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A Reassessment of the Marine Salvage Posture of the United States APPENDIX E INSTANCES OF SALVAGE IN U.S. WATERS REPORTED TO THE COMMITTEE1 Vessel Name Vessel Type Situation Response Critical Factors Outcome Hess Oil storage tank Ruptured; 155,000- barrel crude oil spill Fast Fast response 90% of oil recovered; small amount of oil got into the Kill van Kull 9,500,000-gallon waste oil spill More than 200 men working each day with various equipment for 5 weeks Russian trawler Fire USCG directed response by Crowley and Boots and Coots under Navy contract Vessel returned to service Drilling rig Adrift in heavy weather Tow Weather; communication; crew fatigue; equipment failure; lack of specific equipment Rig Sank under tow Barge/tug Barge parted towline; could not be boarded by crew of tug Weather; communication; fatigue of crews; equipment failure; lack of specific kind of equipment Deep notch barge Collision Secure damaged fuel piping; make fuel system operable to aftermost pumping engine; relocated cargo hoses to enable overhead pumping; lightered approx. 500,000 gallons of gasoline Barge Grounded Offloaded cargo from undamaged compartments; barge refloated after being pulled from rocks by 2 tugs; ballasted to stop further leaking Gasoline leaking from all damaged tanks; gale waming A REGINA/ 3EKM M/V passenger ferry Aground LOF SMIT/SASI-liaison Vessel lost, given up ABIQUA/ KTZO Bulk motor Partial offload; tow condition ADMIRALTY BAY M/V Dry salvage AEGEAN SUN M/T Dry salvage AFRICAN M/V general cargo Collision Flooded engine room; towed to Galvesto, TX; engine room pumped dry; towed to Brownsville, TX; broken up; SASI/SUSTA Broken up 1 The committee was unable to verify the facts of the following incidents; the information is reported exactly as received.
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A Reassessment of the Marine Salvage Posture of the United States Vessel Name Vessel Type Situation Response Critical Factors Outcome AIKATERINA Tankship Fire Fire extinguished by USCG and Boots and Coots personnel after burning for several days Dealing with offshore vessel fires Vessel not lost at sea AKRON/D5VF M/V bulk cargo Aground SASI refloated; reload ALEXANDERS ABILITY Aground; engine room flooded ALL KLASKAN Fish processor Grounded Oil removed by USCG; fish processing machinery salvaged by owner; unsuitable conditions for salvage Broached and broke while towline being cast No assets ALVENUS MV tanker Aground Lightering operation offshore; antipollution operation a.o. Galveston Beach Major oil spill AMOCO CADIZ VLCC Loss of steering; grounding Salvage tug on scene within 3 hours; unsuccessfully attempted to take AMOCO CADIZ under tow Main engine functioning but not used during attempts to establish a tow Major pollution occurred; ship total loss AOYAGI MARU F/V Grounded USCG burned remaining fuel using explosives Owners looked at limits of liability vs. salvage value No salvage APEX 3405 Tank barge Collision; sank Raised sunken barge; vessel removed from channel Channel closure restrictions; no need to maintain intact cargo envelope; stability calculations not necessary Discharged over 750,000 gallons of catalytic feedstock oil AQUILA AZTECA/XCGU M/Tank Grounded Partly offloaded; refloated; SMIT/SASI ARCO ANCHORAGE T/V Grounded; cargo tanks punctured USCG and commercial submersible pumps used to transfer crude oil to lightering barge; divers put in temporary patch; vessel sailed to Cherry Point, WA; offloaded cargo Went to shipyard in Portland; OR ARGENTINA Ocean-going ferry Grounded National Strike Force personnel pumped fuel oil from vessel; vessel was cut down to the waterline and superstructure taken away Remote location; environmental sensitivity of the area ARGO IDUNA Explosion in engine room Lightering operation ARGO MERCHANT Handy size tanker Grounding MPS ship CURB on scene; lightering available and USCG ADAPTS pumps on board, but lack of steam generator prevented hearing oil for offloading when weather permitted Winter; MPS ship CURB in Key West, took 5 days to arrive on scene; lack of steam generator prevented heating oil for offloading; divided authority on scene (USCG, State of MA, EPA) Weather worsened; ship broke up; ship and cargo total loss AROW Coastal tanker Grounded, then sank in 60 feet of water Cargo offloaded using first-time application of hot-tap technique; local heating at off loading pumps was necessary; heating process very inefficient Winter No pollution occurred ATLANTIA Pre-inspection; installation ATT STALL M/T Wet salvage B 155 Barge See OCEAN 255 BANGLER BANNI M/V Dry salvage
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A Reassessment of the Marine Salvage Posture of the United States Vessel Name Vessel Type Situation Response Critical Factors Outcome BARGE 160-4; AVENGER 1,600-DWT tank barge; tug Grounded Salvage team; fly in equipment Barge empty; barge sustained only moderate bottom damage; tug sustained extensive bottom and side shell damage Fuel removed from tug, both refloated by use of ground tackle BARGE 500-4 12,000-DWT rail car and trailer barge Grounded Damage control efforts to limit flooding by pressurizing selected tanks; use of properly equipped salvage vessel (M/V ARCTIC SALVOR) tugs Full load of cargo; extensive damage to starboard-side shell and bottom-plating; use of properly equipped salvage vessel and tugs with both power and sea-keeping ability to work in prevailing weather conditions Successfully refloated without loss of cargo BARGE BEAN 12 Wet salvage BARGE KENAI 9,750-dwt deck barge Grounded Salvage team on-site within 6 hours; utilized salvage vessel ARCTIC SALVOR Extensive bottom damage and subsequent flooding; prompt arrival of salvage personnel; availability of specialized equipment capable of being flown to the site; delays were caused by high wind and adverse sea conditions Successfully refloated without loss of cargo BEAN 12 Anchor handling vessel Sunk Removal with Derrick barge BETTY L Deck barge Aground; USCG removed 120,000 gallons of diesel fuel Salvage chief removed barge successfully BLUE MAGPIE Cargo vessel Grounded on breakwater Timely availability of salvage assets Broke up before salvage assistance could reach scene BRAZILIAN FRIENDSHIP Grounded; broken rudder Refloated with local salvor and tugs; used tugs to steer vessel down river to awaiting foreign tug (BUGSIER) towed to Germany Fully loaded iron ore BT 155 Barge See OCEAN 255 BT NAUTILUS Barge Grounded in Kill van Kull Partial closure of waterway for several days BURMAH AGATE / ELZS M/Tank Collision; fire Vessel burnt out 19,000 tons crude saved BYRON 16 Aground Cargo lightered with severe loss; damaged in refloating Poorly chosen salvage equipment C/V STAR LEKINGER Grounded on aft third International salvage firm hired by responsible party at the direction of COTP; acquired 3 high HP tugs; had vessel off-ground within 36 hours Greater than normal east-west current continued to set the vessel into shallow water; fear of possibility of double bottom fuel tanks rupturing and releasing bunkers into the sea; miles of pristine white beaches in direct path of potential fuel spill; no tugs of sufficient horsepower locally available No pollution resulted; no damage other than scraped paint and slight indentation along starboard quart
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A Reassessment of the Marine Salvage Posture of the United States Vessel Name Vessel Type Situation Response Critical Factors Outcome CAMARGUE/FNUB M/T Collision in ballast tank Vessel inerted; damage covered, assisted into Galveston SASI CARIBE Barge Aground CC-11 Barge Stranded and sank Owner failed to employ competent salvors Vessel broke up and became wreck removal project CEPHEUS T/V Grounded Refloated itself; headed for port with damage to double bottom and cargo tank; steam trace rigged to remove heavy fuel from double bottoms; offloaded cargo Sailed to Kachemak Bay for survey and repairs CHARA-LAMBOS Large tanker Large section of side plate fell off while being towed to scrap Flooded opposite side tanks sufficiently to bring upright Time critical to even up and bring open section of hull clear of water to prevent extension of opening Continued in tow CHEM 2 Tank barge Stranded on sandbar Equipment and trained ANH personnel brought in; dredged channel to barge; lightered cargo; winched tank barge and lightering barge out Silting; rapid river stage fall; poor access; downwind community; potential loss of cargo cooling CHEVRON GUAM Small POL tanker Grounding in typhoon Search and survey in deep water where tanker was left by forces of nature Full load of avgas and jet fuel Ship was total loss; no pollution due to volatile nature of cargo and scrubbing forces of nature CHEVRON HORIZON Crude oil tanker Grounded and holed; hit in stern by gasoline tow Tanker refloated with tugs; ballasted down creating water bottoms; temporary patch by divers; cargo offloated Sent to drydock CHINA PRIDE Ore carrier Stranded on sandbar Lightered and pushed off with tugs Strong current; dropping river stage; silting CIUDAD DE BRAQUE Wet salvage CIUDAD DE IBAGUE MV Holes in watertight bulkhead Hull plate removed CIUDAD DE PASTO Hull fracture, taking water in machinery space and three holds Determine location of vessels and equipment; hire tug and supply vessel; establish towage connection Bad weather; time critical situation because sinking of the vessel was threatened; crew had abandoned vessel; only vessel's emergency generator was available to supply power COLUMBIA NEW YORK Barge Grounded Refloated with tug assist Time critical as bad weather could have broken her on rocks CRANE RECOVERY Wet salvage CYRIL M/V general cargo Aground Offload; refloat DAE RIM Fishing vessel Drifted ashore after unsuccessful rescue tow Failure caused by Russian tug letting go her tow DAY ISLAND Fishing vessel Swamped over underwater rock Refloated Docked DELTA AMERICA/KFFJ M/V general cargo Aground LOF Moran-Crowley; SMIT/SASI
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A Reassessment of the Marine Salvage Posture of the United States Vessel Name Vessel Type Situation Response Critical Factors Outcome DEVALI 1/D51W M/Tank Aground during hurricane Inspection and contract LOF; SMIT Loaded crude DIALA MV tanker Aground Lightering operation ''over the top'' DIALA/DGBS M/Tank Aground Partial discharge; refloated, SMIT/OCEAN - salvage Cargo crude DIAZ ORDAZ M/F Wet salvage DIMI Aground DOCELOTUS/PPVD M/V general cargo Aground Refloated after deballasting DREDGE BARGE Barge Survey DUVAL II Barge Collision and subsequent sinking in Houston Ship Channel Pushed to side of channel; heavy lift barge from New Orleans salvaged vessel Unavailability of heavy lift barge in area; h-l barge delayed by fog Successfully salved; two way traffic not restored for about two weeks EAGEAN SUN MV tanker Struck submerged object and grounded Inerted all cargo tanks and refloated vessel EASTERN STAR Log carrier Broke mooring Controlled by Local harbor tug Capable vessel willing to help Continued voyage ELPASO PAUL KEYSER LNG tanker Grounding Vessel dispatched for lightering; special offload equipment mobilized immediately by owner; Double bottom prevented penetration of inner hull; ship provided with and had trained in damage control and casualty procedures; owners on scene within 30 hours to liaise with local authorities and government officials and prepared to make tough decisions including destruction of ship; salvage engineers and naval architects on scene, backed by support in CONUS No pollution and no litigation occurred; ship repaired in drydock and back in service ELDIAMN Survey EMS ORE Grounded; broken rudder Refloated with local salvor and tugs; used tugs to steer vessel down river to awaiting foreign tug (BUGSIER) towed to Germany Fully loaded iron ore ENTERPRISE MV bulkcarrier Aground Lightering operation ENTERPRISE/3FOF M/V bulk Aground Partial offload; refloat SASI; delivered to Beaumont, TX; SASI ERKOWIT Breakbulk Collision with DORTMUND Entry into inner harbor denied; ship was sinking; grounded by salvage master on local public beach; hazardous deck cargo floated off Deck cargo of highly toxic agricultural chemicals; tug master doubled as salvage master; occurred on weekend when regular port authorities were not available Ship removed and disposed of; pollution occurred Ship removed and disposed of; pollution occurred ESSI ANNE Freight vessel Grounded Pulled off ground by 2 tugs Channel restrictions made operation time critical ESTELLE J / H9NX M/Bulk Aground Partlal offload; refloat ETHNOS/5MRD M/V Refloated with Smit Salvor and Terminals; to Curacao EXPLORER M/T Dry salvage
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A Reassessment of the Marine Salvage Posture of the United States Vessel Name Vessel Type Situation Response Critical Factors Outcome EXXON VALDEZ T/V Grounded 80% of cargo saved; lightering, floated from strand F/V TENYO MARU Collision Several thousand gallons of oil were pumped from vessel after underwater ROV was used to attach hose Need for cooperation with Canadian Government; use of ROV Major oil spill, vessel sank; vessel never salvaged FAITH 1/OCEAN 190 Collision Gasoline cargo in damaged ,tanks allowed to dissipate before remaining cargo pumped off FEDERAL RHINE/ELBY 3 M/V bulk Aground Part offloaded; refloated; SASI Loaded with grain FIJI PRINCESS Passenger vessel Aground Refloated by local salvage company Rapid response with adequate equipment FORT PROVIDENCE/GCPJ M/V bulk carrier Aground Part offloaded; refloated, SASI, anchored FRESTON STAR M/V Survey GARYVILLE M.T. Towing GEO S M/V Dry salvage GLACIER BAY Tanker Struck uncharted rock Discharged over the top by equipment from Valdez Success determined by over the top pumping equipment Ship returned to service GUYANA M/V Survey HAPPY RUNNER MV heavy lift vessel Capsized Refloating operation with Derrick barges HAPPY RUNNER M/V Survey HARP M/V Aground Partial discharge; refloat SMIT/SASI HERCULES M/V Dry salvage Scuttled HERMANOS CARCAMO/DANT MN bulk carrier Aground Refloat; LOF HYUDAI 12 Bulk carrier Grounded Refloated by crew flown in with equipment available in area; RCTIC SALVOR sailed from Seattle and arrived near end of refloating operation Personnel skilled in salvage and adaptation of local equipment Vessel returned to service HYUNDAI #12 Freight vessel Grounded Fuel oil pumped from double bottom tanks and several hundred tons of cargo grain were jettisoned Unseasonably fair weather; ability to jettison cargo Refloated IB906 Barge Holed double bottom; sownflooded open void hatches while preparing to lock through Improvised flex hose and drum cofferdam to pump out voids; refloat; "shingle" hole Complete sinking and hazmat release avoided by running barge into shallow water Sent to drydock INDEPEN-DENCE SERVICE Freight vessel Grounded; flooded Barge in tow taken in tow by towing vessels; towed vessel to Palominos Island; capsized while in tow; raised by commercial salvage company ISLA PUNA Grounding ITAPUCA/PPEL M/V general cargo Fire in cargo hold #1 Chemical fire extinguished JAINGA M/T S.T.S. JAY GANESH Freighter Grounded Fully loaded; vessel in exposed situation on reef
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A Reassessment of the Marine Salvage Posture of the United States Vessel Name Vessel Type Situation Response Critical Factors Outcome JOHN AUGUSTUS ESSBEGER/DHGJ M/Bulk Aground Refloated SMIT/SASI; LOF JUPITER T/V Caught fire exploded; burned; Obtain adequate wire rope to further secure hip; fire extinguished on day 2; reignited and extinguished on day 3; salvage complete on week 5 Obstructed channel in Saginaw River, MI; shorebased firefighting resources could not reach vessel; vessel originally tethered by only one of six original mooring lines; securing ship extinguishing fire, disposing of contaminated water; alternate uses for available resources KEYES 302 Wet salvage LADY PAMELA Sunk Traditional attempts to raise vessel through pumping out tanks through ents failed due to unique plumbing; crane barge was hired; vessel dragged by barge near shore to take advantage of tidal cycles; after 3 days of massive pumping and lifting the vehicle was salvaged without loss of fuel LLOYD GENOVA/PPJP M/V general cargo Aground LOF; SMIT/SASI LOUISIANA BRIMSTONE Grounding M/T ESSO BRUSSELS, S/S SEA WITCH After collision, ESSO BRUSSELS stern anchor caught in starboard anchor chain of SEA WITCH; SEA WITCH was on fire SEA WITCH was removed to safe distance from ESSO BRUSSELS; ESSO BRUSSELS fire was extinguished; discharged cargo; continued oil pollution control M/V ELDIA Freighter Blown ashore National Strike Force personnel pumped fuel oil from vessel Cooperation by all parties involved; good weather conditions Refloated without loss of cargo M/V SCANDA NAVIA SEA Cruise ship Fire Brought to dock to offload passengers; firefighting efforts commenced dockside; vessel almost lost due to excessive use of firefighting water Lake of personnel trained in shipboard firefighting; time critical need to pump off firefighting water Vessel saved M/V STAR CONNECTICUT Grounded Navy, Coast Guard, civilian salvors on-site; repaired hull cracks; dewatered pump room Fully laden vessel; damage to propeller shaft; cracks in double bottom; flooding in pump room; favorable environmental conditions, timely damage control and dewatering operations Refloated without any oil release MAASSLOT M/T Ship transfer service MAASSTAD M/T Ship transfer service MAASTROOM Ship transfer service MARl BOEING General cargo Aground Total offload; refloat; LOF; SMIT/SASI; towed to Korea
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A Reassessment of the Marine Salvage Posture of the United States Vessel Name Vessel Type Situation Response Critical Factors Outcome MARINA L Grounded Lightered cargo out with self-unloader vessels and tugs Fully loaded with linseed oil cake; time critical as building up sand around vessel MARINE ELECTRIC/WOOH SS bulk Sank Diving survey; SASI/Galerne Cargo coal MARQUESA MV bulkcarrier Aground Lightering operation MARSHALL KONEV MV bulkcarrier Aground Lightering operation MARSHALL KONYEV MV Grounding Combination of lightering and horsepower freed vessel Lack of towing vessels quickly available; quickly began silting in; owners decision to only incrementally increase towing vessels; owners were located in Soviet Union; owners representatives were incapable or unwilling to commit themselves to realistic cures for the situation MARY LOU M/V cargo Aground Refloated; SMIT/SASI; LOF MAVRO VETRANIC M/V LOF MEGA BORG Explosion/fire in engine room, pump room and accommodations LOF MELODIC/6ZTY M/V cargo Aground Refloated Smit Cory/McAllister Docked at Montreal MERCEDES ENVOY Dry salvage daily MERKUR AMERICA Engine room fire MERMOZ/FOSK Passenger ship Aground Refloat METULA VLCC Grounding Cargo removed by lightering using portable pumps Weather permitted operation; ship showed remarkable durability in remote, inhospitable part of the world Pollution limited MILOS REEFER Refrigerated cargo carrier Grounded Winter weather and damage prevented salvage attempt Owner removed some oils and hazardous materials MINERVA Bulk carrier Grounded outside channel; unable to refloat; need to lighter Lightered off cargo to refloat Difficulty in determining when suitable lightering barge would be available Refloated MINORES PRIDE Aground in mud Refloated with local salvor and tugs Fully loaded with iron ore; time critical as blocking river fairway MISSISSIPPI QUEEN Wet salvage MONSANTO Chemical barge Hit bridge; caught fire MONSUN MV Collision damage hold #3 Emergency repair MOSUN M/V Survey
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A Reassessment of the Marine Salvage Posture of the United States Vessel Name Vessel Type Situation Response Critical Factors Outcome MOUNT ATHOS / SXLX M/V general cargo Aground Refloated; SASI NAFTOPORO S / SYKE M/V bulk cargo Aground Refloated SMIT/SASl; towed to Balboa, Panama NO 6 CHILBOSAN Refrigerated cargo carrier Grounded Winter weather and damage prevented salvage attempt Owner removed some oils and hazardous materials NORDIC RIDER / A8UV Bulk carrier Aground on reef Refloat; SMIT/SASl NORMAN PACIFIC / S6AL M/V bulk carrier Aground Part offloaded; refloat; SASI Loaded with grain OBELIX / A8WE M/Tank Collision LOF SASI; offloaded; refloated OCEAN 255 Barge Collision with freighter BALSA 37 and barge B 155; spill and fire on B155 Fire extinguished by Tampa Fire Dept; spill cleanup coordinated by NRC and Maritrans; OCEAN 255 pumped out by Strike Team Fire Fire extinguished quickly; good coordination cleanup OCEAN BEAUTY Bulk carrier Grounded Refloated by SALVAGE CHIEF Availability of salvage vessel Returned to service OCEAN EAGLE 40,000 dwt Grounding; ship broke in half USN responsible for bow section, MCS for stem; owner abandoned vessel early so wreck clearance was effected expeditiously; cargo was removed from stem to lightering vessel; cargo remaining in forward half offloaded by pumping into lightering vessel Pilot not yet aboard Major pollution occurred, most of oil was salved; both sections were scuttled in deep water by salvors OCEAN HANNE Small freight ship Grounded ONDINA M/T Dry salvage PACIFIC VOYAGER Fishing vessel Wreck Uneconomical to salvage because no reasonable-cost assets available PENROD HULL Wet salvage PENROD LEGS Wet salvage PERRYVILLE/ KUTN Product tanker Aground LOF SMIT/SASI; refloat; escort to New Orleans PETRO SERVICE T/V Aground USCG removed gasoline to small barges; empty vessel dragged off reef 2,000,000 gallons of gasoline on board PLATFORM REMOVAL Wet salvage POINT LEVI Barge Grounded Offloaded; refloated; drydocked Loaded with crude; ice St. Lawrence River PRESIDENTE RIVERA Grounded on rock ledge; holed 7 tanks Damaged tanks lightered to barges; tugs and engine used to push off ledge; moved to dock; offloaded; temp patches Crew language barrier; crew incompetence; delays getting lightering barges; access to get salvage pumps on board; 3 knot river currents; tidal rise/fall; good salvage master; loadmaster computer onboard; good vessel condition; high cargo flashpoint 304K gallons of #6 oil spilled, sent to drydock
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A Reassessment of the Marine Salvage Posture of the United States Vessel Name Vessel Type Situation Response Critical Factors Outcome PRINCE WILLIAM SOUND VLCC Lost all power Local tugs unsuccessfully attempted to take ship under tow; ship's engineers restored power minutes before grounding would have occurred Fully loaded; drifting toward Columbia Glacier 30nmi away; response effort of local tugs inadequate No pollution; no damage to ship PROTESlLAUS/ GPGA M/V general cargo Aground LOF; refloat; SMIT/SASl PSARA Product carrier Vessel started taking slow rolls to 15 degrees; came to rest leaning on pier with 8 degree list; lines taught; 2 tugs holding against pier Careful soundings; calculation of ballast/offload sequence and quantities Mate used improper offload sequence PUERTO RICAN T/V Explosion; fire, sinking USCG ordered vessel to sea; USCG, USN, and local fireboats put out fire; lightering barge; vessel broke in half Forebody drydocked RAVEN Tug Fell off Marine Railway Refloated with floating crane Time critical as blocking ways REGENT STAR Cruise ship Main switchboard fire; blackout and stranding Passengers removed by ferry vessel; refloated at high tide with tugs; careful ballast/fuel arrangement Hull strength due to bending at low tide; empty double bottoms created stability problem for refloating RIO TUXPAN/XCRT M/V general cargo Aground Offload; refloat; LOF Docked at Vera Cruz ROBERT E. RESOFF Fish processor Broke moorings Controlled and returned to moorings by fishing vessels Capable vessels of opportunity willing to help Returned to service S.E.W.O.P MR. DON Wet salvage S/S SANTA ANNA Dead in water Pumped 1,800 gallons fuel onboard to restart auxilliary generators; tug towed ship to Wilmington, NC Weather; communication; fatigue of crews; equipment failure; lack of specific kind of equipment Successful rescue S/S SAN JUAN Grounding Channel closed; local tugs assisted; liquid loads were shifted; vessel successfully refloated without pollution Outstanding salvage master S/S SINGAPORE TRADER Dry cargo High aground ship Used Sorbent C Filtration System to filter dirty ballast water in double bottom tanks; "clean water" pumped into St. Lawrence River; SINGAPORE TRADER brought to Montreal No pollution in Montreal Harbor SANTAEVON M/V Survey SARAH FRANK Oil barge Sank Cleanup and pollution control by local vendors; salvage by lifting barge with DonJon Salvage Heavy Lift Floating Crane Spilled large quantities of oil into Arthur Kill SEA ALASKA Fish processor Dragged anchor and grounded Refloated by fishing vessels Success determined by availability of assisting vessels of opportunity Returned to service SEA LUCK Stranded on reefs No salvor; hired tugs and barges from east coast; lightered cargo to refloat Fully loaded with phosphates; time critical to refloat before bottom breached on rocks in exposed position SEASPAN RIGGER Log barge Grounded Refloated by SALVAGE CHIEF Broken in half; availability of salvage vessel Returned to service
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A Reassessment of the Marine Salvage Posture of the United States Vessel Name Vessel Type Situation Response Critical Factors Critical Factors SEAWITCH STERN M/V general cargo Capsized Drydocked in Brooklyn Navy Yard; complete salvage; towed to Newport News, VA SENECA Suffered severe storm damage; collision bulkhead collapsed; #1CT dumped into forepeak/focsle; propagating cracks in 4 consecutive main butt welds Examined double bottoms, focsle, and deck at sea to determine imminent danger; moved vessel to still water in bay; delicate offload over one week Severe owner interference Sent ship to drydock SOVEREIGN OF THE SEAS Passenger vessel Caught fire Crew and local firefighters extinguished fire Time critical to loss of life STAR 6 Tank barge Intentionally grounded Owners hired local contractor unable to provide necessary equipment and expertise; USCG lightered cargo; dewatered flooding wing tanks Vessel moved to drydock STEELHEAD Oil production platform Gas blowout and fire Arrival of firefighting tug and two specialized high-output portable pumps (5,000 gpm/200 psi) mounted on vessels of opportunity; water used to cool platform structure while relief well was drilled to curtail flow of gas Fire tug on-site within 18 hours of blowout; portable pumps arrived within 8 hours of request by owners Successful" STOLT EXCELLENCE MV tanker Aground Lightering operation STOLT SINCERITY Chemical product tanker Aground Refloated, SASI SUNDANCER Cruise ship Sunk after grounding Refloated by Canadian company Availability of assets SWALLOW M/V Grounded Lightened ship; refloated T/B APEX 3417 Collision; vessel sank, closed Houston Ship Canal Removed from channel with heavy lift cranes after several days; Economic need to reopen Houston Ship Canal; time delays in completing salvage due to fears of spilling additional oil; financial problems of bankrupt owner; salvage might have been completed sooner had method been available to determine amount of oil remaining in tanks
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A Reassessment of the Marine Salvage Posture of the United States Vessel Name Vessel Type Situation Response Critical Factors Outcome T/B STAR 6 Barge Leaking in its double hull voids and rakes Tow to port in Texas using small pump to de-water voids; ran out of fuel for pump, barge began to sink; tow decided to return to point of origin (Mobile), heading up mean ship channel barge began to capsize; tow grounded barge which sank in 12 feet of water coming to rest at 45% angle along starboard bilge; local contractor hired to patch holes in, and de-water, voids; equipment and compatibility problems arose due to caustic cargo; Strike Team pumped out voids and rakes; lightered cargo to a second barge Sunk barge in danger of sliding into and blocking Mobile Ship Canal and cutting off Mobile to all deep draft ship traffic Sunken barge righted and refloated TAE WONG M/V Aground Developed method to ignite remaining petroleum products on board and conduct in situ burning response Limits of liability; age of ship; remoteness of assets TAO-191 Navy Fleet Tanker Dead shift broke adrift from tow, stranded Refloated by use of tugs and salvor DONJON MARINE Time critical for vessel in exposed position TAURO DEL GOLFO M/V Wet salvage TENYO MARU F/V Sank in 500 feet water Remotely operated vehicle with attached camera inserted hose into porthole and removed 26,000 gallons of oil Removed 26,000 gallons of oil TEXACO NORTH DAKOTA / KFDG Product tanker Collision LOF SMIT/SASI offloaded; re floated Loaded partly with gasoline Docked in Port Arthur TEXISTEPEC Phosphate bulker Stranded Refloated Time critical to remove from reef before breaking up on rocks in exposed seaway TEXISTEPEC/ XCTW M/V general cargo Aground Refloated; SMIT/SASI THALASSINI EFHI/ELDF6 Aground second time Refloat; tugs; LOF; SASI THEANOULA Flooded engine room TIFOSO Large tanker Stranded on reef Had to get large tugs to site; vessels bottom heavily damaged; CTL; refloated and sunk offshore No cargo; time critical to refloat before vessel broke up and released bunkers TIFOSO/ABGT M/Tank Grounded Refloated; SMIT, SASI liaison TONKAWA Drilling barge Capsized Refloating with derrick barges TOPAZ Small freighter Stranded on coral Per USCG, needed to remove bunkers prior to refloat; almost impossible to pump out bunker "C" without heat on dead ship; no salvor, used passing tugs to refloat No cargo on board; time critical to refloat before rocks breached hull in seaway
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A Reassessment of the Marine Salvage Posture of the United States Vessel Name Vessel Type Situation Response Critical Factors Outcome TORREY CANYON VLCC Grounding Salvage Master and RN SupSalv on board, preparations being made to offload and de-water holed tank; explosion occurred incident to salvage preparations; Salvage Master killed; RAF bombed ship against advice of RN SupSalv in unsuccessful attempt to burn remaining cargo Fully loaded, explosion occurred incident to salvage preparations Major pollution occurred; ship total loss TRITON C/ELAP M/V general cargo Aground Part offloaded; SASI, refloated TUGS TAMPICO M/V Wet salvage TULA M/V Wet salvage USCG MESQITE Run aground Successfully picked up after being aground all winter Lost favorable weather window in December Picked up in spring, hazardous materials removed, and scuttled USNS MISSION SAN FRANCISCO T-2 tanker Collision; explosion; grounding; channel blockage; stern afloat, bow hard aground, loss of hull modulus in midbody Joint response (USN, Merritt Chapman Scott); 102 tons of ballast loaded in stern as stability ballast; operation interrupted due to fog and ice floes; second collision occurred casting stem section loose; 102 tons of stability ballast in addition to mid-body bottom structure was sufficient for adequate stability; protection of environment consisted of state-of-the-art best effort to deploy booms Sustained severe structural damage Stern salved; bow and mid-body broken up by explosive cutting and wrecking grabs and disposed of VEEDOL /ELWR M/V bulk cargo Aground Refloated; SMIT/SASI; LOF Aground at breakwater VENCEMOS IV Sank Full cargo of cement; cement hardened bit by bit; lack of owner cooperation CTL; wreck removal project VENTURE LUNA Cargo vessel Grounded Refloated by own efforts; hull holed and spilling oil required owners and P&I to make an OPA 90 response Continued voyage with temporary repairs WANDA WHEELOCK Large ITB barge Struck rock and sank Lightened to sister barge; refloated Obstructing river fairway WEEKS #282 Barge Sank Refloated with pumps with local salvor Time critical as blocking river fairway WESTERN BARGE Wet salvage WYWURRY MV bulkcarrier Aground Lightering operation ZAMIA M/V Dry salvage ZOE COLLOCOTRONI 44,000 dwt Grounding Offload of cargo using ships pumps, piping, and discharge connection Weather cooperated; owner supplied lightering vessel which was anchored astern Environmental pollution was minor
Representative terms from entire chapter: