dietary concentrations, the values have been converted to dietary content by assuming a dietary intake of 20 to 25 g/guinea pig/day for growth.

EXAMPLES OF DIETS FOR GUINEA PIGS

The composition of an open-formula diet used successfully for growth, reproduction, and longevity is shown in Table 4-2. This natural-ingredient diet is the formulation developed by the National Institutes of Health for production and research colonies of conventional guinea pigs.

Several purified diets have been used that successfully support growth in guinea pigs, although it is not always clear why. Of historical importance is the purified diet developed by Reid and Briggs (1953) for the growing guinea pig; it is still used in original or modified (Typpo et al., 1985) forms. The Typpo et al. (1985) diet and three other examples of purified diets that support satisfactory growth (Navai and Lopez, 1973; O'Dell et al., 1989) and reproduction (Apgar and Everett, 1991a,b) are given in Table 4-3. Two of these are agar gel diets—one satisfactory

TABLE 4-2 Example of a Natural-Ingredient Diet Used for Guinea Pig Breeding Colonies at the National Institutes of Health

Ingredient

Amount, g/kg

Alfalfa meal (17% protein)

350.0

Soybean meal (49% protein)

120.0

Ground whole oats

252.5

Ground whole wheat

236.0

Soybean oil

15.0

Dicalcium phosphate

5.0

Calcium carbonate

10.0

Salt

7.5

Mineral and vitamin premixesa,b

4.0

NOTE: Open-formula pelleted guinea pig diet NIH-34M (NIH specification NIH-11-141h, October 10, 1991). This diet has been used for a number of years. The ingredient specifications predate the present report and are not entirely in agreement with the recommendations presented herein (see Table 4-1). Amounts listed in footnotes below represent the mass of IU of the specific mineral element or vitamin rather than the added compounds.

a Specifications for mineral premix provided by the manufacturer (mg/kg diet): cobalt, 1.5 (as cobalt carbonate); copper, 6.6 (as copper sulfate); manganese, 39.7 (as manganese oxide); zinc, 19.8 (as zinc oxide); iodine, 1.1 (as calcium iodate).

b Specifications for vitamin premix provided by the manufacturer (IU/kg diet): vitamin A, 6,614 (from stabilized vitamin A palmitate or acetate); vitamin D3, 2,200 (from d-activated animal sterols); and (mg/kg diet) vitamin E, 22 (from all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate); vitamin K, 5 (menadione activity); thiamin, 4.4 (thiamin mononitrate); riboflavin, 3.3; niacin, 11; pantothenic acid, 11 (from Ca-d-pantothenate); choline, 529 (from choline chloride); pyridoxine, 5 (from pyridoxine-HCl); folic acid, 4.8; biotin, 2.2; ascorbic acid, 992; methionine hydroxy analogue, 500; and vitamin B12 (11 µg/kg diet).

TABLE 4-3 Examples of Four Satisfactory Purified Diets for Guinea Pigs

 

Amount, g/kg diet

 

 

 

Nutrient

Navia and Lopez, 1973

O'Dell et al., 1989

Typpo et al., 1985

Apgar and Everett, 1991a,b

Casein

300.0a

 

300.0a

300.0a

Other protein

 

200.0b

 

 

Sucrose, granulated

431.4

488.0

50.0

 

Sucrose, powdered

 

 

196.0

 

Glucose monohydrate

 

 

150.0

310.0

Corn oil

40.0c

40.0

30.0

100.0

Fiberd

130.1

150.0

150.0

150.0

L-arginine

 

 

3.0

 

DL-methionine

2.0

5.0e

 

 

Mineral mixture

72.2f

85.0g

75.0h

100.0i

Vitamin mixture

3.3j

30.0k

42.0l

40.0m

Choline chloride

1.0

2.0

2.0

n

Myo-inositol

 

 

2.0

 

Agar

20.0

 

 

o

NOTE: See each reference for special diet preparation. Nutrient requirements are expressed on an as-fed basis for diets containing 10 percent moisture. Diet used by Apgar and Everett (1991a,b) is satisfactory for pregnant guinea pigs.

a Vitamin-free casein. Apgar and Everett (1991a,b) treated casein with EDTA primarily to remove zinc.

b Isolated soybean protein or heat-treated casein egg white. Lactalbumin has been used by Hsieh and Navia (1980).

c Cottonseed oil instead of corn oil.

d Cellulose, except wood pulp (O'Dell et al., 1989) and cellophane (Typpo et al., 1985).

e With isolated soybean protein only.

f Mineral ingredients (g/kg diet): CaHPO4, 8.30; CaCO3, 14.50; KC2O 2H3, 27.00; KCl, 4.50; NaCl, 2.80; MgO, 5.00; MgSO4, 0.50; MgCO3, 1.00; Fe3(PO4), 1.60; MnSO4·H2O, 0.80; KIO3, 0.038; ZnSO4·7H2O, 0.025; CuSO4, 0.036; CoCl2·6H2O, 0.03; AlK(SO4)2·12H2O, 0.007, NaF, 0.04.

g Mineral ingredients (g/kg diet): CaHPO4·2H2O, 25.4; CaCO3, 9.0; NaHPO4, 6.4; KC2O2H3, 25; NaCl, 2.6; MgO, 5.0; MgSO4, 3.0; MnSO4·H 2O, 0.61; Fe Citrate, 0.36; CuSO4, 0.02; KIO3, 0.017. Diet supplemented with 100 mg Zn/kg as ZnCO3.

h Mineral ingredients (g/kg diet): CaHPO4, 34.92; CaCO3, 5.94; KC2O 2H3, 24.93; KCl, 7.74; NaCl, 5.76; MgO, 4.96; MgSO4, 4.59; Fe citrate, 0.64; MnSO4·H2O, 0.37; KIO3, 0.015; ZnCO3, 0.13; CuSO4, 0.005; KCr(SO 4)2·12H2O, 0.010; Na2MoO4·2H2O, 0.0005; NiCl2·6H2O, 0.0002; Na2SeO 3, 0.0002.

i Mineral ingredients (g/kg diet): CaHPO4, 7.4; CaCO3, 12.9; NaHPO4 ·7H2O, 28; KC2O2H3, 24; NaCL, 2.5; KCL, 4; MgSO4·7H2O, 4.9; MgO, 4.4; MgCO3, 0.9, FeSO4·7H2O, 2.04; MnSO4·H2O, 0.71; KIO3, 0.034; CuSO4·5H2O, 0.05; CoCl26H2O, 0.027. Zinc was supplied in drinking water at 15 mg/L (as Zn acetate).

j Vitamin mixture supplied (mg/kg diet): ascorbic acid, 2,000; biotin, 0.2; folic acid, 10; inositol, 1,000; niacin, 50; Ca-pantothenate, 30; pyridoxine-HCl, 10; riboflavin, 10; thiamin, 10; vitamin B12 (triturated with mannitol at a concentration of 0.1 percent), 30; menadione, 10; (IU/kg diet): vitamin A, 28,500; vitamin D2, 285; all-rac-α-tocopherol, 40.

k Vitamin mixture in sucrose supplied (mg/kg diet): biotin, 0.2; folic acid, 6; niacin, 50; Ca-pantothenate, 30; pyridoxine-HCl, 10; riboflavin, 10; thiamin, 10; vitamin B12, 0.03; menadione, 10; (IU/kg diet): retinyl acetate, 20,000; cholecalciferol, 2,800; α-tocopherol, 20. Ascorbic acid was given in 30 mg doses 6 days/week per os.

l Vitamin mixture supplied (mg/kg diet): ascorbic acid, 2,000; biotin, 0.5; folic acid, 10; niacinamide, 200; Ca-pantothenate, 40; pyridoxine-HCl, 16; riboflavin, 16; thiamin-HCl, 16; vitamin B12 (0.1% trituration in mannitol), 50; retinal palmitate in oil, 52 (5,200 IU); cholecalciferol, 0.04; DL-tocopherol acetate, 20; menadione, 2.

m Vitamin mixture supplied (mg/kg diet): ascorbic acid, 4,000; biotin, 12.6; choline, 3,100; folic acid, 12; myo-inositol, 4,000; niacin, 400; Ca-pantothenate, 60; pyridoxine-HCl, 13.5; riboflavin, 30; thiamin-HCl, 30; vitamin B12, 0.02; menadione, 4.6; (IU/kg diet): retinyl palmitate 45,000; ergocalciferol, 4,400; α-tocopheryl acetate, 198.

n Provided in vitamin mixture.

o The diet was mixed 1:1 with a 2 percent agar solution.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement