Index

A

Abusive relationships, 96-97

ACT-UP, 93

ADAMHA. See Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration

ADAMHA Reorganization Act of 1992 (PL 102-321), 19, 157, 158, 162, 165, 166

and grant review process, 22, 176-177

implications for services and research, 35-36, 245

Addiction. See Alcohol use;

Injection drug use;

Substance abuse;

Withdrawal syndrome

Advisory councils, 22, 170, 176, 177-178, 179, 181

Africa, 51, 52, 60, 100-101, 112, 115

African Americans, 39-40, 67, 90, 94, 97

in research, 34, 95, 102-103, 106-107, 204, 239, 248

AIDS Advisory Council, 170

AIDS clinical trials units (ACTUs), 226

AIDS dementia complex (ADC), 12-13, 31, 42, 125-134, 141

research recommendations, 17-18, 151

treatment, 13, 134

AIDS in Multiethnic Neighborhoods (AMEN) study, 73-74, 230

AIDS Risk Reduction Model (ARRM), 85

Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration (ADAMHA), v, 35, 37

budget process, 21, 171, 172-175

grant review process, 22, 177

history of, 159-162

reorganization, vi-vii, 3, 19, 20, 21, 35, 36, 37, 42, 43, 158-168, 171, 174-175, 185, 240, 245

See also National Institute of Mental Health;

National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism;

National Institute on Drug Abuse;

Office of Substance Abuse Prevention;

Office of Treatment Improvement;

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

Alcohol Research Centers, 201, 203

Alcohol use, 61, 69, 70, 73

immune system effects, 13-14, 26, 134-135, 198, 201, 202

intervention and outreach, 106-107, 247-248



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 327
Aids and Behavior: An Integrated Approach Index A Abusive relationships, 96-97 ACT-UP, 93 ADAMHA. See Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration ADAMHA Reorganization Act of 1992 (PL 102-321), 19, 157, 158, 162, 165, 166 and grant review process, 22, 176-177 implications for services and research, 35-36, 245 Addiction. See Alcohol use; Injection drug use; Substance abuse; Withdrawal syndrome Advisory councils, 22, 170, 176, 177-178, 179, 181 Africa, 51, 52, 60, 100-101, 112, 115 African Americans, 39-40, 67, 90, 94, 97 in research, 34, 95, 102-103, 106-107, 204, 239, 248 AIDS Advisory Council, 170 AIDS clinical trials units (ACTUs), 226 AIDS dementia complex (ADC), 12-13, 31, 42, 125-134, 141 research recommendations, 17-18, 151 treatment, 13, 134 AIDS in Multiethnic Neighborhoods (AMEN) study, 73-74, 230 AIDS Risk Reduction Model (ARRM), 85 Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration (ADAMHA), v, 35, 37 budget process, 21, 171, 172-175 grant review process, 22, 177 history of, 159-162 reorganization, vi-vii, 3, 19, 20, 21, 35, 36, 37, 42, 43, 158-168, 171, 174-175, 185, 240, 245 See also National Institute of Mental Health; National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute on Drug Abuse; Office of Substance Abuse Prevention; Office of Treatment Improvement; Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Alcohol Research Centers, 201, 203 Alcohol use, 61, 69, 70, 73 immune system effects, 13-14, 26, 134-135, 198, 201, 202 intervention and outreach, 106-107, 247-248

OCR for page 327
Aids and Behavior: An Integrated Approach and HIV seroprevalence rates, 40, 64, 69, 70, 203 and sexual behavior, 49, 63-66, 80, 118, 203-204 Amyl nitrite, 49 Anal intercourse, 4, 48-49, 51, 99, 118 Anal warts, 4, 50 Animal models, 16, 18, 79, 133, 151 Antiaddictive drugs, 82 Antinarcotic drugs, 15, 18, 152 Antipsychotic drugs, 15, 18, 152 Anxiety, 15, 140, 141, 144 Applied research, 24, 25, 188, 189 Aseptic meningitis, 12, 125 Asia, 51 Astrocytes, 13, 128, 130 Asymptomatic stage. See Latency period Avoidant coping, 16, 143. See also Cognitive coping strategies; Coping behavior AZT (zidovudine), 18, 138, 152 B Backloading, 55 Basic research, 2, 24-25, 40, 188, 189 deficiencies in, 2, 40-41 funding allocations for, 190-191 See also Theoretical models Behavioral epidemiology, viii, 3, 5, 30, 33, 41, 226, 237-238 Behavior change interventions, 2, 9-10, 28, 30, 40, 41, 83, 98-121, 203, 220, 229, 252 community focus, 9, 114-116, 212-213, 214 evaluation of, 10, 11, 33, 119-121, 122, 123, 203, 216, 238 individual focus, 9, 88-89, 99, 108-111, 114 injection drug use, 111, 114, 116, 212-213, 214 maintenance, 9, 10, 11, 41, 116-119, 122, 123 models of, 9, 10, 83-88, 98-99, 118-119, 121-122, 227 research support, 11, 123 sexual behavior, 99, 108-111, 114-115 study examples, 100-109 See also Preventive interventions; Relapse prevention Bereavement, 16, 145 support services, 145, 244 Biomedical/biobehavioral research, 24, 188 NIAAA activities, 25-26, 201-203 NIDA activities, 27-28, 209-210 NIMH activities, 30, 225-226 Bleach 215, 250 Blood, 1, 39, 51, 53, 58, 66 Blood-brain barrier, 13, 133 Blood transfusion, 1, 39, 52, 66 Booting, 53-54 Brain, 3, 6, 12, 13, 17, 42, 78, 80, 124 Budget process, 3, 20, 42, 157-158, 171-172, 173, 185 of ADAMHA, 21, 171, 172-175 of NIAAA, 21, 174, 175-176 of NIDA, 21, 174, 175-176 of NIH, 20-21, 168, 169-172, 175-176 of NIMH, 21, 174, 175-176 See also Funding for HIV/AIDS research and programs Butyl nitrite, 49 C California Partners' Study, 50-51 Caregiving, 16-17, 30, 145-151 coping behavior of, 19, 141, 147, 148, 153 formal, 17, 148-149, 150 informal, 16-17, 146-148 mental health of, 16-17, 146-149, 149-151 research recommendations, 19, 149-151, 153 stress, 15, 17, 30, 150 Cases of AIDS. See Incidence; Prevalence Center for AIDS Intervention Research (CAIR), 231 Center for AIDS Prevention Studies (CAPS), 145, 227, 230, 231, 251 -252 Center for Biopsychosocial Study of AIDS, 230 Center for Mental Health Services (CMHS), vi, 20, 35, 163, 166, 241 , 243-244, 254

OCR for page 327
Aids and Behavior: An Integrated Approach Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP), vi, 35, 240, 244 Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT), vi, 20, 35, 163, 240, 241, 243, 248, 249, 251 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 38, 62, 85, 95, 252, 253, 254 Central nervous system (CNS), 12-13, 15, 17-18, 30, 34, 124, 125-134, 151, 209, 225-226, 238-239 opportunistic infections of, 12, 125, 126 and sexual behavior, 10, 122 See also AIDS dementia complex; Brain; Neurobiology Cerebral toxoplasmosis, 12, 125 Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), 13, 127, 128 Cervical secretions, 50 Class. See Socioeconomic status Clinical trials, 226 Cocaine, 10, 53, 54, 55, 61, 81, 82, 118, 122. See also Crack cocaine Cofactors of transmission, 48 in sexual practices, 48-51, 53, 59-66 Cognitive coping strategies, 16, 143, 144. See also Avoidant coping; Coping behavior Cognitive impairment, 6, 77. See also AIDS dementia complex; Mental health and illness; Seriously mentally ill Collaborative research, 30-31, 34, 229-232, 238-239 and grant review process, 23, 185 and service programs, 34, 36-37, 43, 240, 245-254 Commercial sex workers, 52, 69, 96, 110-111, 113, 115. See also Sex-for-crack exchanges Community factors, 5, 8-9, 10-11, 24, 76, 88-89, 93-94, 118, 123 activism, 93-94 highrisk settings, 4-5, 56-57, 71-75, 76 See also Cultural factors; Social networks; Social norms; Social science research; Social-structural research Community intervention and outreach, 10-11, 88, 102-103, 104-105, 108-109, 114-116, 123, 228 for alcohol users, 247-248 for commercial sex workers, 115 for drug users, 5, 28, 116, 212-213, 214, 216, 241, 243, 249-250 for gay men, 91, 93-94, 114 and mental health services, 241, 243-244, 252-253 models of, 86-87 for Native Americans, 247-248 stress among workers, 17, 150-151 for youth, 244, 248, 251 See also Demonstration projects; National AIDS Demonstration Research Program Comprehensive Community Treatment Program (CCTP), 35, 241, 243 Concurrent epidemics and health events, 5, 6, 50, 71, 75, 76, 77 Condoms, 51, 83, 84, 92, 97, 111, 114, 115 and drug use, 60, 75, 116 female, 111, 112-113 Contracts and contract proposals, 181, 192, 193 Cookers, 54-55 Cooperative agreements (U01s), 181, 192, 193 Cooperative clinical research (R10/U10) awards, 192 Coping behavior, 15, 16, 19, 30, 141, 142-145, 153 of caregivers, 19, 141, 147, 148, 153 NIMH research, 19, 153 Cortical dementias, 128 Cost-effectiveness of interventions, 9, 11, 33, 121, 122, 123, 238 Cost-to-benefit ratio, 121, 122 Cottons, 54, 55 Counseling services, 99, 110, 244 Couples, 8, 11, 55-56, 89, 91, 92, 110, 123. See also Drug-running partners; Sexual partners Crack cocaine, 34, 59-63, 210, 211, 238 and sexual behavior, 28, 59, 60-63, 75, 211 Crack houses, 4-5, 59, 76 CRISP (Computer Retrieval of Information on Scientific Projects) system, 177, 299-300, 301

OCR for page 327
Aids and Behavior: An Integrated Approach Cross-disciplinary research, 24, 25, 42-43, 78, 189-190 on drug abuse treatment, 15, 33-34, 83, 238 and grant review process, 22, 23, 182-184, 185 on preventive interventions, 9-10, 122, 124 Cryptococcal meningitis, 12, 125 Cultural factors, 5, 7, 8-9, 10-11, 24, 33, 34, 76, 87, 93, 123, 238 affecting research-service collaboration, 36-37, 245-246, 254 coping strategies, 16, 19, 145, 153 in treatment and disease progression, 19, 152 See also Community factors; Ethnography Cultural sensitivity, 8, 89, 94-95 Cytokines, 126, 131, 133 Cytomegalovirus (CMV), 126 D Data collection, vii, 24, 34, 186-187, 239, 299-303. See also Surveillance and data collection Deaths from HIV/AIDS, 1, 40, 67, 68 Dementia, 128-129. See also AIDS dementia complex Demonstration projects mental health services, 19, 153, 243-245, 252-253 outreach for injection drug users, 249-250 research projects (R18s), 25, 34, 116, 192, 193, 207, 212-213, 214 , 217, 220, 238, 249 service delivery, 20, 30, 163, 241, 248-250 See also Community intervention and outreach; National AIDS Demonstration Research Program Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), 38, 158 budget review process, 21, 170, 171 See also Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration; National Institutes of Health; Public Health Service; Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Depression, 15-16, 17, 30, 118, 140-141, 142, 143, 144 among caregivers, 16-17, 30, 145 among health care professionals, 17, 149 among people with HIV/AIDS, 15-16, 30, 141-144 Diaphragms, 112 Diffusion Theory, 86-87 Disease progression and pathogenesis, 3, 11-12, 17-19, 24, 124-126, 129-133, 136-137, 151-152 basic research, 2, 41-42 central nervous system injury, 11-13, 124-126, 129, 133 and epidemiologic study, 66 and mental illness, 11, 12, 15, 18, 124, 140, 152 research recommendations, 17-19, 151-152 social-structural factors, 10, 123 Division of Research Grants (DRG), 177, 182 Dopamine systems, 10, 81-82, 122 Drug-running partners, 55-56, 91-92 Drugs. See Cocaine; Crack cocaine; Heroin; Injection drug use; Needle exchange; Pharmacologic interventions; Substance abuse Dual review systems, 22, 177-178. See also Grant review process Dyads. See Couples; Sexual partners Dysphoria, 17, 147 E Efficacy beliefs, 84 Emotional distress, 16, 30, 143 Enemas, 48 Epidemiological research, 5-6, 24, 76-77, 120, 122, 188-189 NIAAA activities, 26, 203 NIDA activities, 28, 210-212 NIMH activities, 226 See also Behavioral epidemiology; Incidence; Prevalence; Surveillance and data collection Ethnography, 33, 34, 88, 238, 239 in drug use settings, 5, 56, 60, 211-212 Evaluation research, 2, 9, 10, 11, 33, 119-121, 122, 123, 238 Experimental studies. See Pre-post

OCR for page 327
Aids and Behavior: An Integrated Approach comparison studies; Randomized controlled trials Extramural research grants, 25, 189, 190, 191, 192, 205, 220, 228. See also Grant review process F Families, 11, 19, 24, 123, 146-148, 150, 153 Female condom, 111, 112-113 Female-to-male transmission, 51-53. See also Heterosexual transmission First independent research support and transition (FIRST) awards, 192 Fisting, 48, 49 Frontloading, 55 Funding for HIV/AIDS research and programs, 26, 27, 29, 31, 32, 35 , 187, 198, 205, 221, 232-235, 241-244 Funding mechanisms, 191-198, 201, 202, 207, 208, 223, 224 G Gay and bisexual men, 1, 39, 40, 66, 69, 70, 75, 79 alcohol use, 64 caregiving, 146, 147, 150 coping strategies, 16, 144, 145 intervention and outreach, 91, 93, 99, 114-115, 118, 203-204, 248, 252 mental health and illness, 16, 144 sexual behavior, 48-49, 70, 91, 99, 114-115, 117, 118-119 Gay Men's Health Crisis (GMHC), 93 Gender, 6, 7, 10, 11, 34, 79, 87, 92, 95-97, 122-123, 239 in coping strategies, 16, 145 in treatment and disease progression, 19, 152 Genital warts, 4, 50, 51 Gonorrhea, 4, 50 Gp120 (glycoprotein), 13, 130-132 Grant analysis methodology, 299-303 Grant review process, 3, 20, 42, 157-158, 176-185 of NIAAA, 23, 179, 180, 181, 182-183, 185 of NIDA, 23, 179, 180, 181, 182-183, 185 of NIH, 22-23, 177, 178-179, 181, 183 of NIMH, 23, 179, 181-183, 185 scoring and rating systems, 22-23, 178, 183-184, 185 Group counseling, 99 H Health Belief Model, 84, 85 Health care professionals attitudes toward patients, 17, 89, 149 mental health of, 17, 148-149, 150-151 training programs for, 20, 163, 231-232, 241, 243-244, 252 Health care services and access, 8, 18-19, 24, 67, 90, 152 for drug users, 14, 18-19, 136, 138-140, 152, 241, 243-244, 248 and family caregivers, 148 for gay men, 93 Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), 38, 241, 252, 253, 254 Hemophiliacs, 1, 39, 40, 70 Hepatitis, 14, 49, 137 Heroin, 53, 55, 61, 80, 81, 82 Herpes, 4, 13, 50, 51, 129 Heterosexual transmission, 1, 4, 39, 48, 50-53, 66, 67, 96-97 and crack cocaine, 60-63 HHS. See Department of Health and Human Services Hierarchical diffusion, 67-68 Hispanic/Latino Americans, 39-40, 67, 74, 94, 97 in research, 34, 100-101, 106-107, 230, 239, 248 HIV Center for Clinical and Behavioral Studies, 227, 230, 231, 251 -252 HIV Neurobehavioral Research Center, 230-231 Homeless youth, 41, 251 Homosexuality. See Gay and bisexual men; Lesbians and bisexual women Hypodermic needles, 4, 53-54, 57, 58. See also Injection drug use, paraphernalia; Needle exchange Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, 16, 141

OCR for page 327
Aids and Behavior: An Integrated Approach I Immune system, 15-16, 28, 30, 42, 125, 127, 130-131, 141-142, 205, 209-210, 225, 226 alcohol effects, 13-14, 26, 134-135, 198, 201, 202 See also Psychoneuroimmunology IMPAC (Information for Management, Planning, Analysis, and Coordination) data system, 177 Incidence, 1, 39, 40, 66-68, 69 of drug use, 70-71 Indian Health Service, 247 Infants, perinatal HIV transmission, 1, 39, 66, 97, 210 Informal caregivers, 16-17, 146-148 Initial review groups (IRGs), 177, 178, 181. See also Grant review process Injection drug use, 1, 4-5, 15, 28, 39, 40, 47, 53-58, 66, 69, 75, 78, 82, 91, 135-140, 210-212, 213-215 and caregiving, 147, 150 and clinical trials, 18, 152 coping strategies, 145 data collection, 70-71, 211 intervention and outreach, 71, 100-109, 111, 114, 116, 212-213, 214 , 250 paraphernalia, 4, 53-55, 71, 250 seropositivity rates, 40 and sexual behavior, 53, 59, 63, 75, 91-92 social norms in, 92 See also Needle exchange Intervention. See Behavior change interventions; Community intervention and outreach; Pharmacologic interventions; Preventive interventions; Services programs and delivery; Treatment Intramural research programs, 181 Intravenous drug use. See Injection drug use Investigator-initiated grants (R01s), 25, 179, 192, 193 Italian Study Group on HIV Heterosexual Transmission, 51 IV drug use. See Injection drug use J Jacking, 54 Job Corps, 40, 69, 70 K Kaposi's sarcoma, 49 Kicking, 53 L Latency period and AIDS dementia complex, 13, 128, 133 and epidemiological studies, 52, 66 Latinos. See Hispanic/Latino Americans Lesbians and bisexual women, 53 Leukoencephalopathy, 12, 125 Levo-alpha-acetylmethadol (LAAM), 82, 210 Liver disease, 135, 137, 138 Loss. See Bereavement Lymphatic system, 14, 125, 135 Lymphoma, 12, 124, 125 M Macrophages, 130-131 Mason categories, 188 Mathematical modeling, 24, 120-121, 122 Media campaigns, 115 Mediating variables, 9, 98 Men, 1, 34, 39, 40, 49, 66, 67, 96, 239. See also Female-to-male transmission; Gay and bisexual men; Heterosexual transmission Meningitis, 12, 125 Mental health and illness, 3, 6, 13, 15-16, 72-73, 142-145 among caregivers, 16-17, 146-149, 149-151 and drug use, 15, 72, 73 among health care professionals, 17, 148-149, 150-151 and HIV disease progression and pathogenesis, 11, 12, 15, 18, 124, 140, 152 and HIV treatment, 12, 18, 140, 152

OCR for page 327
Aids and Behavior: An Integrated Approach intervention and outreach, 241, 243-245, 252-253 research recommendations, 6, 18, 77 seroprevalence among patients, 40, 69, 70, 71, 73 See also AIDS dementia complex; Depression; Emotional distress; Psychoneuroimmunology; Seriously mentally ill; Stress Methadone, 14, 18, 82, 111, 138, 152, 251 Methods to extend research in time (MERIT) awards, 192 Microglia, 13, 131 Military recruits and personnel, 69 Motherhood, 97 Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS), 118, 142, 226 Multi-disciplinary research. See Cross-disciplinary research Multi-Site HIV Prevention Trial, 227 N National AIDS Behavioral Surveys (NABS), 230 National AIDS Demonstration Research Program (NADR), 116, 191, 212 -213, 214, 217, 220, 249 National AIDS Program Office (NAPO), 38, 172, 254 National Cancer Institute, 232, 233 National Center for Research Resources, 233, 234 National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 233, 234 National Institute of Allergies and Infectious Diseases, 232, 233, 234 National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), vi, vii, viii, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 11, 16, 40, 41, 42, 43, 47, 76, 77, 78, 122, 123, 151 , 152, 153, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 236-237, 238, 239, 255, 256 AIDS coordinator position, 20, 29, 31, 33, 165, 168, 223, 237 budget process, 21, 174, 175-176 collaborative activities, 17-18, 19, 30-31, 34, 37, 38, 151, 152, 229-232, 254, 255 grant review process, 22-23, 179, 181-183, 185 research portfolio and funding allocations, 23-24, 25, 29-30, 31, 42, 189-191 192, 193, 221-229, 232, 233, 234, 235 service linkages, 240, 243, 247, 251-253 National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), vi, vii , viii, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 11, 18, 19, 40, 41, 42, 43, 76, 77, 78, 122, 123, 151, 152, 153, 157, 158, 160, 161, 162, 163, 236-237, 238 , 239, 255, 256 AIDS coordinator position, 20, 25-26, 31, 33, 165, 168, 237 budget process, 21, 174, 175-176 collaborative activities, 17, 18, 19, 30-31, 34, 37, 38, 151, 229-232, 254, 255 grant review process, 22-23, 179, 180, 181, 182-183, 185 research portfolio and funding allocations, 23-24, 25-26, 31, 42, 189-191, 193, 198-204, 232, 233, 234, 235 service linkages, 240, 247-248 National Institute on Child Health and Human Development, 225, 233 , 234 National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), vi, vii, viii, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 11, 18, 19, 40, 41, 42, 43, 47, 62, 76, 77, 78, 122, 123 , 151, 152, 153, 157, 158, 160, 161, 162, 163, 236-237, 238, 239, 255, 256 AIDS coordinator position, 20, 26-27, 31, 33, 165, 168, 199, 200, 208-209, 237 budget process, 21, 174, 175-176 collaborative research activities, 18, 19, 20, 30-31, 34, 37, 38, 229-232, 254, 255 grant review process, 22-23, 179, 180, 181, 182-183, 185 research portfolio and funding allocations, 23-24, 25, 26-28, 31, 42, 189-191, 192, 193, 205-221, 232, 233, 234, 235 service linkages, 240, 241, 247, 248-251

OCR for page 327
Aids and Behavior: An Integrated Approach National Institute on Neurological Disorders and Stroke, 225-226, 233 National Institutes of Health (NIH), v, 3 budget process, 20-21, 168, 169-172, 175-176 funding allocations, 31, 32, 232-233 grant review process, 22-23, 177, 178-179, 181, 183 restructuring of, vi, 19, 20-21, 35, 157, 158, 165, 168-171 See also National Institute of Mental Health; National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute on Drug Abuse; Office of AIDS Research National surveys, 5, 69, 76 Native American Prevention Project on AIDS and Substance Abuse, 203 , 247-248 Navajo Tribe, 203, 247 Needle exchange, 33, 93, 102-103, 116, 121, 215, 216, 238, 250 community opposition, 8, 94-95 Neurobiology, viii, 25, 31, 78 of drug addiction, 6-7, 80-83, 122 NIMH research support, 17-18, 151, 225-226, 228-229 of risk behavior, 6-7, 41-42, 78-79, 122 of sexual behavior, 6-7, 10, 78-79, 122 See also Brain; Central nervous system; Mental health and illness; Peripheral nervous system; Psychoneuro-immunology Neurochemical systems, 10, 79, 122 Neuropathology, 13, 129-132, 151 New York, 40, 55, 74 NIAAA. See National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism NIDA. See National Institute on Drug Abuse NIH. See National Institutes of Health NIH Revitalization Act of 1993, vi, 19-21, 157, 168, 169, 170, 235 NIMH. See National Institute of Mental Health Nimodipine, 13, 132 Nitrite inhalants, 49 NMDA receptors, 131-132 Noradrenergic systems, 10, 122 Norms. See Social norms O Office of AIDS Research (OAR), vi, 3, 19-21, 33, 42, 157, 168-171, 172, 175, 176, 185, 237 and collaborative research, 33, 237 emergency discretionary fund, 20, 169, 170-171 and institute program coordination, 33, 169, 235, 237 new budget authority, vi, 20-21, 157, 168-171 Office of Management and Budget (OMB), 21, 171 Office of National AIDS Policy (ONAP), 38, 254, 256 Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP), 158, 163, 172 Office of Substance Abuse Prevention (OSAP), 163. See also Center for Substance Abuse Prevention Office of Treatment Improvement (OTI), 163. See also Center for Substance Abuse Treatment Opioids and opioid peptide receptors, 10, 14, 80-81, 122, 138, 210 Opportunistic infections, 134 of central nervous system, 12, 125, 126 and drug interactions, 18, 152 Oral-genital intercourse, 4, 48 Outcome measures, 9, 11, 30, 84, 98, 117-118, 120, 123 Outreach. See Community intervention and outreach P Parental caregivers, 147-148, 150 Pathogenesis. See Disease progression and pathogenesis Peer review, 22-23, 171, 176, 177, 181, 184. See also Grant review process Pentoxyphilline, 13, 132 Peptide T, 225 Perinatal HIV transmission, 1, 39, 66, 97, 210

OCR for page 327
Aids and Behavior: An Integrated Approach Perinatal 20 Treatment Research Demonstration Program, 210 Peripheral nervous system (PNS), 12, 125 Peripheral neuropathy, 12, 125 Phagocytes, 14, 135 Pharmacologic interventions, 18, 42, 152 for AIDS dementia complex, 131-32, 134 for drug abuse, 14-15, 18, 152 and drug interactions, 14, 15, 18, 138, 152 experimental, 93 PL 102-321. See ADAMHA Reorganization Act of 1992 PL 103-43. See NIH revitalization Act of 1993 Poliovirus, 13, 129 Political sensitivities, 2, 4, 40, 47, 89 Poppers. See Nitrite inhalants Posttraumatic stress disorder, 17, 149 Pre-post comparison studies, 9, 98 Prevalence, 39-40, 47, 69-70, 112 data limitations, 76, 92 risky behaviors, 4-5, 47, 70, 71-76 Prevention Demonstrations for HighRisk Youth Program, 35, 244 Preventive interventions, 2, 4, 40 assessment and evaluation of, 2, 9, 10, 24, 98-99, 119-121, 122 basic research, 2, 9-10, 41, 121 for highrisk settings, 5, 76 study examples, 100-109 See also Behavior change interventions Prisoners, 34, 238 Program announcements (PAs), 25, 193, 194-197, 229-230. See also Requests for applications Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), 12, 125 Prostitution. See Commercial sex workers; Sex-for-crack exchanges Psychiatric disorders. See AIDS dementia complex; Mental health and illness; Seriously mentally ill Psychoactive drugs, 14, 18, 81, 152, 249 Psychometrics, 184 Psychoneuroimmunology, 15-16, 30, 141-142 NIMH research support for, 16, 30, 141, 190, 225 Psychosocial factors, 6, 7-8, 24, 43, 78, 83, 140-141, 188, 189 in behavior change, 9-10, 84-88, 118 and caregiving, 12, 15, 124, 141, 145-151 NIAAA research activities, 26, 203-204 NIDA research activities, 28, 213-215 NIMH research activities, 30, 221, 227 in risky behavior, 5, 83-84, 118 in sexual behavior, 6, 7, 83, 87-88, 92-93 See also Community factors; Coping behavior; Gender; Mental health and illness; Psychoneuroimmunology; Relationships Public Health Service (PHS), vi, 43, 171, 177 interagency coordination, 6, 34, 38, 77, 237, 238, 254-255 services programs, 157 See also Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and mental Health Administration; National Institutes of Health; Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Q Qualitative sociology, viii, 3, 41, 76 Quality of life, 67 and AIDS dementia complex, 12, 126 Quinolinic acid (QUIN), 131, 225 R Race/ethnicity, 7, 10, 11, 34, 67, 94-95, 118, 123 and coping strategies, 16, 19, 145, 153 discrimination, 8, 90, 95, 97 in treatment and disease progression, 19, 152 as variable in research, 10, 11, 19, 34, 118, 123, 152, 153, 239 See also African Americans; Hispanic/Latino Americans Randomized controlled trials, 9, 98, 119-120 Rectal douching, 48-49 Relapse prevention, 11, 116-119, 123 Relationships, 24, 30, 89 among drug users, 55-56, 75, 96

OCR for page 327
Aids and Behavior: An Integrated Approach Requests for applications (RFAs), 25, 193, 194-197. See also Program announcements Research career program awards, 192 Research Center on Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of AIDS Dementia, 231 Research centers, 25, 30-31, 192, 193, 230-231, 251-252 Research program projects (PO1s), 192 Research project grants (RPGs), 178, 179, 181, 192 Rifabutin, 138 Rifampin, 138 Runaway youths, 41, 99, 108, 251 Running partners, 55-56, 57. See also Drug-running partners S SAMHSA. See Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration San Francisco Cohort Study, 69 San Francisco Men's Health Study, 142 Scientific advisory committees, 176, 181. See also Advisory councils Self-efficacy, 7, 84, 98, 118 Self in Relation Theory, 87-88 Self-reported data, 9, 117-118 Semen, 49, 51 Seriously mentally ill, 6, 71, 72-73, 77 Seroprevalence Monitoring System, 211 Services programs and delivery, 34-38 and ADAMHA reorganization, 19, 157, 158, 163 balance with research, 174, 241, 243 collaboration with researchers, 34, 36-37, 43, 240, 245-254 demonstration programs, 20, 163, 241, 248-250 interagency coordination, 34, 37, 43, 240, 253-254, 255 training, 249-250 See also Community intervention and outreach; Preventive interventions; Treatment Sex. See Gay and bisexual men; Gender differences; Heterosexual transmission; Lesbians and bisexual women; Men; Sexual behavior; Sexual orientation; Sexual partners; Women Sex education, 99 Sex-of-crack exchanges, 60, 61-63. See also Commercial sex workers Sexual behavior, 4-5, 47-53, 75, 78, 230 and alcohol use, 49, 63-66, 80, 118, 199, 203, 204 and crack cocaine, 28, 59, 60-63, 75, 211-212 intervention and outreach, 91, 93, 98-99, 100-109, 110-111, 114-119 national surveys, 2, 40, 83 neurobiological factors, 6-7, 10, 78-79, 122 psychosocial factors, 6, 7, 83, 87-88, 92-93 research on, 2, 4, 5-6, 10, 11, 40-41, 76-77, 122, 123, 227 among seriously mentally ill, 72-73 Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), 4, 6-7, 48, 50, 51, 53, 75 and drug uses, 59, 60, 62, 243 health care worker training programs, 241 See also Gonorrhea, Herpes, Syphilis Sexual orientation, 4, 48 coping strategies, 19, 153 See also Gay and bisexual men; Heterosexual transmission; Lesbians and bisexual women Sexual partners, 1, 39, 50-52 of drug users, 1, 39, 63, 66, 93, 116, 205, 211-212, 213, 214, 241 , 249 multiplicity of, 4, 48, 52, 83, 118 networks, 67-68, 71-74, 93 Sex workers. See Commercial sex workers ''Shooting galleries," 4-5, 55, 56-67, 58, 59, 76 Skills building programs, 244 Skin-popping, 53 Small Business Innovation Research Grants (SBIR-R43/44), 192 Social Cognitive Learning Theory, 84, 85 Social networks, 8, 30, 65-66, 67-68, 74-75, 88, 90-92 and prevalence, 92 Social norms, 7, 8, 9, 74, 91, 92-93, 98 Social science research, 2, 5-6, 8-9, 21, 33, 40-41, 76-77, 88-97, 237-238.

OCR for page 327
Aids and Behavior: An Integrated Approach See also Psychosocial factors; Qualitative sociology Social-structural research, 10-11, 24, 123, 188, 189 NIAAA activities, 26, 204 NIDA activities, 28, 215 NIMH activities, 30, 227-228 research recommendations, 10-11, 33, 123 Social support, 16, 143, 144 Socioeconomic status (class), 7, 10, 34, 67, 90, 97, 118, 123, 239 coping strategies, 19, 153 Spatial contagion, 68 Special review groups (SRGs), 177. See also Grant review process Speedballs, 55 Spermicides, 112 Sponges, 112 Spoons, 54-55 Stages of change models, 85-86, 87 Sterilization, 95 Stigmatization, 89, 95, 146 Stress, 15, 16, 30, 99, 141, 143 among caregivers, 15, 17, 30, 150 among health care professionals, 17, 148-149 among people with HIV/AIDS, 141, 143, 144 Study sections, 22-23, 177, 178, 182. See also Grant review process Subcortical dementias, 128, 129 Substance abuse, 4-5, 27-28, 40, 70, 75 and clinical trials, 18, 152 data collection, 2, 18, 28, 70-71, 76, 210-211 and health care access, 14, 18-19, 136, 138-140, 152, 241, 243-244, 248 and HIV disease progression and pathogenesis, 11, 12, 14, 18, 124, 134, 136-137, 152, 205 and HIV treatment, 12, 14-15, 18, 135-136, 138-140, 152 intervention and outreach, 5, 41, 116, 212-213, 214, 241, 243, 249 -250 neurobiological factors, 6, 7, 10, 12, 78-79, 80-83, 122 psychosocial factors, 6, 90, 91, 96 research recommendations, 2, 5-6, 10, 18-19, 33-34, 76-77, 238 and sexual behavior, 49, 53, 60-63, 75, 80, 118 See also Alcohol use; Cocaine; Crack cocaine; Heroin; Injection drug use; Needle exchange Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), vi, 3, 19, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 43, 157, 158, 163, 165, 238, 240, 241, 244, 249, 251, 253-255 coordination and collaboration, 34, 35, 38, 238, 244-245, 249, 251 , 253-255 service activities, 35, 240-245 See also Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration; Center for Mental Health Services; Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Center for Substance Abuse Treatment Surveillance and data collection, 5, 31, 66, 69-71, 76 drug abuse, 2, 18, 28, 70-71, 76, 210-211 limitations and deficiencies, 2, 3, 40-41, 66, 69, 76, 92 sexual practices, 2, 40, 40-41, 83 sociocultural factors, 34, 239 Susceptibility, 48, 49-50, 84, 85 Syphilis, 4, 50, 51, 62, 63 Syringes, 4, 53-54, 55, 57, 58, 250. See also Bleach; Hypodermic needles; Injection drug use, paraphernalia; Needle exchange T T-cells, 14, 135 Technology transfer, 36, 245, 249, 252 Testing for HIV, 40, 69, 142, 143 among drug users, 243 Theoretical models, 7-8, 10, 24, 95-96, 122 of behavior change, 9, 10, 83-88, 98-99, 118-119, 121-122, 122, 227 of sexual behavior, 7, 87-88, 96 Theory of Reasoned Action, 84 Toxoplasmosis, 12, 125 Training of health care professionals, 20, 163, 231-232, 241, 243-244, 252

OCR for page 327
Aids and Behavior: An Integrated Approach of researchers, 192, 231 for service programs, 249-250 Treatment, 1-2, 3, 4, 11-12, 18-19, 24, 40, 41-42, 124 demonstration programs, 35, 241, 243-244 for drug users, 28, 111, 205, 210, 215, 217, 218-219 health care worker training, 241 See also Pharmacologic interventions Tuberculosis, 14, 75, 136-137, 241, 243 Tumor Necrosis Factor, 13, 131, 132 Tuskegee study, 95 U Unemployment, 8, 90 Urban areas, 4-5, 56, 67-68 V Vaccines, 1-2, 40 Vaginal secretions, 50 Vaginal transmission. See Heterosexual transmission Violence, 6, 77, 96 Virologic studies, 54 W Water contamination, 54, 57 Withdrawal syndrome, 7, 10, 57, 80, 82, 122 Women, 1, 24, 34, 39, 40, 67, 238, 248 lesbian and bisexual, 53 and relationships, 74, 87-88, 95-97 same-sex transmission, 53 sexual transmission and prophylaxis, 11, 50-53, 111, 112-113, 123 Women and Infants Transmission Study (WITS), 226 World Health Organization, 47 Y Youth, 40, 41, 70, 99, 118 intervention and outreach, 108, 203, 244, 247, 248, 251 Z Zidovudine (AZT), 18, 138, 152