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variations on all time scales. Included are paleoclimate
investigations involving records in tree rings, and ice cores, as
well as Sun-weather relationships. Funding for the core program in
this area is diminishing, however, and will need greater emphasis
to strengthen the terrestrial component of the program. NSF lists
three programs as part of its global change initiative; Coupling,
Energetics and Dynamics of Atmospheric Regions (CEDAR); Geospace
Environmental Modeling (GEM); and Radiative Inputs of the Sun to
DoD also has extensive research activities in solar and space
physics. These activities involve both theory and ground and space
based observations (both from short term research and long term
monitoring points of view). The relevance of solar variability for
DoD research is that its effects on the Earth environment must be
properly taken into account in military operations and particularly
in communications and surveillance. A requirement for operational
models of upper atmosphere variability to track and predict
satellite trajectories, and of ionospheric variability that affects
communications, has led DoD to support, over the past decade, what
exists today of upper atmosphere research, focusing especially on
the solar influences that determine both its neutral and ion
composition. The recently implemented Strategic Environmental
Research and Development Program (SERDP) encourages use of DoD
resources for global change research. In this regard, the Defense
Meteorological Satellite Program could provide regular access to
space for solar monitoring and global change endeavors.
Because solar influence on global change is a distinctly
cross-disciplinary endeavor, cooperative research by DoD, NASA,
NSF, and NOAA is essential for mutual benefit to both the USGCRP
and the individual agencies. The research effort is hampered by the
lack of a lead agency in this area. One challenge to the U.S.
program of research into solar influences on global change is to
develop a strategy for agency leadership and coordination in
pursuing the overall national effort.
Two programs within the International Council of Scientific
Unions (ICSU) relate to solar influences on global change. One is
the Solar-Terrestrial Energy Program (STEP) of the Scientific