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APPENDIX F DATA TABLES 117

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APPENDW F C~4 JO ax - Cal o o V, _. ~ - Al Al D 1 so g V, ~1 o Hi - X if PA Cal - \ Use _ _ ~ ~L) ~ _ Ch oo cry _. Go Go Go ox Go Go _4 Do oo oo Cal _4 Go cr oo _4 1e 1 ~ - o Cal o CD o - ._ w, d \0 -~ ~) ') ~ - oo ~ O ~ ~ ~ - C~ ~ C~ ~O Ch oO ~ ~ ~O ~ oO Ch `_ ~ u, ~t oO ~ ~ ~1 ~ O ~O ~ O C~ oo ~ _ oo _ -, _ m} ~_ Ot c~ c~ c ~_ _, _ _ - , _ _ ~0 oo 0 0 ~ ~oo ~ _ oo _ _ _ 0 ~ c~ ~0 _ oo - c ~ oo ~ ~ cr. 0 c~ O ~ - ~ - c~ ~OY oo _ _ ~_ c~ ~ \0 ~ O ~ ~ oo t_ ~ O~ ~) ~l ~ c~ - ~ O O ~ ~ - ~o ~ O c ~ ~ ~oo ~ oo ~ c ~- ~ ~ - O - c~ ~oo t- _ _ c ~_ da ~ oo - d OY t- oO - t- ~ oo oo ~ ~ ~ ~O ~ ~ ~ - O 0\ ~D - ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~C~ C~ O O 0\ ~D ~ C~ c ~_ _ ~ u, ~ O c~ ~ 0\ 0 _ ~ ~ C~ O O ~ ~ c~ ~ 00 ~ c~ c ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ oo ~ ~oo ~ ~ ~ ~ _ - o ~ ~ ~ - ~ Q ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o ~ ~ ~ cr 0 0 oo oo ~ ~0 ~ ~ ~ OY o oo oo _ ~ oo _ ~ o ~o o ~ - cr~ t- ~ ~4 t~ C~ ~ ~ - ~ _4 ~ ~ ~ ~oo ~ ~ oo ~ O ~ ~n ~c~ ~ Q ~oo oo d. ~ d. o ~ c~ In ~ oo o o ~ ~ ~_ oo ~C~ t~, _ OS n ~ ~ u) _ 3 m, _1 O0 ~C~ 00 - O ~ - O ~ ~ ~ r, ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ - o n ~ ~ oo oo ~ ~4 oo ~ ~ ~ oo da ~ ~t ~ ~ oN ~ ~ ~ o ~ ~ ~ - ~ ~ ko t- oo ~ O ~ O ~ d. ~- ~ ~ ON , ~ ~ ~- - ~ ~ oo ~ ~ ~ oo ~ ~ d. ~ t- ~oo O, t- - ON ~ ~ ~ ~c~ ~ ~ ~ ~ oo ~ o ~ ~ ~- - ~ - ) c~ O ~ ~ O ~o~ oo ~- oo trl - crs ~ ~ c ~ oo oo cr ~ ~ ~- ~ ~ O0 ~ d. oO oo O ~ d. ~O, - ~ t~` - ~ ~ ~cr, c~ c~ ~ oo ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ oo ln ~ ~ _ 0 cr~ ~ co oo ~ o ~ o c~ c~ cr ~ t~ ~ ~ c ~ ~ c ~c~ O t~ d. ~ ~ ~c ~ ~ ~ ce 2 ~ ~& ~ ~ ~ I 118

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APPENDIX F Cal Cal ~4 ~of _.Go A CC o ~ -m 8 oo ~ ~.g o ~_ Go o~ ~ _ ooo o~ _ cry0 _.~ oo_4 o~ oCal ~U) o~ crso ~Cal o . ~ ~ d Cal O ~ m ~ ~ 0 0 0 ~ ~ ~ Cal as ~ 0 ~ ~ _ O ~ ID - 00 00 0 0 00 Cal ~ ~\0 cry ~4 ~ 00 cr. 00 0 0 as cry O . 00 ~ _ 00 0 C~ C~ _ ~ - 00 O ~ C~ ~ 00 ~ ~ O ~ ~ C~ _. d. ~O 00 00 \0 C~ ~ ~] - 1 _4 O \0 ~ C~ C~ O 00 ~ . 00 ~ ~ O _ ~ C~ ~ C~ 0\ ax ~ _I t_ O C~ 00 t- U' E~ C~ E ~ O O O t- C~ ~ 00 C~ C~ 00 ~ O O C~ - 04 ~ Z ~ 00 _ ~ ~ -, ~ ~ ~ o o c~ ~ ~ oo cr 0 ~n c~ ~ ~ oo o ~ ~ oo oo o ~ ~ - ~ o ~ oo oo o - ~ ~ o ~ o o oo ~ oo - ~ ~ o ~ c~ ~ ~ oo c~ ~ ~ ~o C o n ~n ~ o ~ ~ o oo o ~ c~ c~ ~ c~ o oo oo ~ c~ ~ ~ o ~ c~ ~ o ~ ~ o c~ - ~ ~ - ~ c~ ~ ~ oo ~ o ~ c~ oo ~ ~ o c~ ~ ~ ~ c~ c~ oN c~ ~ ~ c~ ~ ~ o c~ o o c~ ~ oN c~ oo oo c~ ~ ~ oo ~4 c~ ~ o ~ ~ c~ ~ c~ ~ oo C~ d _. oo ~ oo C~ oo 0\ ~ \0 ~4 d. ~- \0 \0 C~ oo C~ m. C~ ~ C~ O O O \0 ~ ~ ~ 0 ~4 tn tn C~ oo ~ _. oo _. 0\ 0 ~ a' C~ ~ oo _1 0 C~ O oo ~ ~ ao _. O oo ~ ~ O oo 0 C~ ~ ~ ~ C~ C~ O O O '-2 119 - .D o C~ ~D>, U) ~ ~ ~ t4 ~ ~ox g U, . ,') ._ ~ ~o c ~.> td ~ ~o ~ ~8 ~a., ca :- ~ O ~ ~.= ~_ ~o ~8 ~ o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~- o. o o 2 ~ 2 ~ c ~ ~ a ~ ~ ~o C-~ C~S o ~ ~ ~ ~ O ~ 8 200 2 ='= 2 ~~ (Q ~ _ _ ~ ~ ~o ~g ~ ~ ~ g q) ~ = =. 'n ~ ~ o3 I CL ~ Z; ~ ~ ~D c, C~

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APPENDIX F APPENDIX TABLE F-2 R&D in the National Institutes of Health: Congressional Action on R&D in the FY 1994 Budget (budget authority in millions of dollars) Action by Congress FY 1993 FY 1994 FY 1994 Change from Request Change from FY 1993 ~ ~ ~ Roved Amount Percent Amount Percent Cancer1,978.32,142.12,082.3-59.8-2.8104.0 5.3 Heart,Lung and Blood1,214.71,198.41,277.979.56.663.2 5.2 Dental Research161.1163.0169.56.54.08.4 5.2 Diabetes, Digestive, and Kidney Diseases680.7677.1716.539.45.835.8 5.3 Neurological Disorders and Stroke599.5590.1630.740.66.931.2 5.2 Allergy and Infectious Diseases988.41,065.61,065.60.00.077.2 7.8 General Medical Sciences832.2833.1875.542.45.143.3 5.2 Child Health & Human Development527.8542.4555.212.82.427.4 5.2 Eye275.9272.2290.318.16.614.4 5.2 Environment Health Sciences251.2261.3264.22.91.113.0 5.2 Aging399.5394.2420.326.16.620.8 5.2 Arthritis & Musculoskeletal & Skin Diseases212.2210.4223.312.96.111.1 5.2 Deafness & Communication Disorder154.8153.1162.89.76.38.0 5.2 Research Resources312.7327.9331.94.01.219.2 6.1 Nursing Research48.549.051.02.04.12.5 5.2 Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse176.4173.6185.612.06.99.2 5.2 Drug Abuse404.2407.1425.218.14.421.0 5.2 Mental Health583.1576.0613.437.46.530.3 5.2 Human Genome106.1134.5128.7-5.8-4.322.6 21.3 Fogarty International Center19.720.021.71.78.52.0 10.2 National Library of Medicine103.6133.3120.0-13.3-10.016.4 15.8 Office of Director190.3234.9233.6-1.3-0.643.3 22.8 Buildings and Facilities108.7108.7111.02.32.12.3 2.1 TOTAL, NIH Budget10,329.610,668.010,956.2288.22.7626.6 6.1 Estimated Research Training-349.0-355.0-373.4-18.45.2-24.4 7.0 Other Non-it&D-90.6-105.1-107.6-2.52.4-17.0 18.8 TOTAL, NIH R&D9,890.010,207.910,475.2267.32.6585.2 5.9 a Author' s estimates. Includes conduct of R&D and R&D facilities. SOURCE: American Association for the Advancement of Science, Congressional Action on Research and Development in the FY 1994 Budget. Washington,D. C.: ALAS, 1993. 120

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APPENDM F APPENDIX TABLE F-3 Age Profile of Me U.S. Biomedical Science Work Force by Gender: 1981-1991 (in percept) Age198119831985 19871989 Total Biomedical64,53866,36375,75581,05888,64791,959 Under 305.354.753.432.362.722044 30-3420.2018.4017.9617.2915.5413006 35-3924.3723.3622.6620.9120.2022.17 40 4416.5119.4821.1821.9420.2019.89 45~910.3411.2712.8014.5417.2718.40 50-549.909.028.388.899.5611.59 55-597.057.557.087.066.746.47 60~44.284.174.294.895.374.01 65~91.701.611.811.731.911.76 70 +0.310.390.410.400.500.21 Median Age (years)39.0439.9040.4241.1641.8742.11 Total Men53~86854~21960~80064~31769~08370~309 Under 304.594.242.731.912.311.99 30-3419.0116.8816.4415.3313.9211.34 35-3924.3722.9822.0320.2019.0120.74 40 4416.8519.9521.7522.2020.0619.44 45~910.8311.8513.5415.4518.3919.41 50-5410.399.609.009.7310.2412087 55-597.317.897.427.477.377.45 60~44.584.514.675.336.034.54 65~91.781.721.971.972.162~01 70+0.280.370.470.420.510.22 Median Age tyears)40.1040.9841.0342.3343.1843.60 Total Women10~67012~14414~95516~74119~56421~650 Under 309.177.026.274.094.143.91 30-3426.2125.2024.1624.8121.2618.65 35-3924.3525.0725.2023.6424.4026.82 404414.8017.4218.8820.9220.6821.37 45497.848.669.8011.0513.3315.13 50-547.416.425.885.677.177.40 55-595.736.005.715.474.523.32 60~42.752.652.753.183.022.29 65~91.331.091.180.841.010.92 70+0.420.470.150.330.470.20 Median Age (years)37.5038.0538.3838.9639.5539.65 NOTE: Biomedical science work force H consists of those working in a biomedical science field, including postdoctoral appointees, regardless of Ph.D. field. Estimates are subject to sampling error. Comparisons between 1991 estimates and those of earlier years should be made with caution due to changes in survey methodology. SOURCE: NRC, Survey of Doctorate Recipients. (Biennial) See Figures 3-1, 3-2, and 3-3. 12

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APPENDS F APPENDIX TABLE Fat Citizenship Status of Employed Biomedical Science Ph.D.s: I 981-1991 (in percent) Citizenship Status19811983198519871989 Total N58,44663,03770,07775,19281,086 U.S. Citizen95.095.895.795.595.3 U.S. Native born87.587.387.186.88603 Non-U.S. citizen5.04.24.34.54.7 Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0 NOTE: Employed Biomedical Science Ph.D.s n are those with Ph.D.s in biomedical science fields, regardless of field of employment. Estimates are subject to sampling error. Comparisons between 1991 estimates and those of earlier years should be made with caution due to changes ~ survey methodology. Prior to 1991, the SDR collected data by mail methods only. In 1991, the survey had both a mail componenet and a telephone follow-up components In this table, 1991 estimates are based on Mail-only data to maintain greater comparability with earlier years. SOURCE: NRC9 Survey of Doctorate Recipients. (Biennial) See Figure 3~. 122

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APPENDW F APPENDIX TABLE F-5 Total Employment by Sector of the U.S. Biomedical Science Work Force: 198 I-1991 Hospitals/ Total Academic Industry GovernmentClinicsOther Total Biomedical 1981 63,942 40,855 11,323 6,0842,9832,697 1983 65,823 40,616 12,992 6,4323,0542,729 1985 74,217 45,142 13,263 6,8353,6363,341 1987 80,636 47,657 18,112 7,6293,7383,500 1989 88,344 51,134 21,658 8,2573,6743,621 1991 91,240 49,032 25,647 8,3864,2613,914 Men 1981 53,354 33,447 10,277 5,0622,5422,026 1983 53,688 32,134 11,619 5,3832,4472,105 1985 59,469 35,247 13,366 5,4722,8772,507 1987 63,921 37,003 15,579 5,9612,9102,468 1989 68,820 38,878 18,180 6,4612,7952,506 1991 69,753 36,164 21,175 6,3783,1072,929 Women 1981 10,588 7,408 1,046 1,022441671 1983 12,135 8,482 1,373 1,373607624 1985 14,748 9,895 1,897 1,363759834 1987 16,715 10,654 2,533 1,6688281,032 1989 19,524 12,256 3,478 1,7968791,115 1991 21,487 12,868 4,472 2,0081,154985 NOTE: Biomedical science work forces consists of those working in a biomedical science field, including postdoctoral appointees regardless of Ph.D. field. Cases with missing sector or work activity are excluded. See Appendix F-3. Estimates are subject to sampling error. Comparisons between 1991 estimates and those of earlier years should be made with caution due to changes in survey methodology. SOURCE: NRC, Survey of Doctorate Recipients. (Biennial) See Figure 3-5. 123

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APPENDIX F APPENDIX TABLE F-6 Doctorate Recipients In the Biomedical Sciences by Gender: 1981-1992 Gender (percent) Year Total Male Female 1981 3,444 70.5 29.5 1982 3,463 69.0 31.0 1983 3,317 65.1 34.9 1984 3,386 65.6 34.4 1985 3,197 64.0 36.0 1986 3,222 62.7 37.3 1987 3,200 61.8 38.2 1988 3,467 60.2 39.8 1989 3,490 59.2 40.8 1990 3,542 59.3 40.7 1991 3,745 58.6 41.4 1992 3,787 57.3 42.7 NOTE: Data limited to U.S. citizens and permanent residents. Cases with missing gender data are excluded. The Survey of Earned Doctorates is sponsored by five Federal Agencies: National Science Foundation (NSF); National Institutes of Health (NIH); U.S. Department of Education (USED); National Endowment for the Humanities (NIH); and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA); and conducted by the National Research Council (NRC). SOURCE: NRC, Surrey of Earned Doctorates. (Annual) See Figures 3~ and 3-7 . 124

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APPENDIX F APPENDIX TABLE F-7 Doctorate Recipients In the Biomedical Sciences byCitizenship: 1981-1992 - Citizenship (percent) Year Total U.S. Non-U.S. 1981 3,745 87.7 12.3 1982 3,823 86.8 13.2 1983 3,679 86.3 13.7 1984 3,761 86.1 13.9 1985 3,637 83.9 16.1 1986 3,655 84.2 15.8 1987 3,737 80.8 19.2 1988 4,085 79.7 20.3 1989 4,174 78.7 21.3 1990 4,496 74.0 26.0 1991 4,881 71.3 28.7 1992 5,073 69.1 30.9 NOTE: Cases with missing data are excluded. The Survey of Earned Doctorates is sponsored by five Federal Agencies: National Science Foundation (NSF); National Institutes of Health (NIH); U.S. Department of Education (USED); National Endowment for the Humanities (NIH); and the U.S. Department of Agnculture (USDA); and conducted by the National Research Council (NRC). SOURCE: NRC, Survey of Earned Doctorates. (Annual) See Figure 3-8. 125

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APPENDIX F APPENDIX TABLE F-8 Unemployment Rates for Biomedical and Physical Science Ph.D.s and the U.S. Labor Force: 1973-1991 1973 1975 1977 19791981 1983 1985 1987 19891991 Biomedical Sciences 1.1 1.2 1.6 1.21.2 1.4 1.1 1.1 0.91.5 Physical Sciences 1.6 1.2 1.1 1.00.6 1.0 0.6 1.1 0.61.4 U.S. Labor Force 4.9 8.5 7.1 5.87.6 9.6 7.2 6.2 5.36.7 NOTE: The unemployment rate is defined as the percent of the field-specific labor force who are not employed and are seeking work. The field-specific labor forces include individuals who have Ph.D.s in these fields and who are either employed or unemployed. Estimates are subject to sampling error. Comparisons between 1991 estimates and those of earlier years should be made with caution due to changes in survey methodology. Prior to 1991, the SDR collected data by mail methods only. In 1991, the survey had both a mail component and a telephone follow-up component. In this table, 1991 estimates are based on "mail~nly~ data to maintain greater comparability with earlier years. SOURCES: NRC, Survey of Doctorate Recipients, (Biennial); Office of the President of the United States, Economic Report of the President, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1993. See Figure 3-9. APPENDIX TABLE F-9 Underemployment Rates for Employed Biomedical and Physical Science Ph.D.s: 1973-1991 1973 1975 1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 Biomedical Sciences 1.0 0.8 0.9 0O9 0.9 1.0 0.9 1.1 0.8 1.~ Physical Sciences 1.5 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.9 0.5 0.7 0.8 1.1 NOTE: The underemployment rate is defined as the percent of the field-specific employed doctorates who are working part-time but seeking full-time jobs, or are working in a non-S&E job when an S&E job would be preferred. Estimates are subject to sampling error. Comparisons between 1991 estimates and Rose of earlier years should be made with caution due to changes in survey methodology. Prior to 1991, the SDR collected data by mail methods only. In 1991, the survey had both a mail component and a telephone follow-up component. In this table, 1991 estimates are based on "mail-only" data to maintain greater comparability with earlier years. SOURCE: NRC, Survey of Doctorate Recipients. (Biennial) See Figure 3-10. 126

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APPENDIX F APPENDIX TABLE F-IO Percentage of Biomedical Work Force at Career Age 4-5 who are in Postdoctoral Appointments: 1973-1991 . . . Year Percent 1973 1975 1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 6.6 11.4 13.5 16.0 20.7 19.2 20.9 18.4 21.4 16.8 NOTE: Biomedical work forces consists of those working in a biomedical science field, including postdoctoral appointees, regardless of Ph.D. field. Estimates are subject to sampling error. Comparisons between 1991 estimates and those of earlier years should be made with caution due to changes in survey methodology. SOURCE: NRC, Survey of Doctorate Recipients. (Biennial) See Figure 3-11. 127

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APPENDS F APPENDIX TABLE F-22 Trends in the Supply of and Demand for Clinical Scientists Fiscal Year . , . 198 ~1982 1983 1984 1985 SUPPLY INDICATORS (New Entrants): Professional doctorates participating ~ NIH training grants and fellowships b 2,172 2,153 2,290 2,367 2,385 M.D. degrees awarded 15,673 15,985 15,801 16,369 16,321 DEMAND INDICATORS: Expenditures for clinical R & D in medical schools (1987 $, mi1.) $783 $773 $811 $856 $961 Professional service income in medicalschools~l987 $, mile) $1,301 $1,510 $1,829 $1,979 $2,340 Total revenue (all sources), (1987 $, milt) 8,143 8,611 9,380 9,901 10,676 Budgeted vacancies in medical schools: Clinical departments 2,231 2,264 2,270 2,402 2,572 Basic science departments 656 668 671 705 801 Clinical faculty/student ratio 0.331 0.341 0.346 0.349 0.354 LABOR FORCE M.D.s primarily engaged in research 17,901 16,743 18,535 22,945 23,268 Full-time faculty in clinical departments 37,716 40,148 41,938 43,443 45,007 NIH research grants awarded to M.D.s Number of competing grants 1,868 1, 791 1,962 2,151 2,229 %oftotalcompeting "rants 3456 32%0 32~o 34% 31~o M.D. applicants for NIH research grants: Number of competing applicants 4,525 4, 716 4,658 4,844 5,264 % of total competing applicants 31% 30% 30% 30% 30% M.D. success rate: M.D. awards/M.D. applicants 41% 38% 42% 44% 42% M.D. awardees/all awarders 34% 32% 32% 33% 31% ENROLLMENTS: Medical students 65,412 66,484 66,886 67,437 67,086 Residents and clinical fellows f 52,871 57,504 59,138 60,442 63,507 Total 118,283 123,988 126,024 127,879 130,593 a Financial data from the University of Washington and Mayo Medical School were included for the first time in 1983. b Includes Fogarty Intemational Center programs. c Ratio of full-time clinical faculty to a 4-year weighted average of total enrollments of medical students, residents and clinical fellows(WS) Where (WS)t = 1/6(St + 2S(t-1) + 2S(t - 2) + S(t-3~. 138

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APPENDIX F Annual Latest Average l Growth Annual Annual 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 Rate Change Change 2,599 2,619 2,631 2,593 2,437 2,232 3.2 % -1.4 % 69 15,979 15,719 15,932 15,617 15,338 15,435 0.2% -1.8 % 34 $1,061 $1,118 $1,204 $1,338 $1,516 n/a 6.8% 11.1% $65 $2,422 $2,745 $3,038 $4,333 $4,958 $5,634 14.5 % 14.4 % $349 11,451 12,589 13,577 15,792 16,626 n/a 7.7% 16.3 % $830 2,345 2,510 2,564 2,856 3,136 3,601 3. 7% 9.8% 94 757 785 718 720 667 643 -0. 7% -7.4% -5 0.368 0.377 0.408 0.432 0.442 0.452 2.9 % 2.2 % 0.011 17,847 n/a 16,586 16,941 16,930 n/a 1.7 ~2.1 % 270 47,193 48,834 52,260 55,468 57,202 59,189 4.8% 3.1 2,104 2,075 2,394 2,143 1,PO7 1,860 2,141 -1. 3 ~-11. 0% -26 30% 32% 30% 31 % 32% 31 % -0. 7% 3.0% -0.23% 5,359 5,262 5,29O 5,311 5,422 . 5,486 1.9 % 0.4 ~ 29% 29% 28% 28% 28% 29% -1.4% -1.5% -0.41 % 39% 45% 41 % 36% 34% 39% -3.1 % -11.4% -1.32% 30% 32% 30% 31% 32% 31% -0.6% -0.9% -0.20% 66,607 65,918 65,711 65,150 65,081 64,996 0.4% -0.1% 227 60,875 61,539 62,880 64,867 67,110 68,329 2.7 % 3.5 % 1,538 127,482 127,457 128,591 130,017 132,191 133,325 1.4% 1.3 % 1,766 d There is some question about the interpretation of these data since they include many trainee graduate medical programs. 1984 data are previously unpublished;AMA reports them to be to Within 100 persons. 1987 data remain unpublished. e Data for M.D.s do NOT exclude those who may also have a Ph.D. degree. As a result, the percent M.D. awardees and percent Ph.D. awardees, can be greater than 100 % . f The residents and clinical fellows reported here include only those in accredited programs af with medical schools. SOURCE: National Institutes of Health, special tabulations, 1992. 139

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APPENDIX F APPENDIX TABLE F-23 R&D Expenditures in U.S. Medical Schools, by Type of Institutional Control, 1964-9 1, ($ thousands) . . . . Fined Current Dolly a Year Tour Public Private Toud RULD Expenses 1987 Dollars Tots Public Private 1964310,412128,710181,702 1,120,621 464,657655,964 1965344,787143,627201,160 1,214,039 505,729708,310 1966377,028155,960221,068 1,327,563 549,155778,408 1967422,467178,881243,586 1,436,963 608,439828,524 1968470,958202,440268,518 1,554,317 668,119886,198 1969489,300196,800292,500 1,469,369 590,991878,378 1970498,066205,962292,104 1,418,991 586,786832,205 1971499,841207,346292,495 1,424,048 590,729833,319 1972558,120227,638330,482 1,508,432 615,238893,195 1973606,921264,808342,113 1,564,229 682,495881,735 1974657,287300,479356,808 1,463,891 669,218794,673 1975784,537363,893420,644 1,594,587 739,620854,967 1976839,170385,857453,313 1,705,630 784,262921,368 1977973,827449,709524,118 1,862,002 859,8641,002,138 19781,046,121490,029556,092 1,871,415 876,617994,798 19791,190,689585,488605,201 1,817,846 893,875923,971 19801,352,409677,085675,324 1,886,205 944,331941,874 19811,477,919766,565711,354 2,061,254 1,069,128992,126 19821,605,585828,954776,631 2,034,962 1,050,639984,323 1983e1,787,532937,510850,022 2,133,093 1,118,7471,014,346 19841,997,3171,065,607931,710 2,194,854 1,170,9971,023,857 19852,301,4211,229,2561,072,165 2,437,946 1,302,1781,135,768 19862,554,5611,400,2251,154,336 2,706,103 1,483,2891,222,814 19872,800,8371,500,1751,300,662 2,890,441 1,548,1681,342,272 19883,043,3361,592,2431,451,093 3,043,336 1,592,2431,451,093 19893,633,3141,992,7841,640,529 3,351,765 1,838,3621,513,403 19904,264,3032,133,5452,130,757 3,777,061 1,889,7651,887,296 19914,640,6462,304,6642,335,982 4,110,404 2,041,3322,069,072 a Figures were obtained from the Association of American Medical Colleges (1972-92a, annual tabulations). Because AAMC data were incomplete, figures for 1963 and 1969 were obtained from the American Medical Association (1960-90~. Items may not sum to totals due to rounding. b From the U.S. Bureau of the Census (1992~. c Estimates for 1964-1975 were derived from data supplied by John James, NIH Division of Research Grants; 1976-1984 data were estimated by the NRC Committee on National Needs for Biomedical and Behavioral Research Personnel; 1985-1990 were derived from the NSF Survey of Federal Support to Universities. d Financial data from the University of Washington and Mayo Medical School were included for the first time in 1983. SOURCE: National Institutes of Health, special tabulations, 1992. 140

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APPENDIX F FISH Clinical Rematch as a Implicit G}UP DO of Toad DELI Estimated Clinch R ~ D d Price Deflator b Rematch 1987 Dollars (1987= 100) Religion c Toad Public Private 27.7 15.0 168,093 69,699 98,395 28.4 16.5 200,316 83,445 116,871 29.4 18.0 238,961 98,848 140,114 30.3 20.0 287,393 121,688 165,705 31.7 22.5 349,721 150,327 199,395 33.3 25.0 367,342 147,748 219,595 35.1 28.0 397,318 164,300 233,017 37 30.0 427,215 177,219 249,996 38.8 32.0 482,698 196,876 285,822 41.3 34.0 531,838 232,048 299,790 44.9 34.0 497,723 227,534 270,189 49.2 39.0 621,889 288,452 333,437 52.3 37.0 631,083 290,177 340,906 55.9 39.0 726,181 335,347 390,834 60.3 41.0 767,280 359,413 407,867 65.5 38.0 690,781 339,672 351,109 71.7 39.0 735,620 368,289 367,331 78.9 38.0 783,276 406,269 377,008 83.8 38.0 773,286 399,243 374,043 87.2 38.0 810,575 425,124 385,452 91 39.0 855,993 456,689 399,304 94.4 39.4 961,200 513,405 447,795 96.9 39.2 1,061,358 581,759 479,598 100.0 38.7 1,117,620 598,616 519,004 103.9 39.6 1,203,873 629,855 574,019 108.4 39.9 1,337,651 733,669 603,982 112.9 40.1 1,515,779 758,385 757,394 117.0 ala Ma ala ala 141

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APPENDIX F APPENDIX TABLE F-24 Average Clinical R and D Expenditures and Professional Service Income per U.S. Medical School, by Type of Institutional Control, 1966-90 (1987 $ thousands) ~a' ~ Average per School Fiscal Year Total Public Private Total Public Private 1966 2~685 2'103 3,336 89 47 42 1967 2,994 2,296 3,854 96 53 43 1968 3,605 2,733 4,747 97 55 42 1969 4,037 2,841 5,631 91 52 39 1970 3,973 2,833 5,548 100 58 42 Number of Schools Reporting a 1971 4,188 2,954 5,952 102 60 42 1972 4,686 3,337 6,496 103 59 44 1973 5,163 3,867 6,972 103 60 43 1974 4,484 3,447 6,004 111 66 45 1975 5,603 4,305 7,578 111 67 44 1976 5,635 4,331 7,576 112 67 45 1977 6,260 4,791 8,496 116 70 46 1978 6,394 4,992 8,497 120 72 48 1979 5,709 4,653 7,315 121 73 48 1980 6,080 4,977 7,816 121 74 47 1981 6,527 5,565 8,021 120 73 47 1982 6,287 5,395 7,634 123 74 49 1983 b 6,590 5,745 7,866 123 74 49 1984 6,903 6,171 7,986 124 74 50 1985 7,569 6,845 8,611 127 75 52 1986 8,357 7,757 9,223 127 75 52 1987 8,800 8,089 9,793 127 74 53 1988 9,479 8,512 11,039 127 74 52 1989 10,616 9,914 11,615 126 74 52 1990 12,030 10,248 14,565 126 74 52 a From the Association of American Medical Colleges (1972-92, special tabulations generated annually from 1982-92~. b Financial data from the University of Washington and Mayo Medical School were included for the first time in 1983. SOURCE: National Institutes of Health, special tabulations, 1992. 142

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APPENDIX F Professional Service Income a Average per School Number of Schools Reporting Sum of Average Clinical R&D plus Professional Service Income per School Total Public Pnvate Total Public Pnvate Total Public Pnvate 2,521 2,451 2,604 33 18 15 5,2()6 4,554 5,940 2,322 2,256 2,405 43 24 19 5,316 4,552 6,258 2,670 2,686 2,648 56 33 23 6,276 5,419 7,396 3,440 3,422 3,466 57 33 24 7,477 6,263 9,097 3,614 3,543 3,716 71 42 29 7,587 6,376 9,264 4,474 4,298 4,755 70 43 27 8,663 7,252 10,707 5,017 4,744 5,389 71 41 30 9,703 8,081 11,885 5,499 5,449 5,563 70 39 31 10,663 9,316 12,535 6,152 5,899 6,583 73 46 27 10,636 9,347 12,587 7,956 7,148 9,250 78 48 30 13,559 11,453 16,828 9,330 8,371 10,740 84 50 34 14,964 12,702 18,315 11,129 8,745 14,807 89 54 35 17,389 13,535 23,303 11,002 8,772 14,376 93 56 37 17,396 13,764 22,874 11,975 9,672 15,621 93 57 36 17,684 14,325 22,935 12,790 10,148 17,192 96 60 36 18,869 15,125 25,008 13,008 10,229 17,540 100 62 38 19,535 15,795 25,562 14,801 11,500 19,918 102 62 40 21,088 16,895 27,552 17,096 13,402 23,043 107 66 41 23,686 19,147 30,909 18,496 14,465 24,985 107 66 41 25,399 20,637 32,971 21,269 15,649 29,700 110 66 44 28,838 22,494 38,311 21,820 17,580 28,525 111 68 43 30,177 25,337 37,748 24,289 18,732 32,687 113 68 45 33,089 26,821 42,479 26,886 21,490 35,039 113 68 45 36,365 30,002 46,078 39,038 30,768 52,115 111 68 43 49,654 40,683 63,730 43,877 35,611 56,839 113 69 44 55,907 45,859 71 404 143

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APPENDIX F APPENDIX TABLE F-25 First Time RO1 Applicants by Degree and Prior Research Training Exit ence ~r FY of First Total Applicants Application M.D.s Ph.D. s M.D. -Ph.D.s Others 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 M.D.s 1~087 1~035 1~081 987 826 691 600 569 654 675 697 634 845 896 907 855 906 796 682 699 700 727 669 620 696 711 1,453 1,686 1,613 1,530 1,582 1,595 1,766 1,707 1,820 1,897 2,005 1,908 2,288 2,509 2,403 2,556 2,501 2,245 2,168 1,999 2,070 2,123 2,175 1,532 1,913 2~019 103 107 81 113 96 120 83 98 111 148 123 138 167 142 146 133 133 127 64 64 114 144 157 108 139 184 442 204 244 216 198 158 145 154 139 146 137 136 168 200 168 168 194 312 177 228 158 120 131 115 105 87 SOURCE: National Institutes of Health' special tabulations, 1991. 144

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APPENDIX F Applicants with Research Training M.D. s Ph.D.s M.D. -Ph.D. s Others Percent With Research Training M.D.s Ph.D.s M.D.-Ph.D.s Others 386 458 35 103 35.51 31.52 33.98 23.30 409 600 54 36 39.52 35.59 50.47 17.65 498 640 45 38 46.07 39.68 55.56 15.57 446 651 54 28 45.19 42.55 47.79 12.96 412 733 48 25 49.88 46.33 50.00 12.63 373 738 67 20 53.98 46.27 55.83 12.66 351 928 47 23 58.50 52.55 56.63 15.86 356 893 64 23 62.57 52.31 65.31 14.94 398 945 66 17 60.86 51.92 59.46 12.23 399 1,031 91 24 59.11 54.35 61.49 16.44 421 1,127 69 10 60.40 56.21 56.10 7.30 386 1'O78 91 18 60.88 56.50 65.94 13.24 488 1,288 104 23 57.75 56.29 62.28 13.69 556 1,449 82 19 62.05 57.75 57.75 9.50 536 1,395 95 36 59.10 58.05 65.07 21.43 509 1,402 89 42 59.53 54.85 66.92 25.00 550 1,391 93 31 60.71 55.62 69.92 15.98 431 1,288 77 107 54.15 57.37 60.63 34.29 418 1,270 43 48 61.29 58.58 67.19 27.12 394 1,152 40 74 56.37 57.63 62.50 32.46 396 1,196 76 36 56.57 57.78 66.67 22.78 385 1,226 94 21 52.96 57.75 65.28 17.50 335 1,205 93 22 50.07 55.40 59.24 16.79 308 800 72 21 49.68 52.22 66.67 18.26 311 930 79 19 44.68 48.61 56.83 18.10 298 954 107 16 41.91 47.25 58.15 18.39 145

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APPENDIX F APPENDIX TABLE F-26 First Time Grant* Recipients Degree and Prior Research Training Experience FY of 100 652 582 616 542 363 376 266 310 432 314 460 444 406 419 481 556 469 464 409 494 546 592 521 577 561 512 100 867 688 660 728 527 625 483 581 803 601 1,087 1,181 917 918 1,247 1,516 1,169 1,121 1,109 1,283 1,264 1,385 1,467 1,388 1,453 1,251 10 75 74 58 61 59 70 46 64 85 63 97 121 93 80 109 97 82 95 53 48 90 122 131 110 128 146 First Application 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 Total Recipients M.D. s Ph.D.s M.D. -Ph.D.s Others 1,500 137 85 82 74 40 32 22 12 23 19 17 28 27 24 23 40 34 77 53 86 94 140 109 79 88 94 *K,R,U,M,P Awards SOURCE: National Institutes of Health, special tabulations, 1991. 146

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APPENDW F Recipients with Research Training 35 265 279 328 296 224 258 188 215 303 186 294 294 251 279 332 401 336 317 287 303 343 363 289 317 322 269 M.D.s Ph.D.s M.D.-Ph.D.s Others Percent With Research Training M.D.s 35.00 40.64 47.94 53.25 54.61 61.71 68.62 70.68 69.35 70.14 59.24 63.91 66.22 61.82 66.59 69.02 72.12 71.64 68.32 70.17 61.34 62.82 61.32 55.47 54.94 57.40 52.54 - Ph.D.s 38.00 39.79 46.66 49.70 52.06 60.91 63.04 69.77 69.88 68.74 67.55 66.70 70.70 68.59 70.48 68.32 68.40 68.52 68.24 72.50 69.45 67.56 66.57 60.80 60.66 59.33 55.08 M.D.-Ph.D.s 30.00 41.33 44.59 50.00 65.57 54.24 57.14 65.22 73.44 64.71 71.43 63.92 67.77 64.52 62.50 57.80 74.23 78.05 68.42 67.92 64.58 74.44 68.03 62.60 71.82 64.06 67.81 Others 39.07 27.01 24.71 21.95 22.97 22.50 31.25 27~27 33.33 38 345 321 328 379 321 394 337 406 552 406 725 835 629 647 852 1,037 801 765 804 891 854 922 892 842 862 689 3 31 33 29 40 32 40 30 47 55 45 62 82 60 50 63 72 64 65 36 31 67 83 82 79 82 99 586 37 21 18 17 9 10 6 4 s 2 2 4 3 2 4 12 48 21 27 22 47 27 11 10 13 21.74 10.53 11.76 14.29 11.11 8.33 17.39 30.00 26.47 62.34 39.62 31.40 23.40 33.57 24.77 13.92 11.36 13.83 147

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