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Index

A

Abiotic stress, 136

Acacia, 176

Acritarchs, 26

Adaptation

human genus, 234-241

land mammals, 185-205

Adaptive radiation, 10-15, 42

Aerobic metabolism, 26

Aerobic organisms, 21-31

Africa, 123, 130, 189

human genus origin, 234-241

Alaska, 121, 157-158

North Slope, 159

Albedo, 9

Algae, 26

Allocasuarina, 181

Allopatry, 226

Amebomastigotes, 28

American West, 127

Ammonites, 50, 60

Amphicyonids, 192

Anaerobic organisms, 21-31

Angiosperms, 8, 150, 151, 157-158, 166, 167

Anoxia, 39-42

Antarctic Circumpolar Current, 5-6, 168, 178, 201

Antarctica, 5-6, 8-9, 97, 103, 111, 164-168, 175, 185, 201

Antelopes, 124, 240

Antilocapridae, 192

Araucarians, 164

Arboreal habitat, 234-241

Arboreal mammals, 189

Arctic, 121

Arid regions, 176-177

Aridity, 123, 191, 194

Arkansas River, 58

Armadillos, 195

Artiodactyls, 96, 190, 191, 200

Ash, 139

Asia, 130, 192

Atlantic Coastal Plain, 129

Australia, 5, 13, 24, 164

flora and climatic changes, 174-182

Australian Plate, 174

Australopithecus, 12, 234-241

Avatars, 135

Axial Basin, 58

B

Baboons, 239

Bahamas, 121, 123

Baltoscania, 36-39

Banded iron formations, 22

Bears, 192, 195

Beavers, 192

Bennettitaleans, 164

Benthic foraminifera, 94-105, 121, 200, 211

Bering land bridge, 188

Bering Strait, 121

Beringia, 188

Biomass, 95, 141

Biomes

land mammal biomes, 189-195

Biostratigraphy, 74, 96, 119, 185, 198

Biotas, see Ecosystems;

Fauna;

Flora

Biozones, 49, 50-53, 59-60

Birch, 224

Bivalves, 10, 50, 120

Black Sea, 212

Bogota, Colombia, 123

Bolide impacts, 8-9, 57, 63-64, 95, 101

Cretaceous-Tertiary mass extinction, 73-91, 97

Boulder, Colorado, 57

Bovids, 200

Brachiopods, 13, 15, 35, 42-43

Brain anatomy, 241

Brain size and development

human genus origin, 234-241

Brazos, Texas, 83-84



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OCR for page 245
Effects of Past Global Change on Life Index A Abiotic stress, 136 Acacia, 176 Acritarchs, 26 Adaptation human genus, 234-241 land mammals, 185-205 Adaptive radiation, 10-15, 42 Aerobic metabolism, 26 Aerobic organisms, 21-31 Africa, 123, 130, 189 human genus origin, 234-241 Alaska, 121, 157-158 North Slope, 159 Albedo, 9 Algae, 26 Allocasuarina, 181 Allopatry, 226 Amebomastigotes, 28 American West, 127 Ammonites, 50, 60 Amphicyonids, 192 Anaerobic organisms, 21-31 Angiosperms, 8, 150, 151, 157-158, 166, 167 Anoxia, 39-42 Antarctic Circumpolar Current, 5-6, 168, 178, 201 Antarctica, 5-6, 8-9, 97, 103, 111, 164-168, 175, 185, 201 Antelopes, 124, 240 Antilocapridae, 192 Araucarians, 164 Arboreal habitat, 234-241 Arboreal mammals, 189 Arctic, 121 Arid regions, 176-177 Aridity, 123, 191, 194 Arkansas River, 58 Armadillos, 195 Artiodactyls, 96, 190, 191, 200 Ash, 139 Asia, 130, 192 Atlantic Coastal Plain, 129 Australia, 5, 13, 24, 164 flora and climatic changes, 174-182 Australian Plate, 174 Australopithecus, 12, 234-241 Avatars, 135 Axial Basin, 58 B Baboons, 239 Bahamas, 121, 123 Baltoscania, 36-39 Banded iron formations, 22 Bears, 192, 195 Beavers, 192 Bennettitaleans, 164 Benthic foraminifera, 94-105, 121, 200, 211 Bering land bridge, 188 Bering Strait, 121 Beringia, 188 Biomass, 95, 141 Biomes land mammal biomes, 189-195 Biostratigraphy, 74, 96, 119, 185, 198 Biotas, see Ecosystems; Fauna; Flora Biozones, 49, 50-53, 59-60 Birch, 224 Bivalves, 10, 50, 120 Black Sea, 212 Bogota, Colombia, 123 Bolide impacts, 8-9, 57, 63-64, 95, 101 Cretaceous-Tertiary mass extinction, 73-91, 97 Boulder, Colorado, 57 Bovids, 200 Brachiopods, 13, 15, 35, 42-43 Brain anatomy, 241 Brain size and development human genus origin, 234-241 Brazos, Texas, 83-84

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Effects of Past Global Change on Life Breakpoints, 142, 148 Bridge Creek Limestone, 60 Browsers, 13, 190-193 Bryophytes, 157 Buoyancy flux, 111 C Calcareous nannoplankton, 78-79 Calcium carbonate tests, 212 California, 40, 193 Camels, 192 Capybaras, 125, 195 Caravaca, Spain, 82-83 Carbon, 8, 56, 129 Carbon capture, 169 Carbon dioxide, 26, 43, 112, 127 Carbon isotopes, 3, 30, 87-88, 95, 100, 102, 240 Carbonate dissolution, 75-76 Cardiocarpus, 141 Caribbean, 54, 58, 121 Carnivores, 190-195 Cascade Range, 119 Caspian Sea, 212 Casuarina, 181 Catastrophism, 8-9 Cats, 193 Cenogram, 189 Cheetahs, 239 Chelation, 136 Chemical weathering, 103, 129 Chenopod scrub, 176 Chert, 24 Chimpanzees, 234, 236, 239 China, 41-42, 123, 130, 199 Chitinozoans, 43 Chlamytheres, 195 Chronofaunas, 185-205 Chronostratigraphy, 49, 58, 59, 74, 185 Circulatory systems, 29 Clay, 103 Climacograptids, 41 CLIMAP, 126 Climate curves, 148-149 Climatic changes, 4-15 Australia flora and climatic changes, 174-182 coal swamp ecosystems, 140, 147-149 Cretaceous-Tertiary mass extinction, 72-91 Eocene-Oligocene, 5-8 human genus origin, 240-241 Neogene ice age, biotic effects, 119-123 terminal Paleocene mass extinction, 94-105 Climatic forcing factors, 110, 127 Climatic stability, 108-115 Cloud, Preston, 21 Coal, 134-152, 157, 166 Coal balls, 135-147 Coal seams, 136-138 Coal swamp, 10, 11 climatic change effects, 134-152 Coelenterates, 29 Coevolution, 21 Collagen manufacture, 29 Colombia, 53, 54, 57 Colorado Plateau, 127 Complex Mesophyll Vine Forest, 176 Compression floras, 149 Concretions, 136 Condylarthra, 190 Conifers, 157-158, 164, 167 Conodonts, 43 Continental growth, 24 Continental margins, 201 Continental red beds, 22-23 Continental shelf, 73-91, 101 Convergence, 193 Corals, 10, 111, 113 Cordaites, 141, 145 Coriolis deflection, 36 Coryphodontidae, 190 Craton, 147-148 Creodonta, 190 Cretaceous-Tertiary mass extinction, 73-91, 97 Cryosphere, 9-10 Cyanobacteria, 24 Cycads, 157-159, 164 Cyclostratigraphy, 50, 58 Cypress, 124, 190 D Dark shale, 39 Darwin, Charles, 182 Deep dwellers, 87-90 Deep mantle outgassing, 49, 62, 63 Deep-sea Cretaceous-Tertiary mass extinction, 73-91, 97 Paleocene mass extinction, 94-105 Deep-Sea Drilling Project (DSDP), 84, 95, 167 Deep water, 39-42, 102, 111, 130 see also North Atlantic deep water Deep-sea cores, 119 Deer, 194, 199 Delayed recovery, 13-15 Demes, 229 Dermopterans, 190 Desert, 119 Detrivores, 139 Diagenesis, 23, 56 Diamictites, 35 Dinocerata, 190 Discoasters, 97 Disseminules, 140 Dob's Linn, Scotland, 39 Domed swamps, 136 Drake Passage, 201 Dust, 120, 127, 128 Dysaerobism, 102 E Ecomorphs, 139, 140, 146, 189 Ecosystems, 10-15, 80 coal swamp ecosystems, 134-152 high-resolution stratigraphy, research needs, 16 land mammals (Cenozoic), 185-205 planktonic foraminifera, 211-212 plant communities (Quaternary), 221-229 Ecotones, 137, 141, 224 Edaphic constraints, 138, 151, 178 Ediacaran fauna, 28, 29 El Kef, Tunisia, 4, 75, 76, 77, 80-82 Elephas, 199 Ellesmere Island, 190 Emergent properties, 135 England, 53, 143 Entamebas, 28 Environmental tolerances of organisms, 113-113, 212 Eolian transport, 192 Epicontinental sea, 58 Epifaunal forms, 96 Equisetites, 159, 164 Equus, 199 Ericridaceae, 176 Ethiopia, 123 Eubrontothere, 191 Eucalyptus, 176-178 Euglenids, 28 Eukaryotes, 24-25, 26, 28 Europe, 54, 120, 123, 124, 188, 190, 198 Euryhaline, 218 Eustasy, 148 Evaporation, 110 Evolution, 10, 151-152, 179 Australia flora and climatic change, 174-182 high latitude vegetation (Cretaceous/Cenozoic), 157-169 human genus, 234-241 late Paleocene, 95-96 oxygen and proterozoic evolution, 21-31

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Effects of Past Global Change on Life Quaternary, 226-229 research needs, 16 Exercise metabolism, 29 Extinction, 11-12, 123, 168 coal swamp ecosystems, 141-146 see also Mass extinction Extra-terrestrial impacts, see Bolide impacts F Fauna, 10-15, 78, 95-96 Gulf of Mexico biotic response to deglaciation, 210-218 land mammal chronofaunas, 185-205 Ediacaran, 28, 29 Ordovician glaciation and marine fauna, 35-44 Ferns, 136, 137, 157-158, 164-167 Floods, 136, 139 Flora, 8, 11, 80, 123, 136, 235, 240-241 Australia flora and climatic changes, 174-182 compression, 149 cryptogamic, 168 deciduous versus evergreen, 167-168 fauna-flora feedback loop, 192 grassland savanna in North America, 193-194 vegetation change in late Quaternary, 221-229 Florida, 120, 194 Flowering plants, 136 Foliar physiognomy, 178 Forest, 10, 11, 123, 136, 157, 240-241 closed forest system, 175-176 land mammal habitat, North America, 189-190 open forest system, 176 Quaternary, 224 see also Rain forest France, 53 Functional morphology, 3 Fungi, 157, 166 Fusain, 139, 141 G Gastropods, 120 Gauss Chron, 123 Gazelles, 191 Gebel Zelten, Libya, 200 Gene pool, 175 General Circulation Model (GCM), 3-4 atmospheric, 110, 114 oceanic, 111, 114, 127 Geochronometry, 49, 186 Giardia, 26-27 Ginkgophytes, 157-159 Glaciation and deglaciation, 4-8, 29, 148, 201, 203 Gulf of Mexico biotic response to deglaciation, 210-218 Ordovician glaciation and marine fauna, 35-44 Quaternary vegetation change, 221-229 see also Ice ages Global cooling, 43 Global warming, 48-64, 89 terminal Paleocene mass extinction, 94-105 Globigerina falconensis, 215 Globigerinoides ruber, 213-218 Globorotalia inflata, 214-215 Globorotalia menardii, 215 Glyptodonts, 195 Gondwanaland, 7, 176 Ordovician glaciation and marine fauna, 35-44 Grande Coupure, 198 Granite, 23 Graptolites, 4, 8, 15, 35-44 Grassland, 10, 123, 125, 166, 240-241 Grazers, 189, 193 Great Basin, 50, 58, 119, 194 Great Plains, 125 Greenhouse world, 5, 48-64, 103, 156, 178, 200 Greenland, 9, 119, 166, 212 Ground sloths, 195 Gulf of California, 212 Gulf of Mexico, 210-218 Gulf of Aden, 211 Gulf Stream, 37, 120 Gymnosperms, 136, 141 Gymnostoma, 181 H Habitat, 141, 143-147 Habitat destruction, 87-90 Heath scrub, 176 Hepatics, 164 Herbivores, 191 Heterotrophs, 27, 28 Hiatus patterns, 76, 90, 95 High latitudes, 8, 80, 86, 90, 103, 119 vegetation and climate (Cretaceous/Cenozoic), 156-169 High-resolution stratigraphy, 2, 4, 49, 58, 74, 95, 97, 185, 212 research needs, 16 Himalayan Plateau, 199 Hipparion, 199 Hippopotamus, 193 Hirnantia, 7, 15, 37-44 Hominoids, 200 Homo, 12, 48, 234-241 Horses, 191, 192, 195, 198-199, 203 Humans, 234-241 Humboldt Current, 36 Humerofemoral index, 236 Hyaenids, 194 Hyaenodontidae, 190 Hydrogenosomes, 27 Hydrothermal activity, 103 Hyenas, 239 Hypselodonty, 189 Hypsodonty, 189, 191 I Ice ages, 109-110, 240-241 Neogene, biotic effects, 118-130 see also Glaciation and deglaciation Icehouse world, 5, 156, 186, 200 Iceland, 121 India, 199-200 Indian Ocean, 211 Individualism, 135 Insectivores, 190, 191 Insolation, 129 Interdisciplinary research, 2-3 research needs, 15-16 Intermediate dwellers, 87-90 Iridium, 54, 56, 62, 80, 83 Iron, 24, 29, 39-42 Isospores, 151 Isotopes, 29-30 Isthmus of Panama, 120, 126, 127 J James Ross Island, 164 Jaramillo magnetic reversal, 123 K Karsts, 35 Kinetoplastids, 27 King George Island, 167 L Lagarostrobus, 164, 165, 166 Lagomorphs, 191 Land bridges, 188, 199-200 Landscape, 139, 141-147 Lauraceae, 181 Leaf physiognomy, 5, 157, 164 roseaceous, 165

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Effects of Past Global Change on Life Leopards, 239 Lepidodendrids, 141, 146 Leptomeryx, 191 Lichens, 168 Light, 157 Lignotubers, 176 Limestone, 60 Lions, 239 Locomotion, 238 Loess, 122, 130 Low latitudes, 80, 86, 90 Lucy skeleton, 236 Lycopods, 10, 157 Lycopsids, 136, 137, 139, 141, 143, 146 Lycospora, 146 Lyginopteris, 143-145 M Macedonia, 123 Macroscopic animals, 28 Magnetochron 24 R, 96 Magnetostratigraphy, 49, 123 Malaysia, 236 Mallee vegetation, 176 Mammals, 10, 12-13, 95-96, 123 Cenozoic faunas, 185-205 Mammoths, 195 Manganese, 39-42 Mangroves, 111 Marattialeans, 151 Mass extinction, 4-5, 7-8, 9 Cenomanian-Turonian, 4, 48-64, 69-71 Cretaceous-Tertiary mass extinction, 72-91 land mammal rapid turnover episodes, 186-188 Ordovician glaciation and marine fauna, 35-44 Pennsylvanian coal swamps, 146 research needs, 16 terminal Paleocene, 94-105 Mats, 164 Matuyama Chron, 123 Maud Rise, Antarctica, 99, 167 Mediterranean, 120, 123, 127, 211 Meltwater, 7, 213-214 Merychippus, 192 Mesohippus, 191 Mesophytic flora, 149 Metabolites, 168 Metasequoia, 165 Micromammals, 124 Microsporidia, 26 Migration, 10, 221, 227 North America land mammal immigration (Cenozoic), 185-205 research needs, 16 Milankovitch climate cycles, 4-5, 50, 58, 60 Mineral charcoal, 139 Miospores, 137 Mississippi River, 214 Mitochondria, 26, 27 Mitrospermum, 141 Mixing, 226 Models, 4 climatic changes, 109, 110, 222 ''conveyor belt" ocean circulation, 211 environmental/biological coevolution, 31 mass extinctions, 64 research needs, 16 Mollusks, 12, 62, 120, 126 Monkeys, 124, 200 Monsoons, 36-39, 119, 127 Morozovellids, 97 Moschidae, 192 Mosses, 168 Mountain glaciers, 119 Multituberculata, 190 Musk oxen, 195 Mustelids, 193 N Nannoplankton, 51 Natural selection, see Evolution Nebraska, 193 Nekton, 39 Neoecology, 151 Neogloboquadrina dutertrei, 215 Neritic environment, see Continental shelf Netherlands, 123 Neutron activation, 39 Nevada, 193 New Zealand, 165 Nitrates, 26 NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, 112 North America, 119, 178, 222-223 Cenozoic mammal faunas, 185-205 North Atlantic deep water (NADW), 6-7, 102, 127, 130, 211, 214 North Atlantic Neogene ice age, biotic effects, 118-130 North Pacific, 212 North Sea, 120, 127 Northern Hemisphere, 119-130, 156-169 Northern Plains, 127, 128 Nothofagus, 165, 166-168, 179-180 Nuttallides truempi, 97 O Ocean circulation, 5-7, 12, 36-39, 102 Ocean Drilling Program (ODP), 95 Ocean Drilling Program Site 119, 164 Ocean Drilling Program Site 738C, 84-86 Ocean floor, see Deep-sea Ocean temperature, 10, 43, 54, 56, 63, 97-105, 109, 122, 201, 212 Ocean ventilation, 42 Ocean warming, 97-105 Ocean-climate system, 50, 56, 62 Oceanic anoxic events, 56, 62, 102 Omo Valley, Ethiopia, 240 Omomyidae, 190 Orangeburg scarp, 120 Orbital cycles, 4-5, 129, 226 Ordinations, 143 Oreodonts, 191, 192 Ostracods, 100, 126 Oxygen, 8, 56 proterozoic evolution and oxygen, 21-31 Oxygen isotopes, 3, 87-88, 100, 102, 108-112, 122, 130, 178, 186-188, 200-205, 211, 213-217 Oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), 58 Oxygen-depleted water, 39-42 Ozone screen, 26 P Pacific, 121, 211 Pacific Northwest, 188 Pacific superplume, 57, 58, 62 Pakistan, 199-200 Palaeomerycidae, 192 Paleo-Antarctic Circle, 168 Paleo-Arctic Circle, 168 Paleobathymetry, 58 Paleobiology, 3, 94-105 Australia flora and climatic changes, 174-182 Gulf of Mexico biotic response to deglaciation, 210-218 high-latitude vegetation and climate, 156-169 research needs, 16 vegetation change in late Quaternary, 221-229 Paleoecology coal swamp ecosystems, 134-152 Paleogeography, 3, 112, 138, 148, 157 Ordovician, 36-39 pollen records, late Quaternary, 221-229 research needs, 16 Paleomagnetic chronology, 185

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Effects of Past Global Change on Life Paleosols, 23, 101, 148, 191 Palms, 124 Palynology, 147, 157, 164, 166, 178 late Quaternary vegetation, 221-229 Panama land bridge, 188 Pandas, 194 Pantodonta, 190 Parahippus, 192 Paralycopodites, 143-145 Patagonia, 168 Peat-forming swamps, see Coal swamps Peccaries, 125, 195 Peripheral isolates, 151 Perissodactyls, 96, 190, 198 Petrography, 139 Petroleum source rock, 40, 56 Phosphorus, 24 Photosynthesis, 26, 103 Photosynthetic bacteria, 23 Phylogeny, 26-28 Planar swamps, 136 Plankton, 39 Planktonic foraminifera, 12, 15, 50-53, 97-100, 109, 120, 121 Cretaceous-Tertiary mass extinction, 73-91, 97 Gulf of Mexico, response to deglaciation, 210-218 Plant community ecology, 135 Plate rafting, 175 Plenus Marls, 53 Podocarps, 164, 166, 167 Poland, 124 Poleward heat transport, 110-111 Pollen, 119, 123, 135, 157 late Quaternary vegetation, 221-229 triaperturate, 164 Porcupines, 195 Portugal, 35 Prague Basin, Czechoslovakia, 35 Precipitation, 104, 129, 157, 178 Predators, 238-239 Present atmospheric level (PAL), 23, 27, 29 Primates, 96, 190 Proboscideans, 193, 198 Prokaryotes, 31 Proteaceae, 165, 167, 181 Proteus, 102, 103 Protists, 25, 30 Protoceratids, 195 Psaronius, 141, 145 Pteridosperms, 137, 141, 142, 146, 150, 164 Ptilodus, 190 Pueblo, Colorado, 58 Pulleniata obliquiloculata, 215 Pyrite, 30, 40 Q Queensland, 176 R Rabbits, 191, 199 Raccoons, 192 Radiative energy input, 110 Radiometric dating, 54-55, 59, 60, 185, 211 Rain forest, 11, 64, 175, 179 Rapid turnover episodes (RTE), 186-188, 197, 198-200 Rare earth elements, 24 Red Sea, 211 Research needs, 15-16 Resource depletion, 64 Reversed magnetic interval, 96, 190 Rhinocerotids, 191, 193 Rhizovores, 191 RNA, 27 Rock accumulation rates, 49 Rock Canyon Anticline, 58 Rocky Mountains, 191 Rodents, 13-15, 190, 191 Ross Sea, 167 Rotalipora foraminifer, 57 Rudists, 15, 54, 114 Ruminants, 198, 200 S S. beccariformis, 96 Sabertooth cats, 239 Sagebrush, 178 Sahara, 120 Salinity, 100, 112, 214-217 Salix, 166 San Salvador, 123 Savanna, 190-194, 201, 233 Scales, 227-229 Scandinavia, 119 Scansorial mammals, 189 Sclerophyll plants, 13, 178, 182 Sea otters, 121 Sea-floor spreading, 129 Sea-level changes, 11, 54, 56, 201, 204, 212 Cretaceous-Tertiary mass extinction, 88-91 Ordovician glaciation and marine fauna, 35-44 Sediment traps, 212 Sedimentation rates, 4, 40, 75, 102 Seed ferns, 143 Seed plants, 136 Seismic stratigraphy, 200-201 Semiarid regions, 176-177 Sessile plants, 221 Seymour Island, 164, 185 Shales, 137 Shatsky Rise, 109 Shocked quartz grains, 62 Shrub eaters, 192 Siberia, 157 Sigillarians, 151 Signor-Lipps effect, 9, 52-53 Silicate rocks, 129 Siwalik Hills, 199-200 Slime molds, 28 Snakes, 15 Songbirds, 13-15 South Atlantic, 211 South Shetland Islands, 165 Southern Hemisphere, 156-169 Space-time box, 229 Spatial and temporal scales, 227-229 Speciation, 124, 152, 178, 188 Species turnover, 12-13, 146-147, 149, 151, 186, 198-200 Sphenopsids, 141, 142, 151 Spinels, 80 Spruce, 224 St. Lawrence River, 214 Stable isotope stratigraphy, 96-97 Stenothermal species, 125 Steppe, 188 Sterols, 27 Straits of Florida, 121 Stratigraphic anomaly 24, 190 Stromatolites, 24 Stromatoporoids, 114 Strontium isotopes, 30 Subcanopy, 176 Succession, 185, 221, 222 land mammals in North America, 189-197 Sulfates, 23 Sulfur isotopes, 30 Sulu Sea, 211 Sundra Plate, 175 Surface dwellers, 87-90 Svalbard, 166 Symbiosis, 26 Sympatry, 226 Synchroneity, 102 Syncopated equilibrium, 197 T Taiga, 156, 166 Taphonomic criteria, 139, 189 Tasmania, 168, 175

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Effects of Past Global Change on Life Tectonic activity, 62, 119, 123, 127, 148, 168, 175, 194, 226 Teeth, 101, 189 Tegelen faunas, 124 Teleoceras, 193 Temperature, 157, 178 Terminations, 122 Terrestrial habitat, 234-241 Tethyan Ocean, 80, 114 Tethys Seaway, 103 Thermocline, 39, 89, 101, 212 Thermohaline circulation, 6-7, 111 Thresholds, 9-10 Thulean land bridge, 188, 201 Tibetan Plateau, 127 Tillodontia, 190 Time scale, 2 Titanotheres, 13 Tools, 240 Toxic waters, 39 Trace elements, 56, 62 Tree ferns, 141, 142, 145, 150 Tree rings, 159 Trees, 140, 141 Trichomonads, 26 Trilobites, 15, 43 Trochospiral forms, 100 Tropics, 36-39, 104, 211 climatic stability, 108-115 Tundra, 166, 188 Turnover-pulse hypothesis, 188 U Ultraviolet (UV) radiation, 26 Ungulates, 189, 191, 193, 204 Uraninite, 23 V Vapor pressure, 104, 110 Vegetation, see Flora Vertical advection, 39-42 Virginia, 120 Volcanic activity, 103, 129 W Warm saline deep water, 102, 104, 111 Water column, 87-90 Western Interior Seaway, 58 Wetland habitats coal swamp ecosystems, 134-152 White River chronofauna, 190-194 Winds, 127 Woody shrubs, 192 Wyoming, 194 X Xeromorphy, 141, 147 Y Yorktown Formation, 120-121 Younger Dryas cooling, 7, 210-218 Yucatan Channel, 121