Index

A

Absolute thresholds, 25, 31, 32, 46, 47, 54, 98-99, 102, 103

Accounting periods, 13, 72, 85-86, 293-295, 333

AFDC, 294, 295-296, 333

effect on poverty rate, 296

Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), 21, 50

accounting period, 294, 295-296, 333

benefit levels, 14-15, 92, 94-96, 335, 336-352, 359-375

budget constraints, 342-343

eligibility and need standards, 14, 15, 66, 92-93, 215, 333, 335, 352-381, 436, 437, 444-446

incentive effects, 15, 95-96, 345-350

market basket use, 354, 357, 358

participation in other programs, 94, 95, 317, 320, 321, 336-345 passim , 437-444 passim

poverty guidelines use, 358, 359

Aid to Refugees, 436

American Housing Survey (AHS), 114, 116, 117, 189, 194, 200, 221, 223, 245

Analysis see Policy formation and analysis

Annuities, 216, 217

Assets

in Consumer Expenditure Survey, 402, 405

data quality, 408-409

in family resource definition, 13, 37, 71-72, 86, 211, 214-218, 295

in March CPS, 211, 216, 402, 405, 408-409

in Panel Study of Income Dynamics, 402, 405

in Survey of Income and Program Participation, 402, 405, 408-409

Assistance programs, 1, 21, 26, 387

expenditures, 320-321, 323, 433, 434-436

in Panel Study of Income Dynamics, 399

poverty rate among participants, 1, 75-76, 259, 260, 261, 262, 264 , 265, 267-268

see also Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC);

Education programs;

Eligibility standards;

Food assistance;

Housing assistance;

In-kind benefits;

Jobs and training programs;

Medical benefits;

State-administered programs;

Veterans benefits and pensions



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Measuring Poverty: A New Approach Index A Absolute thresholds, 25, 31, 32, 46, 47, 54, 98-99, 102, 103 Accounting periods, 13, 72, 85-86, 293-295, 333 AFDC, 294, 295-296, 333 effect on poverty rate, 296 Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), 21, 50 accounting period, 294, 295-296, 333 benefit levels, 14-15, 92, 94-96, 335, 336-352, 359-375 budget constraints, 342-343 eligibility and need standards, 14, 15, 66, 92-93, 215, 333, 335, 352-381, 436, 437, 444-446 incentive effects, 15, 95-96, 345-350 market basket use, 354, 357, 358 participation in other programs, 94, 95, 317, 320, 321, 336-345 passim , 437-444 passim poverty guidelines use, 358, 359 Aid to Refugees, 436 American Housing Survey (AHS), 114, 116, 117, 189, 194, 200, 221, 223, 245 Analysis see Policy formation and analysis Annuities, 216, 217 Assets in Consumer Expenditure Survey, 402, 405 data quality, 408-409 in family resource definition, 13, 37, 71-72, 86, 211, 214-218, 295 in March CPS, 211, 216, 402, 405, 408-409 in Panel Study of Income Dynamics, 402, 405 in Survey of Income and Program Participation, 402, 405, 408-409 Assistance programs, 1, 21, 26, 387 expenditures, 320-321, 323, 433, 434-436 in Panel Study of Income Dynamics, 399 poverty rate among participants, 1, 75-76, 259, 260, 261, 262, 264 , 265, 267-268 see also Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Education programs; Eligibility standards; Food assistance; Housing assistance; In-kind benefits; Jobs and training programs; Medical benefits; State-administered programs; Veterans benefits and pensions

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Measuring Poverty: A New Approach B Basic living needs, 3-4, 5, 6, 22-23, 40, 48, 50, 51, 52, 105, 143 -144, 147-151, 152-153, 203, 386-387. See also Clothing; Food requirements and spending; Housing and shelter costs Basic Needs Budget (BNB), 116-118. See also Expert budgets and standards Before-tax (gross) income and AFDC eligibility, 92 in current threshold, 2, 3, 25, 29-30, 38, 40, 97, 203, 204, 206-207, 290 in proposed family resource definition, 10, 66, 209 Behavioral equivalence scale, 169-174 Black population, 82-83, 286-287, 412-413 poverty rates, 75, 259, 260, 261, 262, 264, 265, 268-269 Borrowing, 36, 211, 212 Bracketing, 216n, 274n Bureau of Census see Census Bureau Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), 23 area price indexes, 8, 61, 65, 183, 186-188 Consumer Expenditure Survey, 13, 44, 85, 292, 391, 392 Current Population Survey, 395 Family Budgets Program, 33-34, 117-118, 120-122, 128, 166, 168, 185 , 186, 189, 190-191 Bureau of the Budget, 17, 24, 163. See also Office of Management and Budget Business cycles and recessions, 49-50, 52, 133, 147, 158 C Canada, 127, 134. See also Statistics Canada Categorical budgets, 116-119 Census see Decennial census Census Bureau Consumer Expenditure Survey, 391 Current Population Survey, 395, 407, 414, 415, 416 data improvement and research role, 44 experimental poverty statistics, 7, 23, 25, 52-53, 105, 205, 219, 312-313 official poverty rate and statistics, 5, 17, 24, 25, 43, 44 public-use data tapes, 12, 83, 282 Senior Redesign Team, 401 Survey of Income and Program Participation, 285, 400, 401, 407, 419 tax estimates, 70, 238-240, 406-407 CEX see Consumer Expenditure Survey Child and Adult Care Food Program, 439 Child care expenses, 2, 27, 45, 102, 118, 331 in expert budgets, 117, 118 and family resource definition, 5, 9, 10, 37, 40, 66, 70, 102, 145 , 204, 209, 240-242 survey coverage, 241, 408 Children, 24, 315-316 equivalence scales for, 7, 8, 60, 160, 161-162, 165-166, 169-170, 172, 173, 177-178 poverty rates, 75, 76, 257, 260, 261, 265, 268-269 see also Family composition and type Child support, 27-28, 45, 331 and family resource definition, 5, 10, 40, 66, 71, 102, 204, 210, 243-244, 267 survey coverage, 244, 408 Civilian Health and Medical Programs for the Veterans' Administration (CHAMPVA), 407, 408 Civilian Health and Medical Programs of the Uniformed Services (CHAMPUS), 407, 408

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Measuring Poverty: A New Approach Clothing, 100, 107, 153, 172 in recommended poverty measure, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 22, 23, 40, 50, 52, 105, 147-151 Cohabitating couples, 13, 28, 87, 302, 305-306 Commodity Supplemental Food Program, 439 Community Development Block Grant, 317 Community health centers, 437 Community Services Block Grant, 442 Commuting expenses, 6, 10, 50, 66, 70-71, 117, 151-152n, 185, 210, 242-243 survey coverage, 408 see also Work expenses Concurrent time series, 5, 7, 43, 44, 52-53, 105, 158, 281, 282, 287-288 Conference on Economic Progress, 340 Consumer Expenditure Survey (CEX), 120, 168, 201, 391-395 as basis for threshold, 5, 6, 7, 13, 51-52, 85, 104, 105, 146-153, 155-158, 210, 290-292 data coverage and content, 214, 393-395, 402, 404-405 data quality, 85, 157, 213-214, 392-393, 403 Diary Survey, 146, 391, 392, 393 historical time series, 52, 155 Interview Survey, 146-147, 151, 210, 391, 392, 393-395, 403 poverty estimates, 81, 214, 403 sample size and design, 12, 13, 65, 85, 156-157, 208, 210, 213-214, 291-292, 392-393, 402, 404 Consumer Price Index (CPI), 43, 110-111, 146, 201, 391-392 and threshold adjustment, 7, 24, 52, 102-103, 105, 123-124, 182-183 Consumption and spending patterns, 39, 51, 102, 402, 405 determination of thresholds, 23, 50-51 in family resources definition, 36-37 in food plan development, 111 geographic variation, 28-29, 184-186 in March CPS, 405 in Panel Study of Income Dynamics, 405 in reference family threshold development, 3, 5, 40, 145 and relative thresholds, 31-32, 59, 129 in Survey of Income and Program Participation, 405 in threshold update and adjustment, 3-4, 6, 7, 23, 25, 30-31, 40, 45, 49-50, 52, 103, 105 see also Basic living needs; Child care expenses; Consumer Expenditure Survey; Nondiscretionary expenses; Work expenses Cost-of-living adjustment see Poverty threshold adjustment Council of Economic Advisers (CEA), 26, 162 CPS see Current Population Survey; March income supplement Credit cards, 36, 211, 212, 213 Crime, 20, 100, 314 Crisis resource definition, 36, 72, 212n, 214-218, 297 Current Population Reports, 25, 293 Current Population Survey (CPS), 395, 396, 413-414 sample size and design, 204n, 395-396 see also March income supplement D Data quality, 1, 4, 39 assets, 408-409 Consumer Expenditure Survey, 85, 157, 213-214, 392-393, 403 and family resource definition, 37, 65, 204 income, 65, 402-406, 411-420 March Current Population Survey, 204, 283, 403, 410, 411-420

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Measuring Poverty: A New Approach Panel Study of Income Dynamics, 403 Survey of Income and Program Participation, 11, 403-404, 406-410, 411-420 taxes, 407 Data sources see Consumer Expenditure Survey; Decennial census; March income supplement; Panel Study of Income Dynamics; Survey of Income and Program Participation Decennial census, 144 housing data, 8, 62, 183, 189, 190, 194, 195, 199-200 income data, 12, 84, 289-290 Demographic characteristics, 97 in Consumer Expenditure Survey, 392, 393 in Current Population Survey, 396 in Panel Study of Income Dynamics, 398 in Survey of Income and Program Participation, 401 Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), 18n, 89-90, 122, 169, 317n, 326, 357-358, 374. See also Assistance programs; Poverty guidelines; and under names of specific programs Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), 8, 114, 116, 188, 189-190, 200, 223, 436, 446. See also Fair market rents; Housing assistance; Public housing Dependent care, 242, 408. See also Child care expenses Deprivation index, 22, 35-36, 99-100 Disposable (after-tax) income, 11-12, 143 in assistance program determination, 14, 90, 318-320, 330-333 in family resource definition, 9, 10, 40, 43, 66, 69-70, 90, 144-145, 206-210, 218-219, 290 monitoring changes in, 3, 42 Distribution of income, 13, 23, 46, 88, 309, 311 E Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), 18, 30, 80-81, 207, 238, 277, 331 , 333 eligibility, 436, 446 Earnings capacity, 430-431 in proposed poverty measure, 2 Earnings data in Current Population Survey, 403 in Survey of Income and Program Participation, 403 Economic deprivation and well-being, 1, 18, 19-23, 89, 99-100, 298 -299, 314-316 Economic resources see Family resources definition Economies of scale, 7-8, 24, 28, 60, 101, 162, 163, 164-165 Economy Food Plan, 24, 32, 33, 108-109, 110, 111, 163, 164. See also Minimum diet (USDA plans) Education programs, 436, 441-442 EITC see Earned Income Tax Credit Elderly see Older persons Eligibility standards accounting periods, 72, 85-86, 215-216, 294-295, 297 area median income, 433n, 434-435, 436, 437, 443 derived from poverty guidelines, 14-15, 18, 18n, 43, 89-92, 169, 317, 318-324, 327-330, 433, 434, 436-444 disposable income determination, 14, 90, 318-320, 330-333 participation in other programs, 321, 433, 434, 436, 437 program-specific, 323, 435, 436, 444-448 Emergency room care, 30 Employee benefits, 219-220 health insurance, 29, 30, 68, 118, 230-231 Employment see Earnings; Jobs and training programs; Labor force participation; Unemployment rates; Work expenses; Working families

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Measuring Poverty: A New Approach Energy assistance, 407, 443-444 Engel scaling method, 168, 170-172 Equivalence scales, 28, 31, 44n, 45, 97, 101, 110, 148-149, 159-182 behavioral, 169-174 for children, 7, 8, 60, 160, 161-162, 165-166, 169-170, 172, 173, 177-178 current threshold, 162-166, 178-179 effects on poverty estimates, 266-267, 269-271 programmatic, 166, 168-169 recommended method, 59-60, 161-162, 175-181 for reference family thresholds, 7-8, 58-60, 159-162, 166 in relative thresholds, 126-127n, 130 subjective, 174-175 European Community, 31, 126 Expert budgets and standards, 6, 31, 32-34, 53, 98-99, 107-124, 125 , 144 categorical approaches, 116-119 and consumption patterns, 3, 34, 49, 107-108, 110, 120, 124, 166 detailed budget approaches, 119-123 food budgets, 47, 48-49, 104, 107, 108-114, 120 multiplier approaches, 108-116 price changes, 120, 123-124 thresholds, 47, 54, 115, 118, 122, 142 Expert Committee on Family Budget Revisions, 47, 54, 128-129, 134, 142, 154, 185 F Fair market rents, 114, 122, 188, 189-190, 194, 200 Family Assistance Plan (FAP), 341 Family composition and type, 25, 27-28, 44-45n, 101 basic needs budget, 117 comparative analyses, 38 economies of scale, 7-8, 24, 28, 60, 101, 162, 163, 164-165 gender of household head, 24, 25, 109 sharing of resources, 13, 87, 302, 303-305, 306 threshold adjustments by, 2, 4, 5, 17, 23, 25, 26, 40, 45, 51, 97, 101, 159-182, 208, 249, 250, 251 units of analysis, 13, 87, 302-307 see also Reference family threshold; Single persons; Working families Family Planning Services (Title X), 439 Family resources definition, 4, 5, 9-11, 19, 26, 36-37, 39-40, 42, 65-66, 203-206 alternative, 13, 89, 204, 309, 313-314 consumption as, 13, 36-37, 65, 81, 85, 208, 210-214, 290-291, 292 crisis, 36, 72, 212n, 214-218, 297 periodic review of, 5, 43, 44 recommended changes in, 10, 11, 66, 81-82, 206, 249-256, 266-269 see also Assets; Disposable (after-tax) income; Income; In-kind benefits; Time resources Family Support Act (FSA), 93, 335, 341, 374 Farm families, 24, 109, 164 Federal funding allocation, 18, 89n, 198, 317 Fendler, Carol, 24-25 Follow Through program, 441 Food assistance, 50, 439-441. See also Food Stamp Program; School nutrition programs; Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC); and under names of other programs Food requirements and spending, 48-49, 102-103, 153, 170-172 expert budgets, 47, 48-49, 104, 107, 108-114, 120 in Panel Study of Income Dynamics, 399 in recommended poverty measure, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 22, 23, 40, 50, 52, 105, 143, 147-151

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Measuring Poverty: A New Approach storage and preparation, 24, 109 see also Minimum diet (USDA plans) Food Stamp Program, 3, 30, 94, 97, 111, 168, 320, 321, 331, 336, 440 accounting period, 294, 295-296 eligibility, 215, 323, 326-327, 333, 439-440 survey coverage, 407, 417, 419 valuation of benefits, 67-68, 220, 224 Foster Care program, 436 Foster Grandparents program, 442 G Gallup Poll, 26, 34, 50, 137-140, 175. See also Subjective thresholds General Social Survey, 34n, 135, 139 Geographic mobility and migration, 399 AFDC impacts, 94, 341, 346-349 Geographic variation, 1, 2, 11, 38-39, 77, 246 in AFDC needs standards, 14, 92-93, 359-375 consumption and spending, 28-29, 184-186 in expert budgets, 117, 121 food costs, 24 hedonic regression analysis, 190, 191-193, 194, 246 housing costs, 2, 8, 29, 45, 62-65, 77, 183, 188-200 threshold adjustments for, 4, 5, 8-9, 23, 40, 41, 45, 60-65, 97, 182-201 see also Midwest region; Northeast region; South region; West region Government see Assistance programs; Policy formation and analysis Gross Domestic Product (GDP), 128 H Head-count ratio, 87-88, 308-309, 310, 311-312, 314 Head Start program, 90, 317, 323, 324, 332, 441 Health and Retirement Study, 409n Health insurance coverage, 2, 29, 118 in Current Population Survey, 397 employer-provided, 29, 30, 68, 118, 230-231 poverty rates for uninsured, 75, 76, 259, 260, 261, 262, 264, 265, 268-269 premiums, 5, 10, 29, 40, 45, 66, 68, 102, 209 in Survey of Income and Program Participation, 401 in surveys, 407, 408 valuation as income, 65-66, 67-69, 205, 227-231, 233-234 Health status, 2, 20, 36, 89, 314, 315 and medical costs, 29 in Panel Study of Income Dynamics, 399, 405 in Survey of Income and Program Participation, 405, 411 Hedonic regression analysis, 190, 191-193, 194, 246 Hispanic population, 135 poverty rates, 75, 259, 260, 261, 262, 264, 265, 268-269 Home ownership services, 71, 244-246 Household appliances and supplies, 5, 50, 100, 117, 120, 163 Household Food Consumption Survey, 24, 27, 108-109, 111 Households see Family composition and type; Family resources definition; Reference family threshold Housing and shelter costs, 70-71, 246 in expert budgets, 107, 117, 119-120, 121 geographic variation, 2, 8, 29, 45, 62-65, 77, 183, 188-200 multipliers, 114-116 in Panel Study of Income Dynamics, 399, 405 in recommended poverty measure, 3, 4, 6, 7, 22, 23, 40, 50, 51, 105 in Survey of Income and Program Participation, 401, 405 see also Fair market rents

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Measuring Poverty: A New Approach Housing assistance, 50, 407, 436n. See also Public housing; Rent subsidies HUD see Department of Housing and Urban Development I Imputed rent, 71, 244-246 Incentive effects, 15, 95-96, 345-350 Income, 39 averages, 13, 23, 88, 309, 312 in Consumer Expenditure Survey, 394-395, 402, 403-404 in Current Population Survey, 12, 83, 204, 205, 282, 395, 396-397, 402, 403, 404, 411-420 data quality, 65, 402-406, 411-420 distribution of, 13, 23, 46, 88, 309, 311 in Panel Study of Income Dynamics, 398-399, 402, 403, 404 in Survey of Income and Program Participation, 12, 83, 282-283, 401 , 402, 403, 404, 406, 411-420 see also Before-tax (gross) income; Disposable (after-tax) income; Earnings; Eligibility standards; Family resources definition; In-kind benefits Income Survey Development Program (ISDP), 175, 404, 409, 414 Indexes of poverty, 87-88, 308-314. See also Deprivation index; Head-count ratio; Poverty gap Inflation see Price changes and inflation In-kind benefits, 42, 117 in family resource definition, 9, 10, 37, 66-67, 97, 203-204, 206-207, 209, 219-223, 389-390 in March CPS, 219, 220-221, 407 in proposed poverty measure, 2, 4, 5, 40, 78 in Survey of Income and Program Participation, 219, 223, 407 valuation of, 30, 67, 219-223 see also Energy assistance; Food Stamp Program; Housing assistance; Public housing; Rent subsidies; School nutrition programs; Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Interagency Forum on Aging-Related Statistics, 288n Interarea variation see Geographic variation Internal Revenue Service (IRS), 117, 238, 409n International comparisons, 26, 31, 125, 126-128 Iso-prop scaling method, 172 J Job Corps, 442-443 Jobs and training programs, 321, 442-443 L Labor force participation in Consumer Expenditure Survey, 393 in Current Population Survey, 396, 403, 411 in Panel Study of Income Dynamics, 398 in Survey of Income and Program Participation, 401 of women with children, 2, 27, 204 see also Earnings; Work expenses; Working families Legal Services, 442 Leisure activity, 100 Literacy and illiteracy, 20, 36 Living standard see Standard of living Low-Cost Food Plan, 24n, 108n, 116, 117, 121, 149. See also Minimum diet (USDA) plans Low-income cut-offs (LICOs), 127-128, 134, 172 Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP), 443-444 Low-income measures (LIMs), 128

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Measuring Poverty: A New Approach Low-rent housing see Public housing; Rent subsidies M March income supplement (March CPS), 17, 282-283, 391, 395-397 compared to Survey of Income and Program Participation, 278-280, 398, 403, 406-420 compared with Panel Study of Income Dynamics, 398, 403 data coverage and content, 81, 396-397, 402, 404-405, 406-411 data quality, 204, 283, 403, 410, 411-420 poverty estimates, 12, 25, 83, 214, 278-290, 281, 293, 403, 406, 409, 411, 415, 418, 420 sample size and design, 204n, 282, 396, 402, 404, 409, 410, 411-412 Market basket, 46, 102-103, 122, 184-185, 186-187, 391-392 AFDC use, 354, 357, 358 Married couple households, 45n, 101 Material poverty see Economic deprivation and well-being Maternal and Child Health Services Block Grant (Title V), 437-438 Means testing see Eligibility standards Medicaid, 29, 93, 228, 229, 407, 408, 438-439 Medical benefits, 387, 407, 408, 437-439 valuation of, 30, 223-225 see also Health insurance coverage; Medicaid; Medicare; and names of other programs Medical costs, 2, 29, 45, 87, 226, 271-274 in expert budgets, 118 and family resource definition, 5, 10, 40, 66, 67-69, 78, 102, 204, 209, 223-225, 267, 268-269, 388-389 survey coverage, 226, 408 variation in, 2, 9-10, 29, 68, 205 Medical risk index, 10, 11, 68-69, 225, 231-237 Medicare, 29, 228, 229, 407, 408 Metropolitan areas, 28, 29, 186-187 Midwest region, 29, 63, 187, 189 poverty rates, 75, 259, 260, 261, 265, 268-269 Migrant health centers, 324, 439 Migration see Geographic mobility and migration Military health benefits, 407, 408 Military service, 399 Minimum diet (USDA plans), 24, 33, 110-111 in basic needs budget, 117 as basis of official poverty measure, 2, 21-22, 24, 32, 48-49, 97-98, 101, 102, 104, 108-110, 162-165 for older persons, 28 Minimum wage, 26 Minority groups, 12, 82-83, 269, 282 Moderate-Cost Food Plan, 121 Mothers' pensions, 338-339 Multipliers, 25, 32-33, 34 and consumption patterns, 26, 32, 104, 108 expert budgets, 108-116 food share, 2, 22, 24-25, 26, 32, 48, 49, 97-98, 102, 104, 109, 110 -116 housing share, 114-116 proposed poverty measure, 6, 7, 22, 23, 50, 51, 52, 56-57, 104, 105, 106, 144, 145, 151-153 N National Child Care Survey, 27 National Income and Product Accounts (NIPA), 143-144n, 154-155 comparison with household survey estimates, 392-393, 409 National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 397 National Institute on Aging, 397 National Medical Expenditure Survey (NMES), 234, 235n, 272-274 National Science Foundation, 397

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Measuring Poverty: A New Approach Nationwide Food Consumption Survey, 24, 111 Near-money benefits see In-kind benefits Noncustodial parents, 27-28, 244 Nondiscretionary expenses, 6, 102, 206-207, 208 deduction from income, 45, 78, 97, 101, 204 see also Child care expenses; Child support; Medical costs; Taxes; Work expenses Nonfamily households, 28 single person, 28, 45n, 101 Nonmetropolitan areas, 28, 186 Northeast region, 28, 29, 63, 77, 185, 186, 187, 189 poverty rates, 75, 259, 260, 261, 262, 264, 265, 268-269 O Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO), 17, 26, 340 and Panel Study of Income Dynamics, 397 poverty guidelines, 18n, 169 Office of Management and Budget, 4, 5, 43-44, 283 Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, 397 Older persons, 24, 28, 161, 164-165, 246 poverty rates, 75, 77, 257, 260, 261, 262, 264-265, 268-269 Operational feasibility, 3, 4, 39, 40 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), 126, 168, 177, 178-180 Orshansky, Mollie, 17, 22, 24-25, 32, 101, 102, 108-110, 162-163, 312n P Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), 13, 86, 295, 391, 397-400 data coverage and content, 398-400, 402, 404-405 data quality, 403 poverty estimates, 269n, 307-308, 403, 409-410 sample size and design, 397-398, 404 Panel to Evaluate SIPP, 400-401, 414 Parents see Noncustodial parents; Single-parent families Periodic reviews, 1, 4, 5, 42-44 Perkins Act see Vocational Education Opportunities Persistent poverty, 298-301 Personal care expenses, 5, 50, 107, 117-118, 151 Physical health see Health status Policy formation and analysis, 1, 2, 3, 18, 21, 38, 42, 68, 80-81, 97, 313-314 and expert budgets, 33, 34 and relative thresholds, 32, 98 taxes, 3, 28-29 welfare, 95-96, 294 Population census see Decennial census Population coverage in Consumer Expenditure Survey, 412n in decennial census, 412-413 in March CPS, 411, 412-413 in Survey of Income and Program Participation, 12, 82-83, 282, 286 -287, 411, 412-413 Population group variation, 1, 3, 11, 18, 38-39, 74-77, 257-262, 264-266 medical costs, 2, 9-10, 29, 68, 205 Poverty gap, 88, 309, 311, 312 Poverty guidelines, 18n, 122, 169, 317n AFDC use, 358, 359 Poverty measure, 18, 21, 25-31 consistency in, 4, 21, 37 criteria for selection, 4, 37-39, 40 depth and intensity of poverty, 23, 87-88, 310-311 elements of, 4-5, 23, 40-42, 98 as eligibility standard, 14, 90, 375-381 periodic review, 1, 4, 5, 42-44 persistent, 13, 86, 294, 295, 298-301 short periods, 13, 72, 85-86, 215, 294, 295-298

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Measuring Poverty: A New Approach see also Economic deprivation and well-being; Equivalence scales; Family resources definition; Multipliers; Poverty threshold adjustment; Poverty thresholds; Reference family threshold Poverty statistics, 26, 38, 42, 43 alternative indexes, 20, 87-89, 100, 308-316 data sources, 11-12, 40, 41, 81-83, 84, 280-292, 391-420 effects of proposed measure, 11, 72-81, 247, 256-278 experimental, 23, 25, 205, 219, 312-313 international comparisons, 26, 31, 125, 126-128 March Current Population Survey, 12, 25, 83, 214, 278-290, 293, 403, 406, 409, 411, 415, 418, 420 official rate, 17, 25, 43 quality, 403, 405-406, 411 Survey of Income and Program Participation, 11, 81, 214, 278-290, 296, 297-298, 403, 406, 411, 415, 420 unit of analysis, 13, 86-87, 301-307 unit of presentation, 307-308 see also Time periods; Time series and trend data Poverty Studies Task Force, 188 Poverty threshold adjustment assistance program implications, 14, 91, 327-329, 377-380 for consumption patterns, 3-4, 6, 7, 23, 25, 30-31, 40, 45, 49-50, 52, 103, 105 by family type, 2, 4, 5, 17, 23, 25, 26, 40, 45, 51, 97, 101, 159-182, 208 geographic variation, 4, 5, 8-9, 23, 40, 41, 45, 60-65, 97, 182-201 over time, 7, 46, 48, 51, 52, 103, 104, 105, 154-157 price changes, 7, 24, 52-53, 102-103, 105, 123-124, 158, 182-183 for working families, 45, 97, 102, 145 see also Equivalence scales Poverty thresholds, 98-100 absolute, 25, 31, 32, 46, 47, 54, 98-99, 102, 103 after-tax concept, 29, 38, 97 allowance for ''other expenses," 5-6, 50 components, 3-4, 40, 77-80, 266-269 current, 2, 6, 17, 30, 55, 106 deprivation index, 35-36, 99-100 development of original, 1, 17, 24-25, 32, 48, 104, 108-110 expert budgets, 6, 31, 32-34, 53, 98-99, 107-124, 125, 144 farm families, 24, 109, 164 implementation, 5-6, 7, 53-55, 105-106, 145-158 relative, 6, 31-32, 34, 35, 37, 42-43, 46, 47, 49-50, 54, 98-99, 104, 112, 113-114, 124-134, 141, 142 subjective, 6, 34-35, 47, 50, 51, 54, 134-140, 141, 142 see also Poverty guidelines; Reference family threshold President's Commission on Income Maintenance, 340 Price changes and inflation current threshold adjustment for, 2-3, 6, 17, 24, 25, 26, 31, 42, 46, 102, 110 and expert budgets, 120, 123-124 proposed threshold adjustment for, 7, 52-53, 105, 158 Programmatic equivalence scale, 166, 168-169 PSID see Panel Study of Income Dynamics Psychological health, 20, 89, 100, 314, 315 Public acceptability and understanding, 1, 3, 4, 21, 22, 38, 40, 48 Public assistance see Assistance programs Public housing, 407, 446-447 valuation of benefit, 30, 221 Public opinion polls, 26, 34-35, 50, 134, 135-137, 174-175 Public policy see Policy formation and analysis Public-use data tapes, 12, 83, 282

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Measuring Poverty: A New Approach Q Quantity-income-elasticity (q-i-e) technique, 121, 123 R Recession see Business cycles and recessions Recommended daily allowances (RDAs), 111 Reference family threshold, 6, 31, 44-45, 52, 101, 105 under alternative concepts, 46-48, 54, 111-114, 142, 153-154 annual update, 5, 6, 40, 55, 104, 147 determination, 5-6, 145-154 in relative approach, 124, 125, 129-130 scaling, 7-8, 58-60, 159-162, 166 Relative thresholds, 6, 31-32, 34, 35, 37, 42-43, 46, 47, 49-50, 54, 98-99, 104, 112, 113-114, 124-134, 141, 142 Rent subsidies, 114, 221, 223, 407 eligibility, 446-447 see also Fair market rents Renwick and Bergmann poverty thresholds, 47, 54, 57, 101, 102, 116 -119, 142, 149-150, 151, 152, 154 Research activities and needs, 1, 18, 21, 38-39 on data sources, 12, 84, 288-289 geographic cost-of-living differences, 9, 62-63, 65, 183, 200-201 in-kind benefits valuation, 223 poverty measure improvement, 1, 39, 43, 44, 295 for Survey of Income and Program Participation, 12, 82-84, 281, 286 -287 Roommates, 13, 28, 87, 302, 305, 306 Rothbarth scaling method, 172-174, 176 Ruggles, Patricia, 47, 54, 111, 114, 116, 142. See also Equivalence scales; Poverty thresholds S Savings, 36, 37, 211 Scale effects see Equivalence scales School nutrition programs, 219, 220-221, 407 eligibility, 320-321, 325, 330-331, 440 Schwarz and Volgy poverty thresholds, 47, 54, 57, 122, 142, 150-151, 154 Senior Community Service Employment Program, 443 Senior Companions, 443 Shelter see Housing and shelter costs; Housing assistance Single-parent families, 27, 117, 346 Single persons 28,45n, 101 poverty rates, 75, 259, 260, 261, 262, 264, 265, 268-269, 270 SIPP see Survey of Income and Program Participation Sloan Foundation, 397 Smith, Adam, 21, 108 Social deprivation, 20, 89, 100, 314-315 Social Security Administration (SSA), 17, 24, 38 threshold development methods, 24, 26, 32, 47, 162-163 Social security tax, 3, 10, 29, 66, 209, 238-239 South region, 28, 29, 63-64, 185, 186, 187, 189 poverty rates, 75, 259, 260, 261, 262, 264, 265, 268-269 Special Milk Program, 325, 440-441 Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), 219, 407 eligibility, 325-326, 441 SSA see Social Security Administration Standard budgets see Expert budgets and standards Standard of living, 25, 30, 33, 36-37, 100 normative, 35-36, 42 relation to thresholds, 2-3, 6, 30-31, 106

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Measuring Poverty: A New Approach see also Consumption and spending patterns; Economic deprivation and well-being; Expert budgets and standards State-administered programs eligibility standards, 436, 437, 443 SSI supplementation, 447-448 see also Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Aid to Refugees; Foster Care program; Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP); Maternal and Child Health Services Block Grant (Title V); Medicaid; Vocational Education Opportunities Statistical defensibility, 3, 4, 38-39, 40 Statistical Policy Office (OMB), 4, 5, 44 Statistics see Data quality; Poverty statistics; Time series and trend data Statistics Canada, 127, 128, 180n. See also Low-income cut-offs (LICOs) Subjective thresholds, 6, 34-35, 47, 50, 51, 54, 134-140, 141, 142 scaling, 174-175 Subsidized housing see Rent subsidies Summer Food Service Program for Children, 441 Summer Youth Employment and Training Program, 443 Supplemental Security Income (SSI) accounting period, 294 eligibility, 436, 447-448 and participation in other programs, 433, 438, 439, 442, 443, 444 Survey of Consumer Finances, 409n Survey of Economic Opportunity (SEO), 397, 398 Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), 13, 86, 205, 283 -288, 295, 391, 400-402 compared with March Current Population Survey, 278-280, 398, 403, 406-420 data coverage and content, 81-83, 223, 284, 401-402, 404-405, 406-411 data quality, 11, 403-404, 406-410, 411-420 poverty estimates, 11, 81, 214, 278-290, 296, 297-298, 403, 406, 411, 415, 420 sample size and design, 12, 82-83, 205n, 281, 400-401, 404, 409-410, 412 use in setting poverty measure, 11, 12, 40, 82, 83, 278-280, 281-282 Surveys see American Housing Survey; Consumer Expenditure Survey; Current Population Survey; Gallup Poll; Income Survey Development Program; March income supplement (March CPS); Panel Study of Income Dynamics; Public opinion polls; Survey of Income and Program Participation T Taxes, 25, 29-30, 45, 122, 207, 402 in Consumer Expenditure Survey, 395, 404 data quality, 407 and family resource definition, 2, 4, 5, 37, 40, 69-70, 97, 102, 205, 237-240, 267 in March Current Population Survey, 406-407 in Panel Study of Income Dynamics, 399, 404 policy changes, 3, 28-29 in Survey of Income and Program Participation, 239-240, 404, 407 Telephones, 22, 36, 100 Thresholds see Poverty thresholds Thrifty Food Plan, 33, 111, 114, 116, 122, 149, 168. See also Minimum diet (USDA plans) Time periods annual accounting period, 13, 72, 85-86, 293-295, 333 long-term measures, 13, 86, 294, 295, 298-301 short-term measures, 13, 72, 85-86, 215, 294, 295-298 Time resources, 399, 421-432 and earnings potential, 430-431

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Measuring Poverty: A New Approach expenditures, 425-428 in poverty measures, 428-429, 432 valuation, 422-425 Time series and trend data, 1, 2, 3, 18, 21, 25 alternative deprivation indicators, 20 comparative analyses, 26, 38 concurrent series, 5, 7, 43, 44, 52-53, 105, 158, 281, 282, 287-288 effects of proposed measure, 23, 80-81, 274-278 relative thresholds, 131-134 subjective thresholds, 34, 137-140 and threshold updates, 7, 46, 48, 51, 52, 103, 104, 105, 154-157 Townsend, Peter, 22, 35-36, 99-100 Training for Disadvantaged Adults and Youth, 443 Transportation see Commuting and transportation expenses Trends see Time series and trend data U Unemployment rates, 23, 43, 100, 395 United Kingdom, 127, 293n deprivation index, 35-36 households, 303n, 306-307 York Family Budget Unit, 119-120 Unit of analysis, 13, 86-87, 301-307 University of Michigan Survey Research Center (SRC), 397 Updating procedures, 4, 7, 26, 40, 42-43, 46-48, 52-53, 102-105, 144, 387-388 housing cost index, 199-200 periodic review of, 5, 43, 44 U.S. see other part of agency title USDA diet see Economy Food Plan; Minimum diet Utilities, 5, 6, 52, 105 V Vacations, 35, 100 Vaughn poverty thresholds, 47, 54, 110, 112, 113, 130n, 131, 134n, 137-140, 142 Veterans benefits and pensions, 436, 448 Vocational Education Opportunities, Disadvantaged Activities (Perkins Act), 441-442 W Wages see Earnings Watts Committee see Expert Committee on Family Budget Revisions Weatherization assistance, 444 Weinberg and Lamas poverty thresholds, 47, 54, 114-116, 142 Welfare see Assistance programs; Economic deprivation and well-being West region, 28, 29, 64, 77, 186, 187, 189 poverty rates, 75, 259, 260, 261, 262, 264, 265, 268-269 White population, poverty rates, 75, 259, 260, 261, 265, 268-269 WIC program see Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Work expenses, 45, 219-220, 331 in family resource definition, 2, 4, 5, 9, 37, 40, 66, 70-71, 102, 210, 240-243 and relative thresholds, 130 survey coverage, 151, 408 see also Child care expenses; Commuting expenses Working families, 2, 27, 119 basic needs budget, 117 poverty rates, 1, 27, 75, 76, 259, 260, 261, 262, 264, 265, 268-269 and relative thresholds, 130 threshold adjustment for, 45, 97, 102, 145 time expenditures, 425-428, 431-432 Works Progress Administration (WPA), 120 Y York Family Budget Unit, 119-120