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Index

A

Acetylcholine, 30, 248–249

synthesis affected by choline

in brain, 381, 387–388

in peripheral neurons, 389

ACTH, plasma levels in stress, 182

Acute-phase reactions in stress, 16–17, 180, 191–194

military aspects of, 195–196

Acute stress

and dopamine in brain, 166–167

and norepinephrine in brain, 164–165

and serotonin in brain, 168–169

tyrosine administration in

animal studies of, 282–287, 299

human studies of, 287–293, 298

Acyl-CoA transport, carnitine affecting, 434–437

Additives in foods, regulation of, 464

Adrenal glands, stress affecting, 14, 181–183

Aerobic endurance

ergogenic aids affecting, 226, 227–228

field task tests of, 123

laboratory tests of, 120–122 529



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Food Components to Enhance Performance: An Evaluation of Potential Performance-Enhancing Food Components for Operational Rations Index A Acetylcholine, 30, 248–249 synthesis affected by choline in brain, 381, 387–388 in peripheral neurons, 389 ACTH, plasma levels in stress, 182 Acute-phase reactions in stress, 16–17, 180, 191–194 military aspects of, 195–196 Acute stress and dopamine in brain, 166–167 and norepinephrine in brain, 164–165 and serotonin in brain, 168–169 tyrosine administration in animal studies of, 282–287, 299 human studies of, 287–293, 298 Acyl-CoA transport, carnitine affecting, 434–437 Additives in foods, regulation of, 464 Adrenal glands, stress affecting, 14, 181–183 Aerobic endurance ergogenic aids affecting, 226, 227–228 field task tests of, 123 laboratory tests of, 120–122 529

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Food Components to Enhance Performance: An Evaluation of Potential Performance-Enhancing Food Components for Operational Rations Aerobic power measurements, 117–118 Alarm reaction, 14, 178, 181 Aldosterone secretion, stress affecting, 15, 183 Alertness, caffeine affecting, 409–410 in sleep deprivation, 420–421 Altitude and effects of caffeine intake, 70–71 and effects of carbohydrate supplementation, 60, 67 Alzheimer’s disease, choline in, 248, 249–250, 402 Amino acids branched-chain brain levels affected by diet, 268 as energy source, 259 ratio to tryptophan, 225 as supplements, 267 as drugs or foods, 103, 106, 108–109 ergogenic effects of, 263–270 discussion of, 272–275 large neutral, ratio to tryptophan carbohydrate intake affecting, 22–23, 27 protein intake affecting, 241 plasma levels affected by carbohydrate intake, 329–330 recommended research and usage, 269–270, 458–459 requirements in chronic stress, 274 safety concerns with supplements, 36–38, 455–459 and regulation by FDA, 465–467 supplemental, affecting water consumption, 273 transport into brain, 169, 268 Amphetamine, effects of, 408, 424 Anaerobic power measurements, 117 Androgen secretion, stress affecting, 15, 185 Arachidonic acid, 362 Arginine effects of administration, 272–273 immunological role of, 191 B Bicarbonate ergogenic effects of, 230–231 and muscle pH during exercise, 20, 60 Biochemical strategies for ration design, 7–8, 93–106 Biotin, safe and adequate intake of, 96 Blood doping as ergogenic aid, 226 Blood pressure, caffeine affecting , 33 Brain function affected by choline, 387–388 neurotransmitters in. See Neurotransmitters in brain responses to stress, 12–13 Breakfast, food intake in, 331, 336 C Caffeine, 407–425 alertness affected by, 409–410

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Food Components to Enhance Performance: An Evaluation of Potential Performance-Enhancing Food Components for Operational Rations in sleep deprivation, 420–421 discussion of, 428–431 effects in sleep deprivation, 411–424 ergogenic effects of, 228–229 expectancies affecting behavioral outcomes with, 141 mood affected by, 409–410 in sleep deprivation, 419–420 performance affected by, 32–34, 293–294, 409 in sleep deprivation, 416–419, 428–430 physiological effects of, 410–411, 421–423 potential to enhance performance, 49–50 recommended research and usage, 56–57, 424–425 research at USARIEM, 70–72 Calcium intake, recommended daily allowance for , 95 Caloric intake deficiency of, time course for onset of symptoms in, 106 recommended daily allowance for, 95 Carbohydrate intake, 321–343 affecting load-bearing work and marksmanship, 69–70 balance with protein in, 331–332 and cognitive performance, 335–342 complex carbohydrates in, 323 cravings for, 23, 243–244, 334 deficiency of, time course for onset of symptoms in, 106 differences in affective response to, 333–334 discussion of, 348–350 effects at breakfast or at lunch, 331, 336–340 and fatigue, 326–335 folk beliefs on, 322–323 glucose ingestion affecting memory, 341 monoamines affecting, 12 mood changes from, 23, 26–27 and physical performance, 20–21, 342 potential to enhance performance, 49 and reactive hypoglycemia, 323, 328–329 recommended daily allowance, 95 recommended research and usage, 57, 59, 343 serotonin levels in brain affecting, 23, 242–244 and serotonin synthesis in brain, 329–330 simple sugars in, 322–323 in snacks, 340–341 as supplemental fuel source, 226–227, 232 and thermoregulation in cold exposure, 68 and work at high altitude, 60, 67 and work in heat, 68–69 Carcinogenesis, choline role in, 393–394 Cardiovascular stress, tyrosine affecting in animals, 286–287 in humans, 288–289 Carnitine, 433–451 affecting pyruvate metabolism, 440–443 assay methods for, 438 discussion of, 452 and fatty acid oxidation, 358, 434

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Food Components to Enhance Performance: An Evaluation of Potential Performance-Enhancing Food Components for Operational Rations functions of, 434–437 and lactate production, 436, 442 metabolism affected by exercise, 438–440, 447–449 and physical performance, 34–36 recommended research and usage, 58, 450–451 supplemental and available coenzyme A pool, 444–445 dietary intake versus pharmacological doses in, 450 and exercise performance, 449 and fatty acids used during exercise, 443–444 and work output, 446–447 theoretical importance of, 51–52 Catecholamines activity in stress, 279–280 affecting immune system, 198 plasma levels in stress, 181 synthesis in brain, 162–163 stress affecting, 12–13 tyrosine affecting synthesis of, 246–248, 278–279 Central nervous system responses to stress, 12–13 Chloride deficiency of, time course for onset of symptoms in, 106 safe and adequate intake of, 96 Choline, 248–250, 381–394 and acetylcholine synthesis in brain, 381, 387–388 and carcinogenesis, 393–394 deficiency of, 30–31, 385–387 fatty liver in, 382, 386–387, 393, 404 dietary sources of, 382–383 discussion of, 402–405 effects at neuromuscular junction, 389 functions of, 29–30 and memory function, 388 metabolism of, 383–385 and neurotransmission in brain, 381, 387–388 plasma levels of, 383 exercise affecting, 404–405 potential areas of interest, 31–32 potential to enhance performance, 50–51 recommended research and usage, 57–58, 59, 394 requirements in humans, 382, 385–387, 402 safe and adequate intake of, 96 and transmembrane signaling, 381–382, 390–393 Chromium, safe and adequate intake of, 96 Chronic stress amino acid requirements in, 274 and dopamine in brain, 167–168 and norepinephrine in brain, 165–166 and serotonin in brain, 169–170 Circadian rhythms disruptions of and adrenal function in stress, 14, 15 affecting performance, 144 stress affecting, 183 Cocoa butter, substitute for, 373 Cognitive performance. See Mental performance Cold stress carbohydrate intake affecting thermoregulation in, 68 memory impairment in, 301–316 discussion of, 319–320 glucose affecting, 28, 312–315

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Food Components to Enhance Performance: An Evaluation of Potential Performance-Enhancing Food Components for Operational Rations tyrosine affecting, 25, 305–312 Combat settings acute behavioral effects of, 281 food intake in, 10–11, 148–149, 269 sleep deprivation in, 9–10 stress reaction syndrome in, 281 Committee on Military Nutrition Research (CMNR) questions for, 4 responses to, 53–56 recommendations of, 56–60 Contextual variables affecting food intake, 10–11, 137–151 baseline data in, 139–140 in clinical disorders, 144 combat conditions affecting, 148–149 controlled treatment conditions in, 142 discussion of, 154–157 expectancies in, 140–141 individual differences in, 142–143 levels of treatment complexity in, 146–147 military issues in, 149–150 social factors in, 145–146 Copper, safe and adequate intake of, 96 Corticotropin-releasing factor affecting immune system, 198 and effects of stress on working memory, 305–306 neuronal production of, 182 Cortisol plasma levels in stress, 14, 182–183 secretion affected by cytokines, 197 Cycle ergometry, 120 glucose uptake studies in, 213–214 Cyclodextrins as carriers of nutrients, 103–104 Cytokines and acute-phase reactions, 16–17, 180, 191–194 and cortisol secretion, 197 and hormone production, 14 responses to stress, 189–191 D Deficiency syndromes, time course for onset of, 106 Dehydration, water intake in, 232, 233 Delivery of nutrients, biochemical strategies for, 100–104 Design of rations, 7, 77–91 basic performance-nutrient concept in, 84–85 biochemical strategies for, 7–8, 93–106 controlled delivery of nutrients in, 101–104 barriers in, 101–102 discussion of, 108–109 encapsulation techniques in, 103–104 criteria for, 105–106 dual-function ingredients in, 104–105 experimental diets in, 86–89 factors affecting, 78 goal programming in, 85–86 interactions of nutrients in, 98–101 military nutrition standards in, 94–96

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Food Components to Enhance Performance: An Evaluation of Potential Performance-Enhancing Food Components for Operational Rations practical considerations in, 97–101 self-heating individual meal modules in, 79–82 in tailored-ration system, 89 and time course for onset of nutrient deficiency syndromes, 106 Dexfenfluramine affecting serotonin levels, 243–244 Diacylglycerol, 368 role in transmembrane signalling, 391–392 Dichloroacetate affecting blood lactate levels, 20 ergogenic effects of, 231 Dihydroxyacetone with pyruvate, ergogenic effects of, 229 Docosahexaenoic acid, 360–362 L-Dopa, food intake affecting therapeutic effects of, 241–242 Dopamine in brain stress affecting, 13, 166–168 synthesis of, 162–163 tyrosine affecting, 246–248, 278 Drug or food categories definitions of, 461–463 and delivery of nutrients, 103 dosages affecting, 106, 108–109 and effects of nutrients in pure form or in natural food form, 253–254 for ergogenic aids, 224 and FDA regulations, 38 Dual-function ingredients, 104–105 E Eicosapentaenoic acid, 360–362 Encapsulation of nutrients, techniques for, 103–104 Endocrine responses to stress, 14–15, 180–186 in animal models, 215–217 in exercise, 214–215 interactions with immune responses, 197–199 pancreatic clamp studies, 215–216 Endorphins affecting immune system, 198 stress affecting, 186 Endurance capacity tests, 120–123 Energy intake. See Caloric intake Eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome from tryptophan, 36, 455–456, 466–467 Epinephrine affecting blood glucose levels, 18 plasma levels in exercise, 214 in stress, 181 synthesis affected by tyrosine, 278 Ergogenic aids to enhance recovery, 232–233 to maximize muscle glycogen stores, 225–226 neurostimulant, 224–225 to reduce metabolic by-products, 230–232 as supplemental fuel source, 226–230 Ergometry, cycle, 120 glucose uptake studies in, 213–214 Erythropoietin injections as ergogenic aid, 226 Exercise

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Food Components to Enhance Performance: An Evaluation of Potential Performance-Enhancing Food Components for Operational Rations bicycle ergometer studies in, 213–214 carbohydrate supplementation in, 227, 232 carnitine metabolism in, 35–36, 438–440, 447–449 choline levels in, 404–405 effects of medium-chain triglycerides in, 229–230, 368–370, 378 in endurance tests, 120–121 fuel utilization in, 210–214 metabolic responses to, 18 F Fat intake deficiency of, time course for onset of symptoms in, 106 effects of, 254–255 recommended daily allowance for, 95 Fatigue carbohydrate intake affecting, 26–27, 326–335 in carnitine deficiency, 34 Fatty acids. See also Lipids, structured intake affecting physical performance, 20 omega-3, 360–361, 379 omega-6, 361–362 oxidation affected by carnitine, 358, 434 plasma levels affected by caffeine, 228–229 triacylglycerol. See Triglycerides Fear affecting food intake, 144 Fenfluramine affecting carbohydrate intake, 23 FieldBreak version of Meal Ready-to-Eat, 82 Fight or flight response to stress, 14, 178, 181 Fluoride, safe and adequate intake of, 96 Fluoxetine affecting serotonin release, 242 Folic acid affecting choline metabolism, 384–385 Follicle-stimulating hormone secretion, stress affecting, 15, 185 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation of food components, 38, 461–468 Food ingredients defined as drugs, 461–463. See also Drug or food categories G G protein activation, and signal transduction, 391 Glucagon levels in exercise, 18, 215 stress affecting, 14, 185 Glucocorticoids, adrenal affecting immune system, 198 responses to stress, 14, 182–183 Glucose administration affecting performance, 28 memory performance in, 341 effects on cold-induced memory impairment, 28, 312–315 in repeated acquisition procedures, 313–314 metabolism of during exercise, 211–214 stress affecting, 17–19

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Food Components to Enhance Performance: An Evaluation of Potential Performance-Enhancing Food Components for Operational Rations plasma levels carbohydrate intake affecting, 227, 322–323 in reactive hypoglycemia, 323, 328–329 Glycogen in muscle carbohydrate supplementation affecting, 227, 232 and lactate output from nonexercising muscles, 274–275 maximized by ergogenic aids, 225–226 Growth hormone affecting immune system, 198 stress affecting secretion of, 15, 184 H Heat carbohydrate intake affecting thermoregulation in, 68–69 water loss in, 231–232 Heat shock proteins, 194–195 Heating of food in self-heating individual meal modules, 79–82 as sterilization technique, 80 Helplessness learned, 280 noradrenergic, 280 Homocysteine, and choline metabolism, 384–385 Hormonal responses to stress, 14–15. See also Endocrine responses to stress 5-Hydroxytryptamine. See Serotonin in brain Hypersensitivity, delayed, stress affecting, 188 Hypoglycemia, reactive, 323, 328–329 Hypoxia, hypobaric, effects of tyrosine in in animals, 285–286 in humans, 287–288 I Immune system malnutrition affecting, 196–197 responses to stress, 15–17, 186–197 interactions with hormonal responses, 197–199 Immunizations, stress affecting antibody responses to, 188 Immunodeficiency syndrome, nutritionally acquired, 196 Individual differences in affective response to carbohydrate intake, 333–334 in variables affecting food intake, 142–143 Infectious diseases, stress in, 179–180 Insulin affecting tryptophan levels in plasma, 241 plasma levels carbohydrate supplementation affecting, 227 in exercise, 18, 214–215 medium-chain fatty acids affecting, 370 stress affecting, 14, 185 Insulin-like growth factor, stress affecting, 186 Interleukins IL-1, 192–194 IL-6, 194

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Food Components to Enhance Performance: An Evaluation of Potential Performance-Enhancing Food Components for Operational Rations Intestinal hormones, stress affecting, 186 Iodine, safe and adequate intake of, 96 Iron, recommended daily allowance for, 95 K Ketone bodies produced from medium-chain fatty acids, 359, 370 L Lactate accumulation affected by carnitine, 436, 442 efflux from muscle to blood affected by blood pH, 231 output in muscle glycogen breakdown, 274–275 Lecithin. See Phosphatidylcholine Levodopa, food intake affecting therapeutic effects of, 241–242 LINDO program in design of combat rations, 85–86 Linoleic acid, 361 Lipids, structured, 351–374 definition of, 362–363 discussion of, 378–379 in enteral and parenteral nutrition, 364–368 and performance enhancement, 28–29 recommended research and usage, 58, 373–374 theoretical importance of, 52 therapeutic uses of, 373 Liposomes for delivery of nutrients, 104 Liver, fatty, in choline deficiency, 382, 386–387, 393, 404 Load-bearing work, carbohydrate intake affecting, 69–70 Lunch, food intake in, 331, 337–340 Luteinizing hormone levels, stress affecting, 185 Lymphocytes hormones secreted by, 197–198 stress affecting, 187, 189 M Magnesium, recommended daily allowance for, 95 Malnutrition. See Undernutrition Manganese, safe and adequate intake of, 96 Marksmanship, carbohydrate intake affecting, 69–70 Meals Ready-to-Eat (MRE), 79 FieldBreak version of, 82 testing of, 148, 149, 155 Memory performance choline affecting, 388 cold-induced impairment of, 301–320. See also Cold stress, memory impairment in glucose intake affecting, 341 Mental performance caffeine affecting, 32, 409 in sleep deprivation, 416–419 carbohydrate intake affecting, 27–28, 335–342 choline affecting, 31 and cold-induced memory impairment, 301–320 evaluation of, 9–10 food components affecting, 21–24

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Food Components to Enhance Performance: An Evaluation of Potential Performance-Enhancing Food Components for Operational Rations protein intake affecting, 27–28 sleep deprivation affecting, 128 effects of caffeine in, 416–419 Metabolism carnitine, exercise affecting, 438–440, 447–449 choline, 383–385 and energy supply for muscular activity, 115–118 and fuel utilization during exercise, 210–213 of long-chain triglycerides, 352–355 of medium-chain triglycerides, 356–359 pyruvate, carnitine affecting, 440–443 stress affecting, 17–19, 209–234 Methionine, and choline metabolism, 384–385 Micelles as carriers of nutrients, 104 Microwave heating for sterilization of food, 80 Minerals supplemental, regulation of, 465 trace, deficiency of, time course for onset of symptoms in, 106 Molybdenum, safe and adequate intake of, 96 Monoamine neurotransmitters. See Neurotransmitters in brain Mood affecting performance, 324–326 caffeine affecting, 32–33, 409–410 in sleep deprivation, 419–420 carbohydrate intake affecting, 23, 26–27, 266, 324–335 and food intake, 144 protein intake affecting, 266 Motivation affecting performance, 325–326 Muscle carnitine concentrations in exercise, 439 energy supply for, 115–116 glycogen levels carbohydrate supplementation affecting, 227, 232 and lactate output from nonexercising muscles, 274–275 maximized by ergogenic aids, 225–226 strength measurements, 116–117 N Nanocapsules for nutrients, 103–104 Neuroendocrine-immune system responses to stress, 177–200 Neuromotor control, assessment of, 118–119 Neurotransmitters in brain effects on nutrient intake, 22–24 nutrients affecting release of, 22, 239–251 discussion of, 253–261 precursor control of, 245–246 stress affecting, 12–13, 161–175 Nitric oxide, effects of, 190–191 Norepinephrine affecting blood glucose levels, 18–19 brain activity affected by stress, 12–13, 164–166 plasma levels exercise affecting, 18, 214 in stress, 181 synthesis in brain, 162–163

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Food Components to Enhance Performance: An Evaluation of Potential Performance-Enhancing Food Components for Operational Rations tyrosine affecting synthesis of, 246–248, 278 Nutritional standards for military rations, 94–96 O Obesity, carbohydrate craving in, 243–244, 334 Ohmic heating for sterilization of food, 80 Opioid peptides affecting immune system, 198 response to carbohydrate intake, 327 stress affecting, 186 Oxytocin levels, stress affecting, 186 P Pancreas clamp studies of hormones affecting glucose production, 215–216 hormones affected by stress, 185 Pangamic acid, dichloroacetate activity in, 231 Pantothenic acid, safe and adequate intake of, 96 Parasympathetic cholinergic neurotransmission, choline affecting, 389 Pemmican affecting performance, 255 Performance enhancement research at USARIEM, 65–74 Phosphate intake affecting tissue oxygen extraction, 20 loading with, ergogenic effects of, 226 Phosphatidylcholine, 30, 248–250, 382, 390 as dietary supplement, 383, 403–404 hydrolysis products of, 392–393 plasma levels of, 383 Phospholipase C activation, and signal transduction, 391 Phospholipids, choline, 382, 390 and signal transduction, 392–393 Phosphorus, recommended daily allowance for, 95 Physical performance aerobic power in, 117–118 anaerobic power in, 117 carbohydrate intake affecting, 26–27, 342 carnitine affecting, 34–36 energy substrate supply in, 119 evaluation of, 8, 113–124 food components affecting, 19–21 metabolic capacity in, 115–118 muscular strength in, 116–117 neuromotor control in, 118–119 physiological factors in, 114–120 psychological factors in, 114 submaximal endurance capacity in, 120–123 tissue homeostasis in, 120 Pituitary hormones, stress affecting, 14, 184–185 Potassium, recommended daily allowance for, 95 Pregnancy, effects of caffeine in, 34

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Food Components to Enhance Performance: An Evaluation of Potential Performance-Enhancing Food Components for Operational Rations Premenstrual syndrome, carbohydrate craving in, 244, 334 Prolactin affecting immune system, 198 stress affecting secretion of, 15, 184–185 Prostaglandin blocking agents affecting performance in stress, 17, 60, 193 Protein intake affecting tryptophan and serotonin levels in brain, 241 and appetite regulation, 266 and cognitive performance, 27–28 deficiency of, time course for onset of symptoms in, 106 ergogenic effects of, 263–270 discussion of, 272–275 normal, 243 recommended daily allowance for, 95 requirements in stress, 264–265, 269 and tryptophan levels in plasma, 331–332 Protein kinase C activation, and signal transduction, 391–392 Pyruvate with dihydroxyacetone, ergogenic effects of, 229 metabolism affected by carnitine, 440–443 R Radiation for sterilization of food, 80 Reaction times, caffeine affecting, 409 in sleep deprivation, 416 Recommendations regarding food components, 56–59 amino acids, 269–270, 458–459 caffeine, 56–57, 424–425 carbohydrates, 57, 59, 343 carnitine, 58, 450–451 choline, 57–58, 59, 394 glucose, 316 and ration design, 104–106 structured lipids, 58, 373–374 tyrosine, 58–59, 293–294, 315–316 Recommended dietary allowances, military, 6, 95–96, 481–500 Regulation of food components by FDA, 38, 461–468 discussion of, 469–475 Renin secretion, stress affecting, 15, 183 Research in nutritional enhancement of soldier performance, 5–6 potential areas for, 59–60 studies at USARIEM from 1985 to 1992, 65–74 S Safety of supplements amino acids, 36–38, 455–459 ingredients generally recognized as safe, 463–464 and regulation by FDA, 38, 461–468 Seasonal affective disorder, carbohydrate craving in, 244, 334 Secretin levels in plasma, stress affecting, 186

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Food Components to Enhance Performance: An Evaluation of Potential Performance-Enhancing Food Components for Operational Rations Selenium, safe and adequate intake of, 96 Self-heating individual meal modules, 79–82 Selye’s studies of responses to stress, 14, 178–179 Serotonin in brain affecting carbohydrate intake, 23 branched-chain amino acid supplements affecting, 225 and nutrient choice regulation, 242–244 stress affecting, 13, 168–170 synthesis of, 163 carbohydrate intake affecting, 329–330 tryptophan affecting, 240–242 Signalling, transmembrane, choline’s role in, 381–382, 390–393 Situational variables affecting food intake, 137–157 Sleep deprivation, 9–10, 127–134 affecting food intake, 258 and effects of brief fragmented sleep, 129–130 effects of caffeine in, 32, 33, 411–424 effects of glucose in, 28 mental performance in, 128 Snacks affecting performance, 340–341, 349 Social factors affecting food intake, 145–146 Sodium deficiency of, time course for onset of symptoms in, 106 recommended daily allowance for, 95 “Soldier as a System” initiative, 4, 66 Somatomedin C levels, stress affecting, 186 Sphingomyelin, 393 Standards for nutrition in military rations, 94–96 Starches, glycemic responses to, 323 Sterilization of foods, methods in, 80 Steroids, androgenic, adverse effects of, 15 Stimulants amphetamine, 408, 424 caffeine. See Caffeine as ergogenic aids, 224–225 Stress brain function in, 12–13 catecholamines in, 279–280 combat stress reaction syndrome, 281 endocrine responses to, 14–15, 180–186 in animal models, 215–217 in exercise, 214–215 interactions with immune responses, 197–199 pancreatic clamp studies, 215–216 immune system responses to, 15–17, 186–197 interactions with hormonal responses, 197–199 in infectious diseases, 179–180 metabolic responses to, 17–19, 209–234 and monoamine neurons in brain, 161–171 discussion of, 174–175 dopamine, 166–168 norepinephrine, 164–166 serotonin, 168–170

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Food Components to Enhance Performance: An Evaluation of Potential Performance-Enhancing Food Components for Operational Rations protein requirements in, 264–265 Stress proteins, 194–195 T Tardive dyskinesia, choline in, 249 Testosterone levels, stress affecting, 15, 185 Thermoregulation, carbohydrates affecting in cold exposure, 68 in heat, 68–69 Thymic involution, stress-induced, 187 Thyroid hormone levels, stress affecting, 15, 184 Trace minerals, deficiency of, time course for onset of symptoms in, 106 Treadmill tests, 120 Triglycerides hepatic accumulation in choline deficiency, 382, 386–387, 393 long-chain energy content of, 359 metabolism of, 352–355 mixed with medium-chain triglycerides, 358, 368 medium-chain, 355–360 energy content of, 359 in exercise studies, 229–230, 368–370, 378 mixed with long-chain triglycerides, 358, 368 therapeutic uses of, 360, 373 thermal response to, 359, 370, 378 Tryptophan brain levels of protein diet affecting, 268, 272 stress affecting, 168–169 effects in pure form or in natural food form, 253–254 eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome from, 36, 455–456, 466–467 plasma levels of, protein affecting, 331–332 ratio to branched-chain amino acids, 225 ratio to other large neutral amino acids, 241 carbohydrate intake affecting, 22–23, 27, 329 safety of, 36, 59 and serotonin synthesis in brain, 240–242 therapeutic uses of, 267 transport into brain, 241, 260 Tumor necrosis factor, 194 Tyrosine, 277–294 and acute stress animal studies of, 282–287, 299 human studies of, 287–293, 298 and cold-induced memory impairment, 25, 305–312 in field operations, 307–308 in repeated acquisition procedures, 310 dietary supplements of, 12–13, 24, 266–268 safety of, 36, 37 discussion of, 298–299 effects in pure form or in natural food form, 253–254 and mental performance, 21 potential to enhance performance, 50, 293–294

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Food Components to Enhance Performance: An Evaluation of Potential Performance-Enhancing Food Components for Operational Rations recommended research and usage, 58–59, 293–294, 315–316 research at USARIEM, 72–73 and synthesis of dopamine and norepinephrine in brain, 162–163, 246–248 U Underconsumption of rations during combat, 10–11, 148–149, 269 Undernutrition hepatic glucose production in, 261 and immune system dysfunction, 196–197 performance in, 258 and time course for onset of deficiency syndromes, 106 U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM), performance enhancement research from 1985 to 1992, 65–74 V Vaccines, stress affecting antibody responses to, 188 Vasoactive intestinal peptide affecting immune system, 198 stress affecting, 186 Vasopressin, arginine, plasma levels affected by stress, 186 Vitamin intake deficiency of, time course for onset of symptoms in, 106 recommendations for, 95, 96 regulation of supplements in, 465 W Warrior’s Edge, 150 Water deficiency of, time course for onset of symptoms in, 106 intake of affecting physical performance, 20 amino acids affecting, 273 in dehydration, 232, 233 losses from heat, 231–232 Work-producing aids. See Ergogenic aids Wound healing, choline affecting, 31–32 Z Zinc, recommended daily allowance for, 95

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