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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 63 LEONARD EUGENE DICKSON January 22, 1874–January 17, 1954 BY A. A. ALBERT LEONARD EUGENE DICKSON was born in Independence, Iowa on January 22, 1874. He was a brilliant undergraduate at the University of Texas, receiving his B.S. degree as valedictorian of his class in 1893. He was a chemist with the Texas Biological Survey from 1892–1893. He served as a teaching fellow at the University of Texas, receiving the M.A. degree in 1894. He held a fellowship at the University of Chicago from 1894 to 1896 and was awarded its first Ph.D. in mathematics in 1896. He spent the year 1896–1897 in Leipzig and Paris, was instructor in mathematics at the University of California 1897–1899, associate professor at Texas 1899–1900, assistant professor at Chicago 1900–1907, associate professor 1907–1910, and professor in 1910. He was appointed to the Eliakim Hastings Moore Distinguished Professorship in 1928, and became professor emeritus in 1939. He served as visiting professor at the University of California in 1914, 1918, and 1922. Professor Dickson was awarded the $1,000 A.A.A.S. Prize Reprinted from the Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society, vol. 61, no. 4, July 1955.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 63 in 1924 for his work on the arithmetics of algebras. He was awarded the Cole Prize of the American Mathematical Society in 1928 for his book Albegren und Ihre Zahlentheorie. He served as editor of the Monthly 1902–1908, and the Transactions from 1911 to 1916, and he was president of the American Mathematical Society from 1916–1918. He was elected to membership in the National Academy of Sciences in 1913 and was a member of the American Philosophical Society, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the London Mathematical Society. He was also a foreign member of the Academy of the Institute of France, and an honorary member of the Czechoslovakian Union of Mathematics and Physics. He was awarded the honorary Sc.D. degree by Harvard in 1936 and Princeton in 1941. Professor Dickson died in Texas on January 17, 1954. Dickson was one of our most prolific mathematicians. His bibliography (prepared by Mr. Richard Block, a student at the University of Chicago) contains 285 titles. Of these eighteen are books, one a joint book with Miller and Blichfeldt. One of the books is his major three-volume History of the theory of numbers which would be a life's work by itself for a more ordinary man. Dickson was an inspiring teacher. He supervised the doctorate dissertations of at least fifty-five Chicago Ph.D's. He helped his students to get started in research after the Ph.D. and his books had a world-wide influence in stimulating research. Attention should be called to the attached bibliography. It includes Dickson's books with titles listed in capitals. It does not include Dickson's portion of the report of the Committee on Algebraic Number Theory, nor does it include Dickson's monograph on ruler and compass con-

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 63 structions which appeared in Monographs on Modern Mathematics. We now pass on to a brief discussion of Dickson's research. Linear groups. Dickson's first major research effort was a study of finite linear groups. All but seven of his first forty-three papers were on that subject and this portion of his work led to his famous first book [44]. The linear groups which had been investigated by Galois, Jordan, and Serret were all groups over the fields of p elements. Dickson generalized their results to linear groups over an arbitrary finite field. He obtained many new systems of simple groups, and he closed his book with a still valuable summary of the known systems of simple groups. Dickson's work on linear groups continued until 1908 and he wrote about forty-four additional papers on the subject. In these later papers he studied the isomorphism of certain simple groups and questions about the existence of certain types of subgroups. He also derived a number of theorems on infinite linear groups. Finite fields and Chevalley's Theorem. In [44] Dickson gave the first extensive exposition of the theory of finite fields. He applied his deep knowledge of that subject not only to linear groups but to other problems which we shall discuss later. He studied irreducibility questions over a finite field in [113], the Galois theory in [114], and forms whose values are squares in [139]. His knowledge of the role of the non-null form was shown in [155]. In [142] Dickson made the following statement: "For a finite field it seems to be true that every form of degree m in m + 1 variables vanishes for values not all zero in the field." This result was first proved by C. Chevalley in his paper Démonstration

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 63 d'une hypothèse de M. Artin, Hamb. Abh, vol. 11 [1935) pp. 73-75. At least the conjecture should have been attributed to Dickson who actually proved the theorem for m = 2, 3. Invariants. Several of Dickson's early papers were concerned with the problems of the algebraic geometry of his time. For example, see [4], [48], [54]. This work led naturally to his study of algebraic invariants and his interest in finite fields to modular invariants. He wrote a basic paper on the latter subject in [141], and many other papers on the subject. In these papers he devoted a great deal of space to the details of a number of special cases. His book, [172], on the classical theory of algebraic invariants, was published in 1914, the year after the appearance of his colloquium lectures. His amazing productivity is attested to by the fact that he also published his book, [173], on linear algebras in 1914. Algebras. Dickson played a major role in research on linear algebras. He began with a study of finite division algebras in [105], [115], [116], and [117]. In these papers he determined all three and four-dimensional (non-associative) division algebras over a field of characteristic not two, a set of algebras of dimension six, and a method for constructing algebras of dimension mk with a subfield of the dimension m. In [126 ] he related the theory of ternary cubic forms to the theory of three-dimensional division algebras. His last paper on non-associative algebras, [268 ], appeared in 1937 and contained basic results on algebras of degree two. Reference has already been made to Dickson's first book on linear algebras. In that text he gave a proof of his result that a real Cayley division algebra is actually a division algebra. He presented the Cartan theory of linear associative algebras rather than the Wedderburn theory but

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 63 stated the results of the latter theory in his closing chapter without proofs. The present value of this book is enhanced by numerous bibliographical references. Dickson defined cyclic algebras in a Bulletin abstract of vol. 12 (1905–1906). His paper, [160], on the subject did not appear until 1912 where he presented a study of algebras of dimension 16. Dickson's work on the arithmetics of algebras first appeared in [204 ]. His major work on the subject of arithmetics was presented in [213] where he also gave an exposition of the Wedderburn theory. See also [237] and [238]. The text [231] is a German version of [213]. However, the new version also contains the results on crossed product algebras which had been published in [223], and contains many other items of importance. Theory of numbers. Dickson always said that mathematics is the queen of the sciences, and that the theory of numbers is the queen of mathematics. He also stated that he had always wished to work in the theory of numbers and that he wrote his monumental three-volume History of the theory of numbers so that he could know all of the work which had been done in the subject. His first paper, [28], contained a generalization of the elementary Fermat theorem which arose in connection with finite field theory. He was interested in the existence of perfect numbers and wrote [166], and [167] on the related topic of abundant numbers. His interest in Fermat's last theorem appears in [190], [136], [137], [138], and [144]. During 1926–1930 he spent most of his energy on research in the arithmetic theory of quadratic forms, in particular on universal forms. Dickson's interest in additive number theory began in 1927 with [229 ]. He wrote many papers on the subject during the remainder of his life. The analytic results of

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 63 Vinogradov gave Dickson the hope of proving the so-called ideal Waring theorem. This he did in a long series of papers. His final result is an almost complete verification of the conjecture made by J. A. Euler in 1772. That conjecture stated that every positive integer is a sum of J nth powers where we write 3n = 2nq + r, J = 2n > r > 0, and J = 2n + q–2 Dickson showed that if n > 6 this value is correct unless q + r + 3 > 2n. It is still not known whether or not this last inequality is possible but if it does occur the number g(n) of such nth powers required to represent all integers if J + f, or J + f–1, according as fq + f + q = 2n or fq + f + q > 2n where f is the greatest integer in (4/3)n. Miscellaneous. We close by mentioning Dickson's interest in the theory of matrices which is best illustrated by his text, Modern algebraic theories. His geometric work in [179], [181], [182], [183], [184], [185], and [186] must also be mentioned, as well as his interesting monograph [219] on differential equations from the Lie group standpoint. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. On the inscription of regular polygons, Ann. of Math. vol. 9 (1895) pp. 73–84. 2. Gergonne's pile problem, Bull. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 1 (1895) pp. 184–86. 3. Cyclic numbers, Quart. J. Pure Appl. Math. vol. 27 (1895) pp. 366–77. 4. A quadratic Cremona transformation defined by a conic, Rend. Circ. Mat. Palermo vol. 9 (1895) pp. 256-257. 5. Analytic functions suitable to represent substitutions, Am. J. Math. vol. 18 (1896) pp. 210–18. 6. The analytic representation of substitutions on a power of a prime number of letters with a discussion of the linear group, Ann. of Math. vol. 11 (1897), Part I, pp. 65–102; Part II, pp. 161–83. 7. A triply infinite system of simple groups, Quart. J. Pure Appl. Math. vol. 29 (1897) pp. 169–78.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 63 8. Systems of continuous and discontinuous simple groups, Bull. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 3 (1897) pp. 265–73. 9. Higher irreducible congruences, Bull. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 3 (1897) pp. 381–89. 10. Orthogonal group in a Galois field, Bull. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 4 (1898) pp. 196–200. 11. Systems of simple groups derived from the orthogonal group, Bull. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 4 (1898) pp. 382–89. 12. The structure of the hypoabelian groups, Bull. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 4 (1898) pp. 495–510. 13. The first hypoabelian group generalized, Quart. J. Pure Appl. Math. vol. 30 (1898) pp. 1–16. 14. A new triply-infinite system of simple groups obtained by a twofold generalization of Jordan's first hypoabelian group, Bull. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 5 (1898) pp. 10–12. 15. Concerning a linear homogeneous group in Cm, q variables isomorphic to the general linear homogeneous group in m variables, Bull. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 5 (1898) pp. 120–35. 16. Simplicity of the Abelian group on two pairs of indices in the Galois field of order 2n, n > 1, Quart. J. Pure Appl. Math. vol. 30 (1898) pp. 383–84. 17. The quadratic Cremona transformation, Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences vol. 1 (1898) pp. 13–23. 18. Systems of simple groups derived from the orthogonal group, Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences vol. 1 (1898) pp. 29–40. 19. Systems of simple groups derived from the orthogonal groups, Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences vol. 1 (1899) pp. 47–57. 20. The structure of certain linear groups with quadratic invariants , Proc. London Math. Soc. vol. 30 (1899) pp. 70–98. 21. A class of linear groups including the Abelian one, Quart. J. Pure Appl. Math. vol. 31 (1899) pp. 60–66. 22. The group of linear homogeneous substitutions on mq variables which is defined by the invariant . Proc. London Math. Soc. vol. 30 (1899) pp. 200–208. 23. Determination of the structure of all linear homogeneous groups in a Galois field which are defined by a quadratic invariant, Am. J. Math. vol. 21 (1899) pp. 193–256.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 63 24. Sur plusieurs groupes linéaires isomorphes au groups simple d'ordre 25920, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris vol. 128 (1899) pp. 873–75. 25. The largest linear homogeneous group with an invariant Pfaffian , Bull. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 5 (1899) pp. 334–42. 26. The known finite simple groups, Bull. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 5 (1899) pp. 470–75. 27. Sur une généralisation du théoréme de Fermat, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, vol. 138 (1899) pp. 1083–85. 28. A generalization of Fermat's theorem, Ann. of Math. vol. 1 (1899) pp. 31–36. 29. Report on the recent progress in the theory of linear groups, Bull. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 6 (1899) pp. 13–27. 30. Concerning the four known simple linear groups of order 25920, with an introduction to the hyper-abelian linear groups, Proc. London Math. Soc. vol. 31 (1899) pp. 30–68. 31. The abstract group isomorphic with the symmetric group of k letters , Proc. London Math. Soc. vol. 31 (1899) pp. 351–53. 32. The structure of the linear homogeneous groups defined by the invariant , Math. Ann. vol. 52 (1899) pp. 561–81. 33. Definition of the Abelian, the two hypoabelian, and related linear groups as quotient groups of the groups of isomorphisms of certain elementary groups, Trans. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 1 (1900) pp. 30–38. 34. Certain subgroups of the Betti–Mathieu group, Am. J. Math. vol. 22 (1900) pp. 49–54. 35. A new definition of the general Abelian linear group, Trans. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 1 (1900) pp. 91–96. 36. Canonical form of a linear homogeneous substitution in a Galois field, Am. J. Math. vol. 22 (1900) pp. 121–37. 37. Proof of the existence of the Galois field of order pr for every integer r and prime number p, Bull. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 6 (1900) pp. 203–4. 38. Concerning the cyclic subgroups of the simple group G of all linear fractional substitutions of determinant unity in two non-homogeneous variables with coefficients in an arbitrary Galois field, Am. J. Math. vol. 22 (1900) pp. 231–52. 39. Isomorphism between certain systems of simple linear groups, Bull. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 6 (1900) pp. 323–28. 40. An abstract simple group of order 25920. Proc. London Math. Soc. vol. 32 (1900) pp. 3–10. 41. Determination of an abstract simple group of order 27•36•5•7

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 63 holoedrically isomorphic with a certain orthogonal group and with a certain hypoabelian group, Trans. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 1 (1900) pp. 353–70. 42. Proof of the non-isomorphism of the simple Abelian group on 2m indices and the orthogonal group on 2m+1 indices for m>2, Quart. J. Pure Appl. Math. vol. 32 (1900) pp. 42–63. 43. Linear substitutions commutative with a given substitution, Proc. London Math. Sco. vol. 32 (1900) pp. 165–70. 44. LINEAR GROUPS WITH AN EXPOSITION OF THE GALOIS FIELD THEORY, Leipzig, Teubner, 1901, 10+312 pp. 45. Distribution of the ternary linear homogeneous substitutions in a Galois field into complete sets of conjugate substitutions, Am. J. Math. vol. 23 (1901) pp. 37–40. 46. Canonical forms of quaternary Abelian substitutions in an arbitrary Galois field, Trans. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 2 (1901) pp. 103–38. 47. Concerning real and complex continuous groups, Bull. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 7 (1901) pp. 340–50. 48. The configurations of the 27 lines on a cubic surface and the 28 bitangents to a quartic curve, Bull. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 8 (1901) pp. 63–70. 49. Concerning the Abelian and related linear groups, Proc. London Math. Soc. vol. 33 (1901) pp. 313–25. 50. The alternating group on eight letters and the quaternary linear congruence group modulo two, Math. Ann. vol. 54(1901) pp. 564–69. 51. Théorie des groupes linéaires dans un domaine arbitraire de rationalité, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, vol. 132 (1901) pp. 1547–48. 52. Theory of linear groups in an arbitrary field, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. vol. 2 (1901) pp. 363–94. 53. Representation of linear groups as transitive substitution groups, Am. J. Math. vol. 23 (1901) pp. 337–77. 54. A class of groups in an arbitrary realm connected with the configuration of the 27 lines on a cubic surface , Quart. J. Pure Appl. Math. vol. 33 (1901) pp. 145–73. 55. On systems of isothermal curves, Am. Math. Monthly vol. 8 (1901) pp. 187–92. 56. The known systems of simple groups and their inter-isomorphisms, Compte Rendu du Deuxième Congrès International des Mathématiciens, Paris, 1900, Paris, Gauthier-Villars, 1902, pp. 225–29. 57. Cyclic subgroups of the simple ternary linear fractional group in a Galois field, Am. J. Math. vol. 24 (1902) pp. 1–12.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 63 58. The groups of Steiner in problems of contact, Trans. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 3 (1902) pp. 38–45. 59. The groups of Steiner in problems of contact (Second Paper), Trans. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 3 (1902) pp. 377–82. 60. Canonical form of a linear homogeneous transformation in an arbitrary realm of rationality, Am. J. Math. vol. 24 (1902) pp. 101–8. 61. Linear groups in an infinite field, Proc. London Math. Soc. vol. 34 (1902) pp. 185–205. 62. Theorems on the residues of multinomial coefficients with respect to a prime modulus, Quart. J. Pure Appl. Math. vol. 33 (1902) pp. 378–84. 63. A class of simply transitive linear groups, Bull. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 8 (1902) pp. 394–401. 64. The hyperorthogonal groups, Math. Ann. vol. 55 (1902) pp. 521–72. 65. An elementary exposition of Frobenius's theory of group-characters and group-determinants, Ann. Math. vol. 4 (1902) pp. 25–49. 66. On the group defined for any given field by the multiplication table of any given finite group, Trans. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 3 (1902) pp. 285–301. 67. A matrix defined by the quarternion group, Am. Math. Monthly vol. 9 (1902) pp. 243–48. 68. COLLEGE ALGEBRA, New York, Wiley, 1902, 7+214 pp. 69. Ternary orthogonal group in a general field, University of Chicago Press, 1903, 8 pp. 70. Groups defined for a general field by the rotation groups, University of Chicago Press, 1903, 17 pp. 71. INTRODUCTION TO THE THEORY OF ALGEBRAIC EQUATIONS, New York, Wiley, 1903, 5+104 pp. 72. Definitions of a field by independent postulates, Trans. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 4 (1903) pp. 13–20. 73. Definitions of a linear associative algebra by independent postulates, Trans. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 4 (1903) pp. 21–26. 74. On the groups defined for an arbitrary field by the multiplication tables of certain finite groups, Proc. London Math. Soc. vol. 35 (1903) pp. 68–80. 75. Three sets of generational relations defining the abstract simple group of order 504, Bull. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 9 (1903) pp. 194–204.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 63 109. On hypercomplex number systems, Trans. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 6 (1905) pp. 344–48. 110. Expressions for the elements of a determinant of an array, Am. Math. Monthly, vol. 12 (1905) pp. 217–21. 111. On the quaternary linear homogeneous groups modulo p of order a multiple of p, Am. J. Math. vol. 28 (1906) pp. 1–16. 112. On the quadratic, Hermitian and bilinear forms, Trans. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 7 (1906) pp. 275–92. 113. Criteria for the irreducibility of functions in a finite field , Bull. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 13 (1906) pp. 1–8. 114. On the theory of equations in a Galois field, Bull. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 13 (1906) pp. 8–10. 115. Linear algebras in which division is always uniquely possible , Trans. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 7 (1906) pp. 370–90. 116. On linear algebras, Am. Math. Monthly vol. 13 (1906) pp. 201–5. 117. On commutative linear algebras in which division is always uniquely possible, Trans. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 7 (1906) pp. 514–22. 118. The abstract form of the special linear homogeneous group in an arbitrary field, Quart. J. Pure Appl. Math. vol. 38:141–45. 119. The abstract form of the Abelian linear groups, Quart. J. Pure Appl. Math. vol. 38 (1907) pp. 145–58. 120. The symmetric group on eight letters and the senary first hypoabelian group, Bull. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 13 (1907) pp. 386-89. 121. Modular theory of group characters, Bull. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 13 (1907) pp. 477–88. 122. Invariants of binary forms under modular transformations, Trans. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 8 (1907) pp. 205–32. 123. Invariants of the general quadratic form modulo 2, Proc. London Math. Soc. vol. 5 (1907) pp. 301–24. 124. Modular theory of group-matrices, Trans. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 8 (1907) pp. 389–98. 125. On quadratic forms in a general field, Bull. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 14 (1907) pp. 108–15. 126. On triple algebras and ternary cubic forms, Bull. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 14 (1908) pp. 160–69. 127. The Galois group of a reciprocal quartic equation, Am. Math. Monthly vol. 15 (1908) pp. 71–78. 128. A class of groups in an arbitrary realm connected with the configu-

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 63 ration of the 27 lines on a cubic surface. Second paper, Quart. J. Pure Appl. Math. vol. 39 (1908) pp. 205–9. 129. On the canonical forms and automorphs of ternary cubic forms, Am. J. Math. vol. 30 (1908) pp. 117–28. 130. Representations of the general symmetric groups as linear groups in finite and infinite fields, Trans. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 9 (1908) pp. 121–48. 131. On families of quadratic forms in a general field, Quart. J. Pure Appl. Math. vol. 39 (1908) pp. 316–33. 132. On higher congruences and modular invariants, Bull. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 14 (1908) pp. 313–18. 133. On the factorization of large numbers, Am. Math. Monthly vol. 15 (1908) pp. 217–22. 134. Criteria for the irreducibility of a reciprocal equation, Bull. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 14 (1908) pp. 426–30. 135. Invariantive reduction of quadratic forms in the GF[2n], Am. J. Math. vol. 30 (1908) pp. 263–81. 136. On the last theorem of Fermat, Messenger of Mathematics vol. 38 (1908) pp. 14–32. 137. On the last theorem of Fermat, II, Quart. J. Pure Appl. Math. vol. 40 (1908) pp. 27–45. 138. On the congruence xn+yn+zn=0 (mod p), J. Reine Angew. Math. vol. 135 (1908) pp. 134–41. 139. Definite forms in a finite field, Trans. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 10 (1909) pp. 109–22. 140. Rational reduction of a pair of binary quadratic forms; their modular invariants, Am. J. Math. vol. 31 (1909) pp. 103–46. 141. General theory of modular invariants, Trans. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 10 (1909) pp. 123–58. 142. On the representation of numbers by modular forms, Bull. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 15 (1909) pp. 338–47. 143. (with M. Kaba), On the representation of numbers as the sum of two squares, Am. Math. Monthly vol. 16 (1909) pp. 85–87. 144. Lower limit for the number of sets of solutions of xe+ye+ze=0 (mod p), J. Reine Angew. Math. vol. 135 (1909) pp. 181–88. 145. On commutative linear groups, Quart. J. Pure Appl. Math. vol. 40 (1909) pp. 167–96. 146. A theory of invariants, Am. J. Math. vol. 31 (1909) pp. 337–54.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 63 147. Equivalence of pairs of bilinear or quadratic forms under rational transformation, Trans. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 10 (1909) pp. 347–60. 148. Combinants, Quart. J. Pure Appl. Math. vol. 40 (1909) pp. 349–65. 149. On certain diophantine equations, Messenger of Mathematics vol. 39 (1909) pp. 86–87. 150. Modular invariants of a general system of linear forms, Proc. London Math. Soc. vol. 7 (1909) pp. 430–44. 151. On the factorization of integral functions with p-adic coefficients , Bull. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 17 (1910) pp. 19–23. 152. An invariantive investigation of irreducible binary modular forms, Trans. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 12 (1911) pp. 1–18. 153. A fundamental system of the general modular linear group with a solution of the form problem, Trans. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 12 (1911) pp. 75–98. 154. Note on modular invariants, Quart. J. Pure Appl. Math. vol. 42 (1911) pp. 158–61. 155. On non-vanishing forms, Quart. J. Pure Appl. Math. vol. 42 (1911) pp. 162–71. 156. Binary modular groups and their invariants, Am. J. Math. vol. 33 (1911) pp. 175–92. 157. Notes on the theory of numbers, Am. Math. Monthly vol. 18 (1911) pp. 109–10. 158. On the negative discriminants for which there is a single class of positive binary quadratic forms, Bull. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 17 (1911) pp. 534–47. 159. Note on cubic equations and congruences, Ann. Math. vol. 12 (1911) pp. 149–52. 160. Linear algebras, Trans. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 13 (1912) pp. 59–73. 161. Amicable number triples, Am. Math. Monthly vol. 20 (1913) pp. 84–92. 162. On the rank of a symmetrical matrix, Ann. Math. vol. 15 (1913) pp. 27–28. 163. Theorems and tables on the sum of the divisors of a number, Quart. J. Pure Appl. Math. vol. 44 (1913) pp. 264–96. 164. Proof of the finiteness of the modular covariants, Trans. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 14 (1913) pp. 299–310.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 63 165. On binary modular groups and their invariants, Bull. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 20 (1913) pp. 132–34. 166. Finiteness of the odd perfect and primitive abundant numbers with n distinct prime factors, Am. J. Math. vol. 35 (1913) pp. 413–22. 167. Even abundant numbers, Am. J. Math. vol. 35 (1913) pp. 423–26. 168. The invariants, seminvariants and linear covariants of the binary quartic form modulo 2, Ann. Math. vol. 15 (1914) pp. 114–17. 169. Linear associative algebras and Abelian equations, Trans. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 15 (1914) pp. 31–46. 170. ON INVARIANTS AND THE THEORY OF NUMBERS, Am. Math. Soc. Colloquium Publications vol. 4 (1914) pp. 1–110. 171. ELEMENTARY THEORY OF EQUATIONS, New York, Wiley, 1914, 5 + 184 pp. 172. ALGEBRAIC INVARIANTS, New York, Wiley, 1914, 10 + 100 pp. (1914) (Mathematical monographs, edited by M. Merriman and R. S. Woodward, No. 14.) 173. LINEAR ALGEBRAS, Cambridge University Press, 1914, 8 + 73 pp. (Cambridge Tracts in Math. and Math. Physics, No. 16.) 174. The points of inflection of a plane cubic curve, Ann. Math.(2) vol. 16 (1914) pp. 50–66. 175. Invariants in the theory of numbers, Trans. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 15 (1914) pp. 497–503. 176. On the trisection of an angle and the construction of regular polygons of 7 and 9 sides, Am. Math. Monthly vol. 21 (1914) pp. 259–62. 177. Modular invariants of the system of a binary cubic, quadratic and linear form, Quart. J. Pure Appl. Math. vol. 45 (1914) pp. 373–84. 178. Recent progress in the theories of modular and formal invariants and in modular geometry, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. vol. 1 (1915) pp. 1–4. 179. Projective classification of cubic surfaces modulo 2, Ann. Math. vol. 16 (1915) pp. 139–57. 180. Invariants, seminvariants, and covariants of the ternary and quaternary quadratic form modulo 2, Bull. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 21 (1915) pp. 174–79. 181. Invariantive theory of plane cubic curves modulo 2, Am. J. Math. vol. 37 (1915) pp. 107–16. 182. Quartic curves modulo 2, Trans. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 16 (1915) pp. 111–20.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 63 183. Classification of quartic curves, modulo 2, Messenger of Mathematics vol. 44 (1915) pp. 189–92. 184. The straight lines on modular cubic surfaces, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. vol. 1 (1915) pp. 248–53. 185. Geometrical and invariantive theory of quartic curves modulo 2, Am. J. Math. vol. 37 (1915) pp. 337–54. 186. Invariantive classification of pairs of conics modulo 2, Am. J. Math. vol. 37 (1915) pp. 355–58. 187. On the relation between linear algebras and continuous groups , Bull. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 22 (1915) pp. 53–61. 188. (with G. A. Miller and H. F. Blichfeldt), THEORY AND APPLICATIONS OF FINITE GROUPS, New York, Wiley, 1916, 17+390 pp. 189. An extension of the theory of numbers by means of correspondences between fields, Bull. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 23 (1916) pp. 109–11. 190. Fermat's last theorem and the origin and nature of the theory of algebraic numbers, Ann. Math. (2) vol. 18 (1917) pp. 161–87. 191. On quarternions and their generalization and the history of the eight square theorem, Ann. Math. vol. 20 (1919) pp. 155–71, 297. 192. Mathematics in war perspective, Bull. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 25 (1919) pp. 289–311. 193. Applications of the geometry of numbers to algebraic numbers, Bull. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 25 (1919) pp. 453–55. 194. HISTORY OF THE THEORY OF NUMBERS, vol. I, DIVISIBILITY AND PRIMALITY , Carnegie Institution of Washington, Publication No. 256, 1920, 12+486 pp. 195. HISTORY OF THE THEORY OF NUMBERS, vol. II, DIOPHANTINE ANALYSIS , Carnegie Institution of Washington, Publication No. 256, 1920, 12+803 pp. 196. Les polynomes égaux à des determinants, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 171 (1920) pp. 1360–62. 197. Some relations between the theory of numbers and other branches of mathematics, Conférence générale, Comptes Rendus du Congrès International des Mathématiciens, Stransbourg, 1920, Toulouse, H. Villat, 1921, pp. 41–56. 198. Homogeneous polynomials with a multiplication theorem, Comptes Rendus du Congrès International des Mathématiciens, Strasbourg, 1920, Toulouse, H. Villat, 1921, pp. 215–30. 199. Algebraic theory of the expressibility of cubic forms as determinants,

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 63 with application to diophantine analysis, Am. J. Math. vol. 43 (1921) pp. 102–25. 200. Quaternions and their generalizations, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. vol. 7 (1921) pp. 109–14. 201. Fallacies and misconceptions in diophantine analysis, Bull. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 27 (1921) pp. 312–19. 202. Determination of all general homogenous polynomials expressible as determinants with linear elements, Trans. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 22 (1921) pp. 167–79. 203. A new method in diophantine analysis, Bull. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 27 (1921) pp. 353–65. 204. Arithmetic of quaternions, Proc. London Math. Soc. vol. 20 (1921) pp. 225–32. 205. Rational triangles and quadrilaterals, Am. Math. Monthly vol. 28 (1921) pp. 244–50. 206. Reducible cubic forms expressible rationally as determinants, Ann. Math. vol. 23 (1921) pp. 70–74. 207. A fundamental system of covariants of the ternary cubic form, Ann. Math. vol. 23 (1921) pp. 78–82. 208. La composition des polynomes, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris vol. 172 (1921) pp. 636–40. 209. PLANE TRIGONOMETRY WITH PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS, Chicago, Sanborn, 1922, 12+176+35 pp. 210. A FIRST COURSE IN THE THEORY OF EQUATIONS, New York, Wiley, 1922, 6+168 pp. 211. Impossibility of restoring unique factorization in a hypercomplex arithmetic, Bull. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 28 (1922) pp. 438–42. 212. The rational linear algebras of maximum and minimum ranks, Proc. London Math. Soc. (2) vol. 22 (1923) pp. 143–62. 213. ALGEBRAS AND THEIR ARITHMETICS, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1923, 12+214 pp. 214. HISTORY OF THE THEORY OF NUMBERS, Vol. III, QUADRATIC AND HIGHER FORMS (With a chapter on the class number by G. H. Cresse), Carnegie Institution of Washington, Publication 256, 1923, 4+313 pp. 215. A new simple theory of hypercomplex integers, J. Math. Pure Appl. (9) vol. 2 (1923) pp. 281–326. 216. Integral solutions of x2-my2=zw, Bull. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 29 (1923) pp. 464–67.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 63 217. On the theory of numbers and generalized quaternions, Am. J. Math. vol. 46 (1924) pp. 1–16. 218. Algebras and their arithmetics, Bull. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 30 (1924) pp. 247–57. 219. Differential equations from the group standpoint, Ann. Math. vol. 25 (1924) pp. 287–378. 220. Quadratic fields in which factorization is always unique, Bull. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 30 (1924) pp. 328–34. 221. Algébres nouvelles de division, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris vol. 181 (1925) pp. 836–38. 222. Resolvent sextics of quintic equations, Bull. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 31 (1925) pp. 515–23. 223. New division algebras, Trans. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 28 (1926) pp. 207–34. 224. MODERN ALGEBRAIC THEORIES, Chicago, New York, Boston; Sanborn, 1926, 9+276 pp. 225. All integral solutions of ax2+bxy+cy2=w1w2 . . . wn, Bull. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 32 (1926) pp. 644-48. 226. Quadratic forms which represent all integers, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. vol. 12 (1926) pp. 756–57. 227. Quaternary quadratic forms representing all integers, Am. J. Math. vol. 49 (1927) pp. 39–56. 228. Integers represented by positive ternary quadratic forms, Bull. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 33 (1927) pp. 63–70. 229. Extensions of Waring's theorem on nine cubes, Am. Math. Monthly vol. 34 (1927) pp. 177–83. 230. A generalization of Waring's theorem on nine cubes, Bull. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 33 (1927) pp. 299–300. 231. ALGEBREN UND IHRE ZAHLENTHEORIE, Zurich, Orell Füssli, 1927, 8+308 pp. (translation of completely revised and extended manuscript). 232. Extensions of Waring's theorem on fourth powers, Bull. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 33 (1927) pp. 319–27. 233. Singular case of pairs of bilinear, quadratic, or Hermitian forms, Trans. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 29 (1927) pp. 239–53. 234. Generalization of Waring's theorem on fourth, sixth, and eighth powers, Am. Math. Soc. vol. 49 (1927) pp. 241–50. 235. Ternary quadratic forms and congruences, Ann. Math. (2) vol. 28 (1927) pp. 333–41.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 63 236. All positive integers are sums of values of a quadratic function of x, Bull. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 33 (1927) pp. 713–20. 237. Outline of the theory to date of the arithmetics of algebras, Proceedings of the International Mathematical Congress held in Toronto, 1924, Toronto, The University of Toronto Press, 1928, vol. 1, pp. 95–102. 238. Further development of the theory of arithmetics of algebras, Proceedings of the International Mathematical Congress held in Toronto, 1924, Toronto, The University of Toronto Press, 1928, vol. 1, pp. 173-84. 239. A new theory of linear transformations and pairs of bilinear forms, In: Proceedings of the International Mathematical Congress held in Toronto, 1924. Toronto: The University of Toronto Press, 1928, vol. 1, pp. 361–63. 240. Simpler proofs of Waring's theorem on cubes with various generalizations, Trans. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 30 (1928) pp. 1–18. 241. Additive number theory for all quadratic functions, Am. J. Math. vol. 50 (1928) pp. 1–48. 242. Generalizations of the theorem of Fermat and Cauchy on polygonal numbers, Bull. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 34 (1928) pp. 63–72. 243. Extended polygonal numbers, Bull. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 34 (1928) pp. 205–17. 244. Quadratic functions or forms, sums of whose values give all positive integers, J. Math. Pure Appl. vol. 7 (1928) pp. 319–36. 245. New division algebras, Bull. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 34 (1928) pp. 555–60. 246. Universal quadratic forms, Trans. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 31 (1929) pp. 164–89. 247. The forms ax2+by2+cz2 which represent all integers, Bull. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 35 (1929) pp. 55–59. 248. INTRODUCTION TO THE THEORY OF NUMBERS, Chicago, The University of Chicago Press, 1929, 8+183 pp. 249. Construction of division algebras, Trans. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 32 (1930) pp. 319–34. 250. STUDIES IN THE THEORY OF NUMBERS, Chicago, The University of Chicago Press (The University of Chicago Science Series), 1930, 10+230 pp. 251. Proof of a Waring theorem on fifth powers, Bull. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 37 (1931) pp. 549–53.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 63 252. MINIMUM DECOMPOSITION INTO FIFTH POWERS, Vol. III, Mathematical Tables, British Assoc. for the Advancement of Science (Committee for the Calculation of Mathematical Tables), London, Office of the British Assoc., 1933, 368 pp. 253. Eliakim Hastings Moore, Science (2) vol. 77 (1933) pp. 79–80. 254. Minimum decompositions into n-th powers, Am. J. Math. vol. 55 (1933) pp. 593–602. 255. Recent progress on Waring's theorem and its generalizations, Bull. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 39 (1933) pp. 701–27. 256. Waring's problem for cubic functions, Trans. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 36 (1934) pp. 1–12. 257. Waring's problem for ninth powers, Bull. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 39 (1933) pp. 701–27. 258. Universal Waring theorem for eleventh powers, J. London Math. Soc. vol. 9 (1934) pp. 201–6. 259. Two-fold generalizations of Cauch'y lemma, Am. J. Math. Soc. vol. 56 (1934) pp. 513–28. 260. The converse of Waring's problem, Bull. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 40 (1934) pp. 711–14. 261. A new method for universal Waring theorems with details for seventh powers , Am. Math. Monthly vol. 41 (1934) pp. 547–55. 262. A new method for Waring theorems with polynomial summands, Trans. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 36 (1934) pp. 731–48. 263. Polygonal numbers and related Waring problems, Quart. J. Math. Oxford Ser. vol. 5 (1934) pp. 283–90. 264. Congruences involving only e-th powers, Acta Arithmetica vol. 1 (1935) pp. 161–67. 265. Cyclotomy and trinomial congruences, Trans. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 37 (1935) pp. 363–80. 266. Cyclotomy, higher congruences, and Waring's problem, Am. J. Math. vol. 57 (1935) pp. 391–424. 267. Cyclotomy, higher congruences, and Waring's problem, II., Am. J. Math. vol. 57 (1935) pp. 463–74. 268. Linear algebras with associativity not assumed, Duke Math. J. vol. 1 (1935) pp. 113–25. 269. Cyclotomy when e is composite, Trans. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 38 (1935) pp. 187–200. 270. Universal Waring theorems with cubic summands, Acta Arithmetica

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 63 vol. 1 (1935) pp. 184–96 and Prace Mathematyczno–Fizyczne vol. 43 (1936) pp. 223–35. 271. Waring theorems of new type, Am. J. Math. vol. 58 (1936) pp. 241–48. 272. On Waring's problem and its generalization, Ann. Math. vol. 37 (1936) pp. 293–316. 273. A new method for Waring theorems with polynomial summands, II, Trans. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 39 (1936) pp. 205–8. 274. Universal Waring theorems, Mh. Math. Phys. vol. 43 (1936) pp. 391–400. 275. The ideal Waring theorem for twelfth powers, Duke Math. J. vol. 2 (1936) pp. 192–204. 276. Proof of the ideal Waring theorem for exponents 7-180, Am. J. Math vol. 58 (1936) pp. 521–29. 277. Solution of Waring's problem, Am. J. Math. vol. 58 (1936) pp. 530–35. 278. A generalization of Waring's problem, Bull. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 42 (1936) pp. 525-29. 279. The Waring problem and its generalizations, Bull. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 42 (1936) pp. 833-42. 280. New Waring theorems for polygonal numbers, Quart. J. Math. Oxford Ser. vol. 8 (1937) pp. 62–65. 281. Universal forms and Waring's problem, Acta Arithmetica vol. 2 (1937) pp. 177–96. 282. NEW FIRST COURSE ON THE THEORY OF EQUATIONS, New York, Wiley, 1939, 9+185 pp. 283. All integers except 23 and 239 are sums of eight cubes, Bull. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 45 (1939) pp. 588–91. 284. MODERN ELEMENTARY THEORY OF NUMBERS, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1939, 7+309 pp. 285. Obituary: Hans Frederick Blichfeldt, 1873–1945. Bull. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 53 (1947) pp. 882–83.

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