characterization of his Seventh Age was kept from loneliness by the continuing work at the Philosophical Society plus the companionship of many friends there and at the Wistar Association. Old friends at a distance were brought near by extensive correspondence, which included the Belts in Los Angeles, the Richters in Baltimore, Csapo in St. Louis, Booth in London, Weddell in Oxford, and Inés de Allende in Córdoba. Close at hand younger friends in Philadelphia, such as Jonathan Rhoads and the Richardsons, were supports and pleasures and kept him au courant with scientific and cultural affairs. His relatives of several generations, living both nearby and far away, were affectionately attentive. Corner was fortunate in having a sound constitution and basically good health to support his boundless energy and
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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 65 activity. Only a severe impairment of his vision in later years was a problem. In his private life he experienced both personal satisfaction and two serious bereavements. He wrote movingly in his autobiography of his happy married life and of his pleasure in his wife's growing interest in medical history. Her prolonged terminal illness was a grevious and tragic experience. Dr. Corner was devoted to his two children, and the sudden death of his daughter Hester Ann from acute myelogenous leukemia just before she was to receive her Ph.D. in classics at Yale was a cruel blow. He was very proud of his obstetrician-gynecologist son, the fourth George Washington Corner, who happily survives. George IV's work on the placenta with E. M. Ramsey, mirroring Dr. Corner's own interest in reproductive anatomy and physiology, gave him much pleasure. His son's wife and the grandchildren were an abiding joy to Corner, and he spent the last year of his life with them in Huntsville, Alabama. Dr. Corner himself provided a fitting conclusion to this present biographical memoir, which is in fact as much the memoir of a great man as of a great scientist. The final paragraph of The Seven Ages reads: I once had a correspondent who held that the universe is no good and should not exist. I disagree with him. I think highly of the universe. The buffets it gives us, we must take as they come; the benefits we can often help to arrange. I am proud to have been a member of the universe these ninety years past. One accepts, of course, the regulations for enrollment, pays his annual assessment of hard work, and aims to be a useful citizen of the local galaxy. In return, he receives the friendship of other members and the love of those near and dear to him. NOTE 1. In all mammals the eggs develop in small chambers in the substance of the ovary, the follicles. These are lined by follicular or
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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 65 granulosa cells which secrete the hormone estrogen. The wall of the follicle is composed of fibrous tissue, the theca. When the egg is ripe the follicle ruptures, ovulation, discharging the egg into the Fallopian tube or oviduct, which it traverses into the uterus. There it implants on the mucous membrane lining that organ, the endometrium. After ovulation the granulosa cells are transformed into lutein cells forming the corpus luteum. These cells secrete the hormone progesterone.
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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 65 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 1914 The structural unit and growth of the pancreas of the pig. Am. J. Anat. 16:207-36. 1915 Mithridatium and theriac, the most famous remedies of old medicine. Johns Hopkins Hosp. Bull. 26:222-26. The corpus luteum of pregnancy as it is in swine. Publications of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, no. 222 (Contributions to Embryology, no. 5), pp. 69-94. 1919 Anatomists in search of the soul. Ann. Med. Hist. 2:1-7. On the origin of the corpus luteum of the sow from both granulosa and theca interna. Am. J. Anat. 26:117-83. 1921 Cyclic changes in the ovaries and uterus of the sow, and their relation to the mechanism of implantation. Publications of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, no. 276 (Contributions to Embryology, no. 64), pp. 117-46. 1923 The problem of embryonic pathology in mammals, with observations upon intrauterine mortality in the pig. Am. J. Anat. 31:523-45. Ovulation and menstruation in Macacus rhesus. Publications of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, no. 332 (Contributions to Embryology , no. 75), pp. 75-101. 1927 Anatomical Texts of the Earlier Middle Ages: A Study in the Transmission of Culture. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Institution of Washington. The relation between menstruation and ovulation in the monkey: Its possible significance for man. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 89:1838-40.
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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 65 1928 Physiology of the corpus luteum: I. The effect of very early ablation of the corpus luteum upon embryos and uterus. Am. J. Physiol. 86:74-81. 1929 With Willard M. Allen. Physiology of the corpus luteum: II. Production of a special uterine reaction (progestrational proliferation) by extracts of the corpus luteum. Am. J. Physiol. 88:326-39. With Willard M. Allen. Physiology of the corpus luteum: III. Normal growth and implantation of embryos after very early ablation of the ovaries, under the influence of extracts of the corpus luteum. Am. J. Physiol. 88:340-46. 1930 Anatomy. Clio Medica Series. New York: Hoeber. The hormonal control of lactation: I. Non-effect of the corpus luteum. II. Positive action of extracts of the hypophysis. Am. J. Physiol. 95:43-55. 1935 Influence of the ovarian hormones, oestrin and progestin, upon the menstrual cycle of the monkey. Am. J. Physiol. 113:238-50. 1936 With A. W. Makepeace and Willard M. Allen. The effect of progestin on the in vitro response of the rabbit's uterus to pituitrin. Am. J. Physiol. 115:376-85. 1937 Salernitan surgery in the twelfth century. Br. J. Surg. 25:84-99. The rate of secretion of progestin by the corpus luteum. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 5:62-65. 1938 Attaining Manhood: A Doctor Talks to Boys about Sex. New York: Harper. 1939 Attaining Womanhood: A Doctor Talks to Girls about Sex. New York: Harper.
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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 65 1941 Overselves Unborn: An Embryologists's Essay on Man. New Haven: Yale University Press. 1942 The Hormones in Human Reproduction. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 1945 Development, organization, and breakdown of the corpus luteum in the rhesus monkey. Publications of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, no. 557 (Contributions to Embryology, no. 31), pp. 117-46. 1948 The Autobiography of Benjamin Rush. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 1950 Cytology of the Human Vagina. Trans. from the Spanish of Inés L. C. de Allende and Oscar Orias. New York: Hoeber. 1953 With Sophie D. Aberle. Twenty-five Years of Sex Research: History of the National Research Committee for Research in the Problems of Sex. Philadelphia: Saunders. 1954 A glimpse of imcomprehensibles. Am. Scholar 23:321-31. 1955 The observed embryology of human single-ovum twins and other multiple births. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 70:933-51. 1958 Anatomists at Large: Selected Essays. New York: Basic Books. 1963 George Hoyt Whipple and His Friends: The Life Story of a Nobel Prize Pathologist. Philadelphia: Lippincott.
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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 65 1964 A History of the Rockefeller Institute, 1901-1953: Origins and Growth . New York: Rockefeller University Press. 1965 Two Centuries of Medicine: A History of the School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia: Lippincott. 1972 Doctor Kane of the Artic Seas. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. 1981 The Seven Ages of a Medical Scientist. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
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