Index

A

A-bomb, see Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb detonations

Absorbed dose units, see Gray units;

Rad units

Accidents, see Incidents and accidents

Actinides, 31, 41-42

Activity units, see Becquerel units;

Curie units

Ad hoc epidemiologic studies, 14

Advisory committees, 3, 13, 15, 19, 80, 88-89

Hanford, 14, 109

Aeolian processes, see Wind

Age, 8, 37, 44, 46, 47, 66, 71, 77

Agriculture, 9, 10, 28, 32-33, 35

Air, see Atmospheric releases and contamination

Ambient exposures, see Background radiation;

External exposure

Analytic records, 22, 24

Animals, 31, 32, 33, 35

Aquifers, see Groundwater contamination

Assays, see Biologic markers

Ataxia telangiectasia, 58, 125

Atmospheric releases and contamination, 16, 20

bias and uncertainty in measurement, 23

Fernald, 108

ground-level releases, 20, 28, 30

Handford, 108, 109

pathway analysis, 5, 9, 28-33, 38, 108

uncertainty, 29, 30

B

Background radiation, 8, 46, 125

as exposure baseline, 8, 14, 44

Becquerel (Bq) units, 15, 125

Behavior and lifestyle, 2, 5, 8, 9, 37, 45, 48, 67, 105, 110

Bias, 46, 84-85, 125

and epidemiologic studies, 9, 11, 67, 68, 69, 75-78, 80

and public concern, 11, 67, 75

in release estimates, 18, 23, 24, 26, 90

Bioaccumulation and bioconcentration, 34, 35

Biologic markers, 2, 51-52, 58-61

of dose or exposure, 2, 51, 52-57, 58, 59, 126

of effect, 2, 51, 57-58, 126

in epidemiology, 53, 59-60, 61, 91

recommendations, 60-61, 90-91

of susceptibility, 2, 51-52, 58, 61, 91, 126

Bombs, see Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb



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Index A A-bomb, see Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb detonations Absorbed dose units, see Gray units; Rad units Accidents, see Incidents and accidents Actinides, 31, 41-42 Activity units, see Becquerel units; Curie units Ad hoc epidemiologic studies, 14 Advisory committees, 3, 13, 15, 19, 80, 88-89 Hanford, 14, 109 Aeolian processes, see Wind Age, 8, 37, 44, 46, 47, 66, 71, 77 Agriculture, 9, 10, 28, 32-33, 35 Air, see Atmospheric releases and contamination Ambient exposures, see Background radiation; External exposure Analytic records, 22, 24 Animals, 31, 32, 33, 35 Aquifers, see Groundwater contamination Assays, see Biologic markers Ataxia telangiectasia, 58, 125 Atmospheric releases and contamination, 16, 20 bias and uncertainty in measurement, 23 Fernald, 108 ground-level releases, 20, 28, 30 Handford, 108, 109 pathway analysis, 5, 9, 28-33, 38, 108 uncertainty, 29, 30 B Background radiation, 8, 46, 125 as exposure baseline, 8, 14, 44 Becquerel (Bq) units, 15, 125 Behavior and lifestyle, 2, 5, 8, 9, 37, 45, 48, 67, 105, 110 Bias, 46, 84-85, 125 and epidemiologic studies, 9, 11, 67, 68, 69, 75-78, 80 and public concern, 11, 67, 75 in release estimates, 18, 23, 24, 26, 90 Bioaccumulation and bioconcentration, 34, 35 Biologic markers, 2, 51-52, 58-61 of dose or exposure, 2, 51, 52-57, 58, 59, 126 of effect, 2, 51, 57-58, 126 in epidemiology, 53, 59-60, 61, 91 recommendations, 60-61, 90-91 of susceptibility, 2, 51-52, 58, 61, 91, 126 Bombs, see Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb

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detonations ; Weapons plants; Weapons testing Bones, 35, 41-42, 47, 65 Bounding calculations, 10, 17 Breathing, see Inhalation exposure Buildings, 29, 30, 31, 38, 111 C Calcium, 35, 41 Calibration curves, 60, 91 Cancer and carcinogens, 8, 43, 44, 45, 51, 57-58, 59, 64-66, 72-74, 76, 79-80, 126 and Nevada Test Site, 103-104 Chernobyl (Ukraine) reactor accident, 5, 31, 62, 103, 105-107 Chromosome damage, see Biologic markers; Mutation Chronic contamination, 31, 35, 39, 90 Classified information, see Security information Clusters, 70, 75, 80, 83, 126 Cohorts, 46, 68, 69, 70, 80, 126, 129 Colon, 43, 45, 47, 57, 64 Columbia River, 108-109 Committees, see Advisory committees Computer codes, 36, 39, 90 Confidence intervals and limits, 2, 9, 37, 77, 79, 126 Confounding and confounders, 57, 69-70, 75-77, 78, 80, 126 Conversion factors, 50, 91 Correlation studies, 69-70, 80 Cost-effectiveness, 5, 43-44, 85 Credibility, see Public acceptance and confidence Curie units, 15 Cytogenetic markers, 52-54 D Data, see Bias; Dose assessment; Engineering estimates; Environmental monitoring data; Environmental pathway analysis; Extrapolation of data; Historic records; Interpolation of data; Models and modeling; Public disclosure; Quality of data; Risk assessment; Samples and sampling; Source term analysis; Uncertainty Decision-making criteria, 11, 49, 50, 83, 84, 85-86, 91, 92 Defense Nuclear Agency, 44 Department of Defense, 44 Department of Energy (DOE), 4, 7, 32 Department of Health and Human Services, 4 Deposition velocity, 30 Dicentric aberrations, 52, 53, 54, 60 Dietary patterns, 5, 8, 9, 37, 38, 45, 48, 67, 105 following accidents, 33, 39, 90 Dispersion, 18, 22, 28, 29, 34 Disposal, see Waste and disposal DNA damage, see Biologic markers; Mutation Dose, dose-rate effectiveness factor (DDREF), 64-65, 127 Dose assessment, 5, 9, 40-50 Chernobyl, 105-106 Goiana, 110-111 "high"-versus-"low" ranges, 7-8, 11, 14, 49 Nevada Test Site, 44, 46, 49, 50, 91, 104 E Effluent, see Waste and disposal Employees, 10, 22 Engineering estimates, 17, 18, 22 Environmental monitoring data, 19, 20, 22, 23-24, 31 Nevada Test Site, 103 in source term analysis, 17-18, 22, 23-24, 25, 89 Three Mile Island, 107 Environmental pathway analysis, 2, 5, 9, 27-39, 48 Fernald, 107-108 Goiana, 111 modeling, 19-20, 23, 25, 28, 29, 31, 32, 34, 36, 39, 90 original versus derived data, 28, 29, 31, 39, 90 recommendations, 39, 90 in scoping studies, 11, 12, 25, 27, 46, 89 and source term, 17, 25, 26, 27, 89, 90 uncertainty, 28, 29, 30, 34, 35, 36-38, 39, 90

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Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 64, 65 Epidemiologic studies, 8, 9, 14, 48, 62-81 coordination with dosimetric studies, 2, 7, 8, 10-11, 15, 28, 46-48, 50, 63, 67-68, 78-79, 80-81, 89, 91-92 data quality, 9, 19, 84, 86, 92 design, 68-78, 80 formal, 62, 68 monitoring, 62, 68 recommendations, 80-81, 91-92 and scoping studies, 2, 9, 10, 11, 12-13, 15, 18, 63, 68, 79, 81, 85-86, 89, 92 and source term analysis, 16, 17 statistical analyses, 77-78, 80 uncertainty in, 37, 67, 78 Episodic releases and single events, 9, 21, 23, 25-26, 31, 35, 39, 89-90, 127. See also Incidents and accidents Estuaries, 34-35 Evacuation, see Relocation and evacuation Evaporation, 20 Excess risk, 44-45, 66, 77, 81, 83, 92 Exhaust paths, 20 Expert judgment, 37 Exposure, see Background radiation; Dose assessment; External exposure; Gamma exposure; Ingestion exposure; Inhalation exposure External exposure, 5, 8, 14, 40-41, 46, 47, 49, 61, 91 Chernobyl, 106 Goiana, 110-111 Nevada Test Site, 104, 105 pathway analysis, 14, 28, 29, 31, 32, 33, 38, 103, 107-108 F Fertilizers, 33 Filtration, 20, 29, 47 incomplete sample collection, 24, 107 Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), 53-54, 59, 60, 127 Follow-up, 15, 71, 72-73, 75, 88, 127 Food, see Agriculture; Dietary patterns; Food distribution practices; Ingestion exposure Food distribution practices, 9, 33, 38, 39, 46, 90 Freshwater systems, 34-35 Full-scale dose reconstruction studies, 2, 12, 27-28, 81, 86, 92 G Gamma exposure, 31, 39, 42, 73, 90 Goiana, 110-111 Nevada Test Site, 103, 104 Techa River, 109, 110 Gases, 20, 28, 30-31, 41, 107 Gastrointestinal tract, 41, 42, 43 Genetic markers, 54-56 Genotoxicity, 60, 127 Geography and terrain, 6, 10, 30 Glycophorin A assay, 54-55, 57, 60 Goiana (Brazil) careless disposal, 5, 32, 103, 110-111 Gravitational settling, 30 Gray (Gy) units, 8, 15, 42, 127 Grazing, 31, 32, 33 Ground and soil deposition, 16, 21, 28, 48 pathway analysis, 5, 9, 23, 28, 30-33, 38 sampling and monitoring, 30, 31, 39, 90, 104-105, 106 Groundwater contamination, 6, 7, 16, 20-21 Hanford, 108 pathway analysis, 5, 9, 28, 30-31, 32, 35 H Hanford (Washington) Nuclear Site, 4, 5, 24, 45, 103, 108-109 Health and medicine, see Health effects; Medical radiation; Public health policy Health effects, 8-9, 52, 63 Japanese A-bomb survivors, 8, 43, 45, 53, 55, 56, 63, 64, 65 of low doses, 8, 63-65, 66-67 risk assessment, 7, 43-45, 46, 63-67 in scoping studies, 2, 10, 83 suspected or observed by public, 11 Health physics departments, 22 Heuristic models, 36 Hiroshima and Nagasaki (Japan) A-bomb detonations, 5, 8, 43, 45, 53, 55, 56, 63, 64, 65 Historic records, 8, 10, 13 facility logs, 10, 17, 20, 22, 23, 24 monitoring data, 19, 22

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Nevada Test Site, 104-105 quality, 10, 19, 24 searches, 10, 18, 25, 89 in source term analysis, 17, 18, 22 versus derived data, 2, 10, 19, 22, 25, 31, 32, 39, 49, 89, 90 HLA-A genes, 55-56 Hot spots, 30 Hydraulic fracture zones, 20-21 Hydrosphere, see Water contamination Hypocanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt), 55, 57, 59-60 I Incidents and accidents, 22, 23, 58-59 countermeasures, 29-30, 33, 39, 46, 90 see also Chernobyl reactor accident; Three Mile Island reactor accident; Waste and disposal Independent confirmation, 17, 19, 21, 22, 25, 36, 89 Individual doses, 8, 27, 29, 38, 45-47, 48, 50, 91 Chernobyl, 105 Hanford, 108-109 modeling, 37 Indoor concentrations, 29, 31 Industrial hygiene departments, 22 Ingestion exposure, 5, 14, 28, 38, 40, 42-43, 47, 48, 49, 50, 90 Chernobyl, 106 Nevada Test Site, 104 Techa River, 109-110 Inhalation exposure, 5, 14, 40, 41-42, 43, 47, 48, 49, 50, 90 Fernald, 107-108 Nevada Test Site, 104 pathway analysis, 28, 29, 31, 32, 38 International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), 47, 64 , 65 International System of Units (SI), 15n, 42. See also Becquerel units Gray units Sievert units Interpolation of data, 20, 24 Investigation reports, 22 Iodine (I) and iodides, 24, 31, 39, 48, 90, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108 , 109 Ion-exchange resins, 21 Irrigation, 28, 32 Iterative procedures, 11, 17, 27, 83, 86, 92 J Japan, see Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb detonations K Kyshtym-Techa River (Russia) waste releases, 5, 103, 109-110 L Lagoons, 20, 31 Lakes, 20, 33, 34 Latency, 49, 67, 127 Leaching and leachability, 21, 28, 29, 30-31, 38, 108 M Methyl iodide, 31 Micronuclei, 54 Migration paths, 23, 29, 31, 32 Milk, 32, 33, 48, 105, 106, 107, 108-109 Mill tailings, 31 Misclassifications, 72, 78, 128 Mobility, 46, 69, 75 Models and modeling, 10, 36, 39, 90 intake, 41-42, 43, 47, 48 source term analysis, 17, 20, 23, 25 transport, 19-20, 23, 25, 28, 29, 31, 32, 34, 36, 39, 90 validation, 28, 36, 39, 47, 49, 67, 90 versus original data, 10, 28, 31, 32, 39, 49, 90 Molecular markers, 51, 54-56 Monitoring, see Environmental monitoring data; Epidemiological studies, monitoring; Registries; Samples and sampling Monte Carlo calculations, 20 Mortality, 43-44, 75, 128 Multiple assays, 56-57, 60 Mutation, 51, 128. See also Biologic markers N National Center for Environmental Health and Injury Control, 1, 4

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National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, 22 Natural radiation, see Background radiation Neoplasms, see Cancer and carcinogens Nevada Test Site, 5, 103-105 Nitrates, 32 Nonroutine events, see Episodic releases and single events; Incidents and accidents Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), 64, 65, 83 Nuclear Test Personnel Review (NTPR), 44 Null hypothesis, 70, 71 P Plutonium (Pu), 31, 32, 42, 43, 104, 107, 108, 109 Population, 11, 27, 76, 83, 128 identification, 5, 11, 13, 58, 66-67, 75 mobility, 46, 69, 75 sample size, 9, 49, 53, 72-74, 77, 130 Potassium, 35 Precipitation, 28, 30-31, 32, 38, 105 Precision, 49, 67, 79, 128 Preferential depletion and deposition, 30, 31 Preliminary studies, see Scoping studies Priority criteria and rankings, 2, 11, 82-86 recommendations, 86, 92 Probability density functions (pdf's), 37 Probability distributions, 20 Proprietary information, 18, 19, 25, 89, 128 Prototype facilities, 23 Public acceptance and confidence, 10, 13 proprietary and security information, 18, 25, 89 Public concern, 1, 7, 8-9, 11, 15, 16, 18-19, 67, 75, 79, 85, 89 Public disclosure, 2-3, 13, 14, 15, 25, 80, 88-89 health risk expression, 44-45, 70-71 Public health policy, 9, 15, 43-44, 89 Public involvement, 14, 13, 18-19 Hanford, 14, 109 Q Quality of data, 2, 10, 14, 15, 16, 19, 27-28, 36, 88 accuracy, 14, 16, 17, 19, 25, 89 for epidemiological studies, 9, 19, 84, 86, 92 precision, 49, 67, 79, 128 representativeness, 10, 15, 87-88 source term, 17, 19-20, 23, 24-25, 89 R Radio-diagnostic procedures, see Medical radiation Radium, 41 Radon, 9, 107 Rad units, 8, 15, 42, 129 Rainfall, 30, 32 Rainout, 30 Ranking, see Priority criteria and rankings Rare-earth isotopes, 109 Reactor accidents, 103 Reactors, see Chernobyl reactor accident; Operations records; Three Mile Island reactor accident Registries, 66, 69, 75, 79, 85, 129 Regulatory analysis models, 36, 39, 90 Releases, see Atmospheric releases and contamination; Episodic releases and single events; Public disclosure; Routine releases; Source term analysis; Water contamination Reliability, 30, 129 Relocation and evacuation, 29-30, 105 Rem units, 15, 42, 129 Representative doses, 5, 8, 11, 27, 37, 38, 46 Representativeness of data, 10, 15, 87-88 Research and development reports, 23, 24-25 Residential history, 8, 37, 38, 49 Respiration, see Inhalation exposure Resuspension of contaminants, 20, 28, 31, 35, 107 Retinoblastoma, 58, 129 Retrospective cohort studies, 68, 69, 80, 129 Reviews, see Peer review Risk assessment, 7, 9, 43-45, 46, 63-67, 77-78 Rivers, 20, 32, 33, 34, 108-110 Rocky Flats (Colorado) Plant, 31-32 Routine releases, 22, 103 Runoff, 31, 32 Ruthenium (Ru), 43, 109

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S Samples and sampling, 17, 21, 104-105 collection and measurement errors, 23, 24, 107, 111 original records, 22, 104 population, 49, 53, 72-74, 77, 130 soil, 30, 31, 39, 90, 104-105, 106 Scoping studies Security information, 18, 19, 24, 25, 89, 130 Sediments, 32, 33, 34, 35, 38 Selection bias, 54-55, 130 Sensitivity analysis, 9, 36, 37, 46, 130 Settling basins, 21 Sewers and sewage, 33 Sex, 37, 44, 48, 65, 66, 71, 77 Shielding, 29, 31, 47, 111 Sievert units, 15, 42, 130 Single events, see Episodic releases and single events SI units, see International System of Units Smoking, 67, 76 Solids, 21 Solid-state dosimetry, 105, 130 Solubility, 34, 41 Source term analysis, 2, 5, 9, 16-26, 27, 48, 130 bias and uncertainty, 18, 23-24 comprehensive record searches, 18, 25, 26, 89, 90 data quality, 17, 19-20, 23, 24-25, 89 original versus derived data, 2, 19, 22, 25, 89 recommendations, 25-26, 89-90 in scoping studies, 12, 16, 18, 25, 45, 89 selective record searches, 18 Spatial data, 16, 27, 45 Spills, 20, 21, 32 Stable elements, 31, 35, 39, 90 Stacks, 20, 22 Statistical power, 46, 49, 70-74, 79, 81, 128 Steering committees, see Advisory committees Stem cells, 57, 58, 131 Stomach, 45, 64 Stratification, 34 Strontium (Sr), 35, 41, 106, 107, 109 Surface water contamination, 5, 6, 9, 16, 20 Surrogate tracers, 23 Susceptibility, 131 biologic markers, 2, 51-52, 58, 61, 91, 126 T T-cell antigen receptors (tcr), 56, 59 Techa River, see Kyshtym-Techa River Terrain, see Geography and terrain Thermoluminescence (TLD), 105, 106, 111, 130, 131 Thorium, 107 Three Mile Island (Pennsylvania) reactor accident, 103, 107 rolled processes, 20 U United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), 8, 64 Uranium, 32, 107 V Vadose zone, 32, 131 Validation of models, 28, 36, 39, 47, 49, 67, 90 Vegetation, see Plants and Vegetation Vital statistics, 66 Volatile solvents, 20 W Washout, 30, 31 Waste and disposal, 20, 22, 24, 103 control systems, 22, 23, 24, 25 Goiana incident, 5, 32, 103, 110-111 impoundments, 20-21, 23, 109 Techa River releases, 5, 103, 109-110 Water contamination, 6, 20-21, 23, 32 Hanford, 108 pathway analysis, 5, 9, 28, 32, 33-35, 38 Weapons plants, 7, 103 Fernald, 4, 5, 14, 32, 103, 107-108 Hanford, 4, 5, 24, 45, 103, 108-109 Weapons testing, 103 Nevada, 5, 103-105 Pacific, 5, 103 Weather, see Meteorological conditions Wet deposition, see Precipitation Wild game, 33, 38 Wind, 30, 31-32, 38, 105 Workers, 10, 22 Workshops, 14 Y Years of life lost, 44