TABLE 1-3  Physical and Chemical Transduction Principles.

Input (Primary) Signal

Output (Secondary) Signals

 

 

 

 

Mechanical

Thermal

Electrical

Magnetic

Radiant

Chemical

Mechanical

(Fluid) Mechanical effects; e.g., diaphragm, gravity balance. Acoustic effects; e.g., echo sounder.

Friction effects; e.g., friction calorimeter. Cooling effects; e.g., thermal flow meter.

Piezoelectricity. Piezoresistivity. Resistive. Capacitive. Induced effect.

Magneto-mechanical effects; e.g., piezomagnetic effect.

Photoelastic systems (stress-induced birefringence). Interferometer. Sagnac effect. Doppler effect.

 

Thermal

Thermal expansion; e.g., bimetallic strip, liquid-in-glass and gas thermometers. Resonant frequency. Radiometer effect; e.g., light mill.

 

Seebeck effect. Thermo-resistance. Pyroelectricity. Thermal (Johnson) noise.

 

Thermo-optical effects; e.g., liquid crystals. Radiant emission.

Reaction activation; e.g., thermal dissociation.

Electrical

Electrokinetic and electro-mechanical effects; e.g., piezoelectricity, electrometer, and Ampere's Law.

Joule (resistive) heating. Peltier effect.

Charge collectors. Langmuir probe.

Biot-Savart's Law.

Electro-optical effects; e.g., Kerr effect, Pockels effect. Electro-luminescence.

Electrolysis. Electro-migration.

Magnetic

Magneto-mechanical effects; e.g., magnetostriction, and magnetometer.

Thermo-magnetic effects; e.g., Righi-Leduc effect. Galvano-magnetic effects; e.g., Ettingshausen effect.

Thermo-magnetic effects; e.g., Ettingshausen-Nernst effect. Galvano-magnetic effects; e.g., Hall effect, and magneto-resistance.

Magneto-optical effects; e.g., Faraday effect, and Cotton-Mouton effect.

 

 



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement