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1. Monitor the total and spectral solar irradiance from
an uninterrupted,overlapping series of spacecraft radiometers
employing in-flightsensitivity tracking.
There is an urgent need to rapidly implement the necessary long
term commitment for this monitoring because of the danger that the
present monitoring sequence will be interrupted and the long term
record invalidated as a result of lack of instrumental
cross-calibration. This primary recommendation is particularly
challenging and probably will not be achieved because of the dearth
of ready access to space.
A series of small spacecraft dedicated to solar monitoring could
provide the necessary data. Overlapping observations are required
to cross-calibrate measurements by different instruments whose
inaccuracies typically exceed the true solar variability.
Simultaneous observations from different instruments provide
important validation that real variability, rather than
instrumental degradation, is being measured and provide the
redundancy needed to preserve the long term data base in the case
of instrument failure. Improved radiometric long term precision and
calibration accuracies would contribute to a more reliable solar
In lieu of a spacecraft series dedicated to solar monitoring, it
may be possible to use the NOAA or DMSP operational satellites, for
which overlapping is a feature of their design.
To augment the prime monitoring task, a suite of efforts from
diverse geophysical research fields is needed to achieve the USGCRP
objectives of monitoring, understanding, and predicting solar
influences on global change. Pursuit of recommendations 2 to 6 is
essential to the crossdisciplinary effort needed to reduce
uncertainties in knowledge of solar forcing of global change in
order to provide a sound scientific basis for policy-making on
global change issues. The actions of recommendations 7 to 12 are
essential to ensure that complete understanding is achieved of all
potential coupling mechanisms.