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Pursuit of recommendations 2 to 6 is essential to the interdisciplinary research effort needed to provide an adequate scientific basis for global change policymaking. The actions of recommendations 7 to 12 are essential to ensure a complete understanding of all potential coupling mechanisms.


Conduct exploratory modeling and observational studies to understand climate sensitivity to solar forcing.


Understand and characterize, through analysis of solar images and surrogates, the sources of solar spectral (and hence total) irradiance variability.


Monitor, without interruption, the cycles exhibited by Sun-like stars and understand the implications of these observations for long term solar variability.


Monitor globally, over many solar cycles the middle atmosphere's structure, dynamics, and composition, especially ozone and temperature.


Understand the radiative, chemical, and dynamical pathways that couple the middle atmosphere to the biosphere, as well as the middle atmosphere processes that effect these pathways.


Monitor continuously, with improved accuracy and long term precision, the ultraviolet radiation reaching the Earth's surface.


Understand convection, turbulence, oscillations, and magnetic field evolution in the solar plasma so as to develop techniques for assessing solar activity levels in the past and to predict them in the future.


Monitor continuously the energetic particle inputs to the Earth's atmosphere.

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