Index

A

Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, antibiotic resistance of, 130

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). See Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

Acyclovir, for neonatal herpes simplex virus, 178-183

Adolescents, STDs in, 202-205

Aedes aegypti, as vector for dengue virus, 48, 49-52

Aedes albopictus, as vector for dengue virus, 52

Africa, population migration and HIV in, 79-86

African Americans

blood groups and malaria in, 105-108

hypertension and malaria in, 101-102

liver disease and malaria in, 103

Age

of first sexual intercourse, 148-149, 195

and nosocomial infections, 114

of sexual maturation and marriage, 201

AIDS. See Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

Aminoglycosides, resistance to, 122, 124-125

p-Aminosalicylic acid, for tuberculosis, 137

Anal intercourse, and STDs, 149

Animal hosts, for Lyme disease, 2-3

Antimicrobial resistance

of coagulase-negative staphylococci, 121-123

and control of nosocomial infections, 130-131

in Enterococcus spp., 124-128

of gonorrhea, 145

in Gram-negative aerobic bacilli, 128-130

of Staphylococcus aureus, 119-121

of tuberculosis, 135-139

Asia, HIV infection in 89-92

B

Beef, improperly cooked, 35-36

Behavior, effects on infectious diseases of, viii, ix

Beta-lactam antibiotics, resistance to,128-130



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Infectious Diseases in an Age of Change: The Impact of Human Ecology and Behaviour on Disease Transmission Index A Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, antibiotic resistance of, 130 Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). See Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Acyclovir, for neonatal herpes simplex virus, 178-183 Adolescents, STDs in, 202-205 Aedes aegypti, as vector for dengue virus, 48, 49-52 Aedes albopictus, as vector for dengue virus, 52 Africa, population migration and HIV in, 79-86 African Americans blood groups and malaria in, 105-108 hypertension and malaria in, 101-102 liver disease and malaria in, 103 Age of first sexual intercourse, 148-149, 195 and nosocomial infections, 114 of sexual maturation and marriage, 201 AIDS. See Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Aminoglycosides, resistance to, 122, 124-125 p-Aminosalicylic acid, for tuberculosis, 137 Anal intercourse, and STDs, 149 Animal hosts, for Lyme disease, 2-3 Antimicrobial resistance of coagulase-negative staphylococci, 121-123 and control of nosocomial infections, 130-131 in Enterococcus spp., 124-128 of gonorrhea, 145 in Gram-negative aerobic bacilli, 128-130 of Staphylococcus aureus, 119-121 of tuberculosis, 135-139 Asia, HIV infection in 89-92 B Beef, improperly cooked, 35-36 Behavior, effects on infectious diseases of, viii, ix Beta-lactam antibiotics, resistance to,128-130

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Infectious Diseases in an Age of Change: The Impact of Human Ecology and Behaviour on Disease Transmission Blacks. See African Americans Blood groups, and malaria, 105-108 Blood transfusions, hepatitis B from, 64 Borrelia burgdorferi, classification of, 2 Breast-feeding and cytomegalovirus, 17-20, 22-24, 26-28 and diarrheal disease, 33 C Candida spp., nosocomial infection with, 118, 119 Cash crop production, and diarrheal disease, 33-34 Cephalosporins, resistance to, 128-130 Cervical cancer, human papillomavirus and, 158-161 Cervical ectopy, and STDs, 196-197 Cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN), 159, 160 Chancre immunity, 215 Chancroid, vaccine for, 214-215 Child neglect and abuse, and STDs, 203 Children's Vaccine Initiative (CVI), 240 Chlamydia changing patterns of, 145-146 vaccine for, 224-227 Cholera, 37-38 Chronic fatigue syndrome, after Lyme disease, 7-8 CIN (cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia), 159, 160 Circumcision, and STDs, 150, 151, 196 Clindamycin, resistance to, 123 CMV. See Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) antimicrobial resistance of, 121-123 nosocomial infection with, 118, 119 Cocaine use, and STDs, 204-205 Condom use, and STDs, 150, 151 Contraceptive use, and STDs, 150-151 Core groups, for STDs, 191 Crack cocaine, and STDs, 204-205 Crime, and STDs, 203-205 Crowding, and STDs, 198 CVI (Children's Vaccine Initiative), 240 Cytomegalovirus (CMV) breast-feeding and, 17-20 combined effects of breast-feeding and day-care centers on, 22-24, 26-28 day-care centers and, 20-22 epidemiology of, 15-17 during pregnancy, 26, 27 risk to caregivers of, 24-26 D Day-care centers and cytomegalovirus, 20-24, 26-28 and diarrheal diseases, 36-37 Deer, as animal host in Lyme disease, 2-4, 5, 10 Demographic transitions, and bacterial STDs, 199-200 Dengue fever clinical features of, 46 in developed world, 49 ecologic basis for, 49-52 epidemiology of, 43-45 history of epidemics of, 47-49 pathogenesis of, 46-47 prevention and control of, 57 second vector for, 52 transmission cycle of, 45-46 Dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS), 43 clinical features of, 46 emergence of, 48-49 pathogenesis of, 46-47 Dengue virus evolution of, 55-57 genetic variations in, 53-55, 56-57 lymphotropism of, 56 virulence of, 54-55

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Infectious Diseases in an Age of Change: The Impact of Human Ecology and Behaviour on Disease Transmission Developed world, dengue in, 49 Developing areas bacterial STDs in, 192-193, 202 enteric infections in, 32-34 sexual behavior in, 194-195 DHF/DSS. See Dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS) Diagnostic tests, for Lyme disease, 8-9 Diarrheal diseases breast-feeding and, 33 cash crop production and, 33-34 commercialization of food production and food service and, 34-36 day-care centers and, 36-37 in developing areas, 32-34 importation of foods and, 36 in industrialized areas, 32, 34-37 institutionalization of aged and, 37 international travel and, 37 urbanization and, 32-33 wars and political upheaveals and, 34 Diphtheria pertussis tetanus (DPT) vaccine, 238, 239 Douching, and STDs, 150, 151 Drug resistance of gonorrhea, 145 of nosocomial infections, 119-131 of tuberculosis, 135-139 Drug users hepatitis B in, 63-64 hepatitis D in, 68 HIV in, 90 STDs in, 150 Dry sex, and STDs, 149 Duffy blood group system, and malaria, 106-107 E Ecology, effects on infectious diseases of human, vii-viii, ix Economic development, and bacterial STDs, 197, 202 Eggs, Salmonella enteritidis from, 34-35 Elderly institutionalization of, 37 nosocomial infections in, 114 Enteric infections. See Diarrheal diseases Enterococcus spp. antimicrobial resistance in, 124-128 nosocomial infection with, 118, 119 Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV), 158 Erythema migrans, in Lyme disease, 1, 6 Erythromycin, resistance to, 123 Escherichia coli enterohemorrhagic, 35-36 nosocomial infection with, 119 EV (epidermodysplasia verruciformis), 158 F Fast-food chains, and diarrheal disease, 34, 35 Fibromyalgia, after Lyme disease, 7-8 Flaviviruses, evolution of, 55-57 Fluoroquinolone, resistance to, 122 Food, importation of, 36 Food production and food service, commercialization of, 34-35 France, HIV in, 87 G Genetic variations, in dengue virus, 53-55 Genital human papillomavirus. See Human papillomavirus (HPV) Gentamicin, resistance to, 124-125 Geography, and STDs, 198 Glycophorins A and B, and malaria, 107-108 Gonorrhea antimicrobial resistance of, 145 changing patterns of, 144-145 population shifts in, 144-145

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Infectious Diseases in an Age of Change: The Impact of Human Ecology and Behaviour on Disease Transmission vaccine for, 217-224 Gram-negative aerobic bacilli, resistance to third-generation cephalosporins among, 128-130 H Haemophilus ducreyi, 214-215 HAV (hepatitis A virus), 60-62 HBV (hepatitis B virus), 62-64 vaccine for, 243 HCV (hepatitis C virus), 64-67 HDV (hepatitis D virus), 67-68 Health care, and STDs, 150, 151, 192-194 Heat shock proteins, as vaccine for chlamydia, 224-226 Hemoglobin S, and malaria, 100 Hemolytic uremic syndrome, 36 Hepatitis A virus (HAV), 60-62 Hepatitis B virus (HBV), 62-64 vaccine for, 243 Hepatitis C virus (HCV), 64-67 Hepatitis D virus (HDV), 67-68 Hepatitis E virus (HEV), 68-71 Hepatitis viruses interactions of, 71 other, 72 Herd immunity, 237 Herpes simplex virus (HSV) historical background of, 171 maternal clinical and virologic parameters of, 174-176 epidemiology of, 173-174 neonatal clinical presentation of, 176-177 cost-benefit analyses of antiviral therapy for, 180-182 incidence of, 172 pathogenesis of, 172-173 prevention of, 182-184 prognostic factors for, 179-180, 181 treatment of, 178-180 HEV (hepatitis E virus), 68-71 HIV. See Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) HLA locus, and malaria, 103-105 Hospital-acquired infections. See Nosocomial infections HPV. See Human papillomavirus (HPV) HSV. See Herpes simplex virus (HSV) Human ecology, effects on infectious diseases of, vii-viii, ix Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Africa, 79-86 bacterial STDs and, 189-191, 214 behavioral personal environment of, 148-151 changing patterns of, 142-143 factors associated with dissemination of, 93-94 global distribution of, 77, 78 and hepatitis, 63-64 and human papillomavirus, 160-161 population migration and, 77-94 population shifts of, 142-143 prevention of, 153-154 and restrictions on travel, 92 sociocultural macroenvironment of, 151-153 in Southeast Asia, 89-92 and tuberculosis, 138-139 type 1 in the Americas, 87-89 global distribution of, 78 in Uganda, 81-82 urbanization and, 81 type 2 vs. HIV-1, 83-85 outside West Africa, 86-87 and West Africa, 83-86 urbanization and, 80-81 Human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer, 158-161 changing patterns of, 146 classes of, 158-159 HIV and, 160-161 management of, 161

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Infectious Diseases in an Age of Change: The Impact of Human Ecology and Behaviour on Disease Transmission in men, 160 prevalence and incidence of, 157, 160 vaccination for, 161-166 Hygiene and hepatitis A, 61 and STDs, 198 Hypertension, and malaria, 101-102 I Immune enhancement, 47 Immunoprophylaxis, for neonatal herpes simplex virus, 183-184 Immunosuppressive treatment, and nosocomial infections, 115-116 India, HIV infection in, 87, 91-92 Industrialized areas enteric infections in, 32, 34-37 HIV in, 82-83 Infectious agents, recognition of new, viii Inoculum size, for STDs, 196 Iron overload, and malaria, 102-103 Isonicotinic acid hydrazide (isoniazid), for tuberculosis, 137 IUDs, and STDs, 150 Ixodid ticks, as vector for Lyme disease, 2-3, 10 K Klebsiella pneumoniae, antibiotic resistance of, 128-129 L Leukoencephalitis, from Lyme disease, 7 Lipooligosaccharide (LOS), as vaccine for gonorrhea, 222-223 Liver disease, and malaria, 102-103 Lyme disease chronic fatigue or fibromyalgia following, 7 clinical picture of, 6-7 diagnostic tests for, 8-9 epidemiology of, 4-5 evolution of environment and, 3-4 historical background of, 1-2 misdiagnosis of chronic, 7-8 prevention of, 10 prophylaxis for, 10 treatment of, 9 vaccine for, 10 vector and animal hosts for, 2-3 M Macroenvironment, of STDs, 151-153 Macrolides, resistance to, 123 Major outer membrane protein (MOMP), as vaccine for chlamydia, 226 -227 Malaria blood groups and, 105-108 hemoglobin S and, 100 HLA locus and, 103-105 hypertension and, 101-102 iron overload and, 102-103 mortality from, 100-101 as selective force in evolution, 100-101 Marriage, age of, 201 Measles mumps rubella (MMR) vacine, 238, 239, 243 Melanesian ovalocytosis, and malaria, 100 Menarche, age at, 201 Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), 119-121, 123 Microenvironment, of STDs, 147-148 Migrant labor, and HIV, 82, 88-89 Migration and bacterial STDs, 199 defined, 79 and HIV, 77-94 MMR (measles mumps rubella) vaccine, 238, 239, 243 MOMP (major outer membrane protein), as vaccine for chlaymdia, 226 -227 Monoclonal antibodies, for prevention of neonatal herpes simplex virus, 183

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Infectious Diseases in an Age of Change: The Impact of Human Ecology and Behaviour on Disease Transmission Mosquitos, as vectors for dengue virus, 49-52 MRSA (methicillin-resistant S. aureus), 119-121, 123 Mycobacterium tuberculosis, drug resistance of, 135-139 N Needles, and hepatitis B, 62 Neisseria gonorrhoeae, virulence of, 197 Nigeria, HIV in, 86 Nosocomial infections age of patient and, 114 antimicrobial resistance in, 116-117, 119-131 complexity of surgical procedure and, 114-115 immunosuppressive treatment and, 115--116 incidence of, 113 pathogens in, 116-119 type of surgery and, 115 O Opacity proteins (Opas), as vaccine for gonorrhea, 222 Oral contraceptives, and STDs, 150-151, 205 Organ transplants, and nosocomial infections, 115-116 P Papillomavirus. See Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Penicillin G, resistance to, 116-117 Penicillin resistance of coagulase-negative staphylcocci, 121-123 in Enterococcus spp., 124-128 of Staphylococcus aureus, 16-117, 119-121 Physiological microenvironment, of STDs, 147-148 Pili, as vaccine for gonorrhea, 221-222, 223 Pinta, 198 Polio vaccine, 238, 242-243 Political environment and diarrheal disease, 34 and STDs, 153 Population migration and bacterial STDs, 199 defined, 79 and HIV, 77-94 Por, as vaccine for gonorrhea, 218-221, 223 Portugal, HIV in, 87 Poverty, and STDs, 152-153 Pregnancy cytomegalovirus during, 26, 27 teen, and STDs, 203 Premarital sexual activity, and STDs, 148, 195 Prevention of dengue, 57 of Lyme disease, 10 of neonatal herpes simplex virus, 182-184 of STDs, 153-154 Prophylaxis for Lyme disease, 10 for neonatal herpes simplex virus, 182-183 Prostitution, and HIV, 82-83, 86, 89, 90 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, nosocomial infection with, 119 R Rifampin, resistance to, 122 Ring vaccination, 242 S Salmonella enteritidis, and commercialization of food production, 34-35 Salt retention, and malaria, 101-102 Sanitation, and hepatitis A, 61 Search and containment, 242

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Infectious Diseases in an Age of Change: The Impact of Human Ecology and Behaviour on Disease Transmission Sexual behavior and hepatitis B, 63-64 and STDs, 148-151, 194-196 Sexual intercourse, age of first, 148-149, 195 Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in adolescents, 202-205 bacterial age of sexual maturation and marriage and, 201 child abuse and neglect and, 203 cocaine use and, 204-205 complications and sequelae of, 205-206 crowding and, 198 demographic transitions and, 199-201 economic development and, 197 geography and, 198 health services and, 192-194 and HIV, 189-191, 214 hygiene and, 198 migration and, 199 oral contraceptives and, 205 prevalence of, 189, 190 risk of, 206-207 social and economic development policies and, 202 ''socio-geographic space" and, 198-199 teen pregnancy and, 203 travel and, 199 vaccines for, 213-228 violence and, 203-205 war and, 199 behavioral personal environment of, 148-151 changing patterns of, 141-146 efficiency of transmission of, 196-197 environmental changes affecting, 146-153 epidemiologic models of, 191-192 physiological microenvironment of, 147-148 prevention programs for, 153-154 sexual behavior and, 148-151, 194-196 sociocultural macroenvironment of, 151-153 Sexual maturation, age of, 201 Sexual partners, number of, 149 Shigella spp., diarrheal diseases due to, 36-37 Smallpox vaccine, 241-242 Sociocultural macroenvironment, of STDS, 151-153 "Socio-geographic space," and bacterial STDs, 198-199 Staphylococci, coagulase-negative antimicrobial resistance of, 121-123 nosocomial infection with, 118, 119 Staphylococcus aureus antibiotic resistance in, 116-117, 119-121 nosocomial infection with, 118, 119 Staphylococcus epidermidis, antimicrobial resistance of, 122 STDS. See Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) Streptomycin resistance to, 124-125, 136-137 for tuberculosis, 136-137 Syphilis changing patterns of, 143-144 endemic, 198 etiology shift of, 144 population shift of, 143-144 reemergence of, 143 vaccine for, 215-217 Syringes, and hepatitis B, 62 T Tbps (transferrin-binding proteins), as vaccine for gonorrhea, 223 -224 Teenagers, STDs in, 202-205 Tetracyclines, resistance to, 122-123 Thailand, HIV infection in, 89-91 Ticks, as vector for Lyme disease, 2-3, 10

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Infectious Diseases in an Age of Change: The Impact of Human Ecology and Behaviour on Disease Transmission Transferrin-binding proteins (Tbps), as vaccine for gonorhea, 223-224 Transfusions, hepatitis B from, 64 Travel and bacterial STDs, 199 and diarrheal disease, 37 and HIV, 81-82, 92 Treponema pallidum. See Syphilis Treponema rare outer membrane proteins (TROMPs), 217 Trimethoprim, resistance to, 123 Tuberculosis drug-resistant, 135-139 and HIV, 138-139 Typhoid fever, 33 U Uganda, HIV in, 81-82 United States bacterial STDs in, 193-194 HIV-1 in, 87-89 sexual behavior in, 195-196 Urbanization and enteric infections, 32-33 and HIV, 80-81, 83, 84 V Vaccine(s) for bacterial STDs, 213-228 for chancroid, 214-215 for chlamydia, 224-227 for hepatitis B, 62, 64 for human papillomavirus, 161-166 ideal, 235-236 for Lyme disease, 10 for prevention of neonatal herpes simplex virus, 183-184 protection through, 236-237 results with current, 238-241 ring, 242 for syphilis, 215-217 Vaginal douching, and STDs, 150, 151 Vancomycin, resistance to, 123-124, 125-128 Vector for dengue, 49-52 for Lyme disease, 2-3, 10 Vibrio cholerae, 37-38 Vidarabine, for neonatal herpes simplex virus, 178-180 Violence, and STDs, 203-205 Virulence, of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 197 W Wars and bacterial STDs, 199 and diarrheal disease, 34 Waterborne infection, with hepatitis E, 69 West Africa HIV-2 and, 83-86 HIV-2 outside of, 86-87 Y Yaws, 198 Z Zaire, HIV in, 81