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Aids and Behavior: An Integrated Approach D Contributors HORTENSIA DE LOS ANGELES AMARO, Ph.D. is professor of social and behavioral sciences at the Boston University School of Public Health. She received the Ph.D. degree in psychology from the University of California, Los Angeles in 1982. She has authored over 40 publications in scientific journals and books in the areas of substance use, reproductive health, and mental health. Dr. Amaro is currently the principal investigator of several research projects including a community-based prevention program to reduce drug use and risk of infection among pregnant women, a study of drug use among adult mothers, a study on intergenerational gaps between parents and children and substance use among Hispanic youth, and a qualitative study of the meaning of health and well-being in five ethnic groups. She has held leadership positions within the American Psychological Association, and served on the editorial board of the American Journal of Public Health and as associate editor of the Psychology of Women Quarterly. She has served on the Massachusetts Governor's Task Force on AIDS, managed the Board of Regents of Higher Education, and was a member of the IOM Committee on Women in Clinical Research. Dr. Amaro has received awards for her work from the American Psychological Association and the Massachusetts Public Health Association and an honorary degree from Summors College. IRA B. BLACK, M.D. is professor and chairman, Department of
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Aids and Behavior: An Integrated Approach Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ)-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, director of the Joint Graduate Program in Physiology and Neurobiology of UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School and Rutgers University, and past president of the Society for Neuroscience of North America. He is a clinical neurologist and neuroscientist who is studying regulation by the environment of brain genes encoding growth factors, survival factors, and neurotransmitters. This work is being applied to the treatment of late-life degenerative neurologic diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Dr. Black has served on numerous international and national panels and advisory committees and is presently a member of the Scientific Advisory Board of the Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine of New Jersey, a member of the Mental Health Special Projects Review Committee of NIMH, and director of the Princeton-Robert Wood Johnson-Rutgers University Consortium in Neuroscience. He is the recent recipient of a McKnight Foundation Award in Neuroscience, a Jacob Javits Award in Neuroscience from NINDS, the Viktor Hamburger Award, and the New Jersey Pride Award in Science. He is the author of approximately two hundred articles in neuroscience and of two books, Cellular and Molecular Biology of Neuronal Development and Information in the Brain: A Molecular Perspective. H. KEITH H. BRODIE, M.D. is president emeritus of Duke University, James B. Duke Professor of Psychiatry, and professor of law and experimental psychology. He received the M.D. degree from the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons in 1965 and completed his residency in psychiatry at Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center. Dr. Brodie's career in medical research has been focused on the biochemistry of mental illness, a subject in which he has published over 60 articles and book chapters. In addition, he is joint author or co-editor of 11 books, including 3 volumes of the American Handbook of Psychiatry . Dr. Brodie has also served on the editorial board of the American Journal of Psychiatry. He has contributed to his profession and to the community at large as a practicing physician, as a member and officer of numerous professional associations, and as a consultant to national organizations concerned with health care. Dr. Brodie is the youngest president ever to have served the American Psychiatric Association and was the only psychiatrist to head an Association of American Universities institution.
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Aids and Behavior: An Integrated Approach COLLEEN CONWAY-WELCH, Ph.D., C.N.M., F.A.A.N. is professor and dean at the Vanderbilt University School of Nursing in Nashville, Tennessee. She came to Vanderbilt in November, 1984 from the School of Nursing at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, where she was professor of nursing and director of the Nurse-Midwifery Graduate Program. Prior to her appointment at Colorado in 1980, Dr. Conway-Welch served on the faculties of the California State University Department of Nursing in Long Beach, California, George Mason University Department of Nursing in Fairfax, Virginia, Georgetown University School of Nursing in Washington, D.C., and the State University of New York Downstate Medical Center College of Nursing in Brooklyn. She has also held a number of nursing service staff positions in labor and delivery in emergency rooms, operating rooms, and intensive care units. Dr. Conway-Welch received her B.S.N. from Georgetown University, her M.S.N. from Catholic University, and her Ph.D. in nursing from New York University. She completed her nurse-midwifery education at the Catholic Maternity Institute in Santa Fe, New Mexico. Dr. Conway-Welch was the recipient of the Jack Dempsey Award for Humanitarianism at the Seventh Annual Helen Hayes Community Award Dinner benefiting St. Clare's Hospital Spellman Center for AIDS, and received the March of Dimes Service Award. She participates in a number of community and professional activities as well as serving on several corporate boards. CURTIS L. DECKER, J.D. is executive director of the National Association of Protection and Advocacy Systems (NAPAS). NAPAS represents 190 agencies throughout the country that provide legal advocacy services for persons with disabilities, including persons with HIV infection. After graduating from Hamilton College and Cornell Law School, Mr. Decker served as a VISTA volunteer, senior attorney at the Baltimore Legal Aid Bureau, executive director of a child abuse and neglect resource project in Maryland, and executive director of the Maryland Disability Law Center. He has served on the AIDS councils of both Maryland Governors Hughes and Schaeffer and as co-chair of the Rights Task Force of the National Organizations Responding to AIDS (NORA) from 1984 to 1992. He has written several articles on legal issues relating to HIV infection funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and the Institute on Rehabilitative Issues Report on HIV and Vocational Rehabilitation (1989). Mr. Decker also served as chair of the community advisory committee of the Baltimore component of the multicenter AIDS cohort study.
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Aids and Behavior: An Integrated Approach BARUCH FISCHHOFF, Ph.D. is professor of social and decision sciences and of engineering and public policy at Carnegie Mellon University. He received the Ph.D. degree in psychology from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Dr. Fischhoff is a nationally recognized expert on risk assessment and communication and on decision making under uncertainty and has over 170 scientific publications to his credit, including Acceptable Risk (Cambridge University Press). He is a member of the Institute of Medicine. At the National Research Council, Dr. Fischhoff has participated in eight committees and panels, including the Ad Hoc Panel on Behavioral Science Contributions to AIDS (1987), the Committee on Human Factors (1980–1987), and the Committee on Risk Perception and Communication (1987–1989). As a consultant, Dr. Fischhoff has served the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Departments of Energy and Justice, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (AIDS communication program), the World Wildlife Fund/Conservation Foundation, and many more. Dr. Fischhoff is consulting editor for Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes and Accident Analysis and Prevention and is associate editor of The Journal of Risk and Uncertainty and Cognitive Psychology . He has been honored by the American Psychological Association, the Society for Risk Analysis, and the Society for Judgment and Decision Making. SUSAN FOLKMAN, Ph.D. is professor of medicine at the University of California, San Francisco, and a senior scientist and co-director of the Center for AIDS Prevention Studies (CAPS). She received the Ph.D. degree from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1979. Dr. Folkman is internationally recognized for her theoretical and empirical work on psychological stress and the coping process. This work appears in numerous peer-reviewed journal articles and books, including the well-known volume Stress, Appraisal, and Coping, co-authored with Richard Lazarus. She is currently principal investigator on four grants from the National Institute of Mental Health that focus on stress and coping in the context of HIV disease. Dr. Folkman has major interests in caregivers of persons with AIDS, who are becoming an increasingly important link in the health care delivery system, and in interventions designed to help people cope effectively with HIV disease. She is also director of the science core at CAPS, which involves her in review, mentoring, and assistance to junior scientists at CAPS engaging in research on primary prevention and early intervention
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Aids and Behavior: An Integrated Approach in HIV disease. She has served on the NIMH Mental Health in AIDS Study Section and chaired the NIMH AIDS Psychosocial Assessment Work Group. MINDY FULLILOVE, M.D. is associate professor of clinical psychiatry and public health at Columbia University and New York State Psychiatric Institute. She received the M.D. degree from the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons and completed her psychiatric residency at New York Hospital-Westchester division and Montefiore Hospital. Dr. Fullilove's current research focuses on the epidemiology of HIV infection in minority communities and trauma as a co-factor in drug abuse. From 1986 to 1990 she served as director of Multicultural Inquiry and Research on AIDS (MIRA), a component of the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) Center for AIDS Prevention Studies, located at the Bayview-Hunter's Point Foundation. Dr. Fullilove has a particular interest in preparing minority students to participate in academic medicine, and to that end founded and directed the UCSF Medical Scholars Program and the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons Student Success Network. She was a member of the National Academy of Sciences panel on AIDS Intervention and Research in 1990, has served on ADAMHA's AIDS Advisory Committee, and is a member of the National AIDS Drug Development Task Force. MARGARET A. HAMBURG, M.D. is the commissioner of health for New York City. She received the M.D. degree from Harvard Medical School and completed her residency in internal medicine at the New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center. Dr. Hamburg began her service in the New York City Department of Health in June 1990 as deputy commissioner for family health services. In that position she was responsible for child health, school and adolescent health, day care, dental health services, lead poisoning control, families with special needs, maternity services and family planning, and substance abuse services. Between 1986 and 1988, Dr. Hamburg worked for the federal assistant secretary for health in the areas of disease prevention and health promotion. From 1988 to 1990, Dr. Hamburg was a senior member of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, first as special assistant to the director and then as the assistant director of the institute. While at the National Institutes of Health she was instrumental in shaping AIDS research strategies and policies. Dr. Hamburg has extensive research experience in the areas of biology
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Aids and Behavior: An Integrated Approach of addictions, behavioral sciences, and child development. She serves on many health-related committees and organizations and is the author of numerous scientific articles. JAMES G. HAUGHTON, M.D., M.P.H. is senior health services policy advisor to the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services. In this capacity he has responsibility for assisting the department in preparing for the delivery of managed care. Prior to assuming these responsibilities in May, 1993, he served for six and a half years as medical director and chief of staff of the King/Drew Medical Center of the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services and associate dean for postgraduate medical education at the Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Sciences. After ten years as a private practitioner of obstetrics and gynecology in Brooklyn, New York, he began his medical administrative and public health career in the New York City Health Department, where he served for eight years. He then moved to Chicago where he served for ten years as executive director of the Health and Hospitals Governing Commission of Cook County. Dr. Haughton is a diplomat of the American Board of Preventive Medicine and a fellow of the American College of Preventive Medicine. He has been awarded a Rosenhaus Lectureship by the American Public Health Association and an honorary doctor of science degree by the Chicago Medical School, University of Health Sciences. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine and in that capacity has served as a member of several study committees. Dr. Haughton currently serves as a member of the Editorial Advisory Board of the Journal of Community Health and as a member of the Medical Advisory Committee to the AIDS Program Office of the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services. JAMES A. INCIARDI, Ph.D. is director of the Center for Drug and Alcohol Studies at the University of Delaware; professor in the Department of Sociology and Criminal Justice at Delaware; adjunct professor in the Department of Epidemiology and Public Health at the University of Miami School of Medicine; and distinguished professor at the State University of Rio de Janeiro. Dr. Inciardi received a Ph.D. in sociology from New York University and has extensive research, clinical, field, and teaching experience in the areas of AIDS, substance abuse, and criminal justice. He currently chairs the National Institute on Drug Abuse AIDS Research Review Committee. Dr. Inciardi has been director of the National Center for the Study of Acute Drug Reactions at the
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Aids and Behavior: An Integrated Approach University of Miami School of Medicine; vice-president of the Washington, D.C.-based Resource Planning Corporation; associate director of Research for the New York State Narcotic Addiction Control Commission; and director of the Division of Criminal Justice at the University of Delaware. He has done extensive consulting work nationally and internationally and has published some 35 books and more than 170 articles and chapters in the areas of substance abuse, criminology, criminal justice, history, folklore, social policy, AIDS, medicine, and law. EDWARD H. KAPLAN, Ph.D. is professor of management sciences at the Yale School of Management, professor of medicine at the Yale School of Medicine, and Lady Davis Visiting Professor at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Hadassah Medical Center. He received the Ph.D. degree in urban studies and planning from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1984. Prior to his arrival at Yale in 1987, Dr. Kaplan was assistant professor of management sciences at the University of Massachusetts, Boston (1985–1987) and adjunct lecturer/research associate at the Harvard John F. Kennedy School of Government (1984–1985). Dr. Kaplan has long been dedicated to the application of operations research methods to the analysis of public policy problems. Since 1987 his research has been devoted almost exclusively to modeling HIV transmission dynamics and to using these models in the design and evaluation of AIDS intervention programs. He has published over 35 papers in peer-reviewed journals since beginning his AIDS research in 1987, and his book Modeling the AIDS Epidemic: Planning, Policy and Prediction, co-edited with Margaret Brandeau, has just been published. Dr. Kaplan continues to serve pro bono as the principal investigator evaluating New Haven's legal needle exchange program, for which he designed a unique syringe tracking and testing system. For this work he received the 1992 Franz Edelman Award from the Institute of Management Sciences and a 1991 Connecticut Health Commissioner's AIDS Leadership Award. An active member of several professional societies, Dr. Kaplan currently serves as departmental editor for Management Science, associate editor for Operations Research, and associate editor for the Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. RICHARD W. PRICE, M.D. is professor and head of the Department of Neurology, University of Minnesota. He received the M.D. degree from Albany Medical College in 1967 and completed his neurology residency at Cornell University Medical College in
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Aids and Behavior: An Integrated Approach 1972. Dr. Price has a history of research and publication in the areas of HIV infection, AIDS, and neurology. He has served on the editorial boards of AIDS (from 1986 to 1990) and Neurology, and is editor of the Journal of Neuro-AIDS. Dr. Price was chair of the Neurology Committee of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases AIDS Clinical Trials Group from 1986 to 1990 and was a member of the NIAID AIDS Research Review Committee from 1987 to 1989. He also served on the Psychobiological, Biological, and Neuroscience Subcommittee of the Mental Health AIDS Research Review Committee from 1991 to 1992. ALFRED SAAH, M.D., M.P.H. is associate professor of the Infectious Diseases Program at the Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health. He received the M.D. degree from the University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, in 1973 and the M.P.H. from the Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health in 1981. While at the National Institutes of Health, Dr. Saah served as medical epidemiologist, Epidemiology and Biometry Section, and as attending physician, Infectious Diseases Service, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (1981–1987). He was Epidemiologist and project director for Rickettsial Diseases, Egyptian/Israeli Regional Project on Control of Arthropod-Borne Diseases from 1983 to 1989. Since 1983, Dr. Saah has been a collaborator in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. Since 1987, he has been associate professor of medicine at the School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, and associate professor of epidemiology at the School of Hygiene and Public Health, Johns Hopkins University. From 1989 to 1992, he was director, Infectious Diseases Program, Department of Epidemiology, at the School of Hygiene and Public Health at Johns Hopkins University. Dr. Saah is a fellow of the American College of Physicians, the Infectious Diseases Society of America, and the American Public Health Association, as well as other professional societies. Since 1989 he has been associate editor of AIDS Targeted Information. Dr. Saah is author of numerous articles in professional journals and book chapters. PETER SELWYN, M.D., M.P.H. is currently the associate director of the Yale AIDS Program, director of the HIV/AIDS Clinic, and associate professor of medicine, epidemiology, and public health at Yale University School of Medicine and Yale-New Haven Hospital. He received the M.D. degree from Harvard Medical School in 1981 and the M.P.H. degree in epidemiology from Columbia
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Aids and Behavior: An Integrated Approach University in 1989. He completed his residency in the Residency Program in Social Medicine at Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York in 1984. From 1984 until 1992, Dr. Selwyn was the medical director of the Drug Abuse Treatment Program at Montefiore Medical Center in Bronx, New York, where he helped to develop clinical care programs and a variety of research projects concerning HIV infection among drug users. These projects included studies of the natural history of HIV infection among drug users, studies of pregnancy and reproductive decision making in drug-using women, and the development of integrated primary care and substance abuse treatment services for HIV-infected drug users. Dr. Selwyn has served as an ad hoc and permanent member of numerous scientific, advisory, and review committees in the areas of HIV infection and drug abuse, and has been a consultant on AIDS and substance abuse to the New York State Health Department and the Global Program on AIDS of the World Health Organization. He is the author of over 50 scientific articles, book chapters, review articles, and monographs concerning medical, epidemiologic, and social aspects of HIV infection and drug use. JUDITH D. AUERBACH, Ph.D. is currently a senior program officer at the Institute of Medicine, where she is study director for the Committee on Substance Abuse and Mental Health Issues in AIDS Research. Previously, she was associate director for government affairs of the Consortium of Social Science Associations (COSSA). During her tenure at COSSA, Dr. Auerbach was involved in educational and advocacy activities directed at the inclusion of social science perspectives in the health research enterprise of the federal government (especially NIH and the former ADAMHA). She was instrumental in coordinating efforts to end prohibitions on sexual behavior studies, to focus on social and behavioral research on AIDS, and to enhance attention to women's health issues. Dr. Auerbach began her policy work in Washington in 1988 as a Congressional Science Fellow, sponsored by the Society for Research in Child Development, when she worked on child, family and health policy issues in the office of Representative Pat Schroeder. From 1989 to 1990, she was director of the Institute for the Study of Women and Men at the University of Southern California. Dr. Auerbach received her Ph.D. in sociology from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1986, and taught sociology at Widener University and the University of California, Los Angeles. She has published and presented in the fields of child care, family leave, gender issues, health research, and science policy,
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Aids and Behavior: An Integrated Approach including the book, In the Business of Child Care: Employer Initiatives and Working Women (Praeger). KAREN AUTREY is the project assistant and senior secretary at the Institute of Medicine for the Committee on Substance Abuse and Mental Health Issues in AIDS Research. Ms. Autrey has been with the National Academy of Sciences for three years. She previously worked as project assistant with the Film Office of the Office of Government and External Affairs. The Film Office, as liaison between prominent scientists and production companies, participates in the development and production of films for public television and ensures that the information used in the films is scientifically sound. Ms. Autrey worked in the Film Office during the production of The Infinite Voyage and Space Age. Before coming to NAS, Ms. Autrey worked at The Wilderness Society and the Electronic Industries Association. As a volunteer, Ms. Autrey tutors underprivileged five-, six-, and seven-year-olds through the Black Diamonds Organization and helps mentally retarded adults at the Northern Virginia Training Center. In 1987, Ms. Autrey received her B.S. in psychology at James Madison University in Harrisonburg, Virginia. ROBERT MULLAN COOK-DEEGAN, M.D. is the director of the Division of Biobehavioral Sciences and Mental Disorders at the Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences. He was previously an expert (consultant advisor) to the National Center for Human Genome Research at the National Institutes of Health. Dr. Cook-Deegan served as the acting executive director of the Biomedical Ethics Advisory Committee of the U.S. Congress throughout its active life, from December 1988 to October 1989. Before that, he was a senior associate at the Office of Technology Assessment, U.S. Congress, for six years. He is the author of The Gene Wars: Science, Politics and the Human Genome (Norton). HOLLY DAWKINS is a research assistant at the Institute of Medicine for the Committee on Substance Abuse and Mental Health Issues in AIDS Research. In her five years at IOM, Ms. Dawkins has worked in six IOM units on over a dozen projects. The projects range from assessing modern methods of clinical investigation, to investigating decision-making processes for the adoption and coverage of medical technologies, to evaluating the development and use of clinical practice guidelines. In 1991 she received an Institute of Medicine staff award for her work on the IOM study to
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Aids and Behavior: An Integrated Approach evaluate the artificial heart program of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Ms. Dawkins has three publications in IOM reports. In 1986 she received the A.B. degree in English Literature, with honors, from Brown University. LESLIE M. HARDY, M.H.S. is currently director of the Institute of Medicine's Roundtable for the Development of Drugs and Vaccines Against AIDS, a group composed of leaders from government, the pharmaceutical industry, academia, and patient advocacy. The roundtable convenes workshops and conferences to identify and help resolve impediments to the rapid availability of safe, effective drugs and vaccines for HIV infection and AIDS. Previously, Ms. Hardy directed the IOM study of prenatal and newborn screening for HIV infection, which resulted in the 1991 report HIV Screening of Pregnant Women and Newborns. She also formerly served as staff officer for the IOM/NAS AIDS Activities Oversight Committee, which produced the study report Confronting AIDS: Update 1988. During her work with the AIDS Oversight Committee, she focused on issues pertaining to the delivery and financing of health care for people with HIV infection and AIDS, stress among AIDS care providers, and the care of neuropsychologically impaired people with AIDS. Ms. Hardy received her bachelor of arts degree in zoology and botany from Duke University and her master of health science degree in maternal and child health from the Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health. CONSTANCE M. PECHURA, Ph.D. has been at the Institute of Medicine since 1988 and is presently associate director of the Division of Biobehavioral Sciences and Mental Disorders. She has directed a number of projects on topics including assessing health effects of chemical weapons exposure on World War II human subjects, integrating computer technologies to map the human brain, microbial pathogenesis, developmental neurobiology, sleep research, psychoneuroimmunology, science base of medically assisted conception, mental and addictive disorders in women, fetal research, and health and human rights. After earning a B.S. degree in psychology from the Virginia Commonwealth University, Dr. Pechura received a Ph.D. in anatomy, with a specialization in neuroscience, from the F. Edward Hebert School of Medicine of the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USUHS). A recipient of a National Science Foundation Graduate Fellowship, Dr. Pechura has taught medical school course in gross anatomy,
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Aids and Behavior: An Integrated Approach microscopic anatomy, and neuroanatomy at USUHS, where she was awarded an outstanding teaching award in 1985. Her postdoctoral training was at the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Currently, she is a health policy tutor at Stanford in Washington. Her published laboratory research has included studies of blood-brain barrier function, glucose utilization in experimental head injury, and the neuroanatomy of pain sensation. MICHAEL A. STOTO, Ph.D. is the director of the Division of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention of the Institute of Medicine. He received an A.B. in statistics from Princeton University and a Ph.D. in statistics and demography from Harvard University, and was formerly an associate professor of public policy at the Harvard University John F. Kennedy School of Government. A member of the professional staff since 1987, Dr. Stoto directed the IOM's effort in support of the Public Health Service's Healthy People 2000 project and has worked on IOM projects addressing a number of issues in public health, health statistics, health promotion and disease prevention, vaccine safety and policy, and AIDS. Dr. Stoto is co-author of Data for Decisions: Information Strategies for Policy Makers and numerous articles in statistics, demography, health policy, and other fields. He is a member of the American Public Health Association, the American Statistical Association, the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, the Population Association of America, and other organizations. CHRISTINA WYPIJEWSKA, M.P.H. is a program officer at the Institute of Medicine for the Committee on Substance Abuse and Mental Health Issues in AIDS Research. Prior to joining the IOM, she worked in the Public Health Service for the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health in the areas of disease prevention and health promotion. As prevention policy advisor, Ms. Wypijewska coordinated PHS implementation strategies for Healthy People 2000 and contributed to worksite health promotion initiatives, including the 1992 National Survey of Worksite Health Promotion Activities. When she first joined the PHS, Ms. Wypijewska worked as the special assistant for the deputy assistant secretary for health, providing research, writing, and editorial assistance for a variety of articles and publications. Ms. Wypijewska received her M.P.H. degree from Yale University and her undergraduate degree in biology from Vassar College. In the D.C. community, she has volunteered as a counselor with the D.C. Rape Crisis Center and the Prenatal Program of the Washington Free Clinic, where she currently serves on the Board of Directors.
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