Index

A

Abnormal behavior, 1-2

Acepromazine, sifaka sensitivity to, 66

Activity profiles, 1

Age factors, 2-3, 11-12, 37, 46, 117, 152

Aggressive behavior, 1, 11, 34, 153.

  See also Isolating primates;

  Self-injury

  fleeing, 23, 25

  intragroup, 14

  redirection of, 34

  research conditions involving, 54

Agricultural Research Service, 25

Analgesics, 52-53

Anemia, 79

Anesthesia, alternatives to, 40

Animal care technicians. See Technicians

Animal Welfare Act of 1966 and 1978, 5-6

Animal Welfare Information Center (AWIC), 25, 27

Animal Welfare Regulations, 23-25, 48, 106

Anorexia, 13, 66

Anthropoids, 7-8

Aotus, 8, 39, 42, 57, 80

Apes (hominoids), 8, 42-43, 103-112.

  See also Chimpanzees

Appetite loss, 78

Arthritis, 12

Assessment, 1, 4, 11, 25, 154

Ataxia, 78

Atypical behavior, 1-2

Auditory contact, 105, 148, 150

Aunting behavior, 14

Avoidance training, 41

AWIC. See Animal Welfare Information Center

Aye ayes, 7, 55, 59, 61, 63-67

B

Baboons (Papio), 8, 32, 42-43, 91-93, 95-96, 100-102

Back-flips, 12

Barriers, reducing, 44

Bedding materials, 24.

  See also Nesting materials

Behavioral profiles, 1

Behaviors, 44.

  See also Social behavior

  abnormal, 1-2

  aggressive, 1, 11, 34, 153

  atypical, 1-2

  aunting, 14

  biting, 12, 17, 34, 36-37, 112

  chasing, 35

  chewing, 24

  exploration, 2

  eye-poking, 12, 17

  fighting, 17, 33, 121



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--> Index A Abnormal behavior, 1-2 Acepromazine, sifaka sensitivity to, 66 Activity profiles, 1 Age factors, 2-3, 11-12, 37, 46, 117, 152 Aggressive behavior, 1, 11, 34, 153.   See also Isolating primates;   Self-injury   fleeing, 23, 25   intragroup, 14   redirection of, 34   research conditions involving, 54 Agricultural Research Service, 25 Analgesics, 52-53 Anemia, 79 Anesthesia, alternatives to, 40 Animal care technicians. See Technicians Animal Welfare Act of 1966 and 1978, 5-6 Animal Welfare Information Center (AWIC), 25, 27 Animal Welfare Regulations, 23-25, 48, 106 Anorexia, 13, 66 Anthropoids, 7-8 Aotus, 8, 39, 42, 57, 80 Apes (hominoids), 8, 42-43, 103-112.   See also Chimpanzees Appetite loss, 78 Arthritis, 12 Assessment, 1, 4, 11, 25, 154 Ataxia, 78 Atypical behavior, 1-2 Auditory contact, 105, 148, 150 Aunting behavior, 14 Avoidance training, 41 AWIC. See Animal Welfare Information Center Aye ayes, 7, 55, 59, 61, 63-67 B Baboons (Papio), 8, 32, 42-43, 91-93, 95-96, 100-102 Back-flips, 12 Barriers, reducing, 44 Bedding materials, 24.   See also Nesting materials Behavioral profiles, 1 Behaviors, 44.   See also Social behavior   abnormal, 1-2   aggressive, 1, 11, 34, 153   atypical, 1-2   aunting, 14   biting, 12, 17, 34, 36-37, 112   chasing, 35   chewing, 24   exploration, 2   eye-poking, 12, 17   fighting, 17, 33, 121

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-->   foraging, 2-3, 18, 20, 83, 150-151   hair-plucking, 12   huddling, 84   idiosyncratic, 12   lethargic, 39   maladaptive, 1, 6, 11   passive, 1, 11   pathological, 1, 6, 11   scent-marking, 24, 62, 74, 85-86   threatening, 35-36, 49   tongue-flicking, 74 Biocontainment, 48-49, 107 Biological samples, collecting, 122 Birth control, 108-109 Biting behaviors, 12, 17, 34, 36-37, 112 Bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata), 13-14 Brachiating locomotion, 23, 104-105 Breathing, altered, 1, 11, 13, 88 C Cage companions   guidelines for, 3   introducing, 16 Cages.   See also Housing;   Sanitation   biocontainment, 49   design factors, 23-24, 106, 111-112, 117-118   holding, 48   interconnecting, 23   reaching into, 51   size of, 6, 23-24, 32   squeeze, 112   transfer, 37, 50, 88, 100   two-tier, 70 Cage space, defining behaviorally, 24 Callithrix, 8 Callitrichids, 68-79   cognition in, 77   housing, 69-72   nutrition for, 72-73   and personnel, 77-78   pheromone communication in, 38   reproduction and development in, 42, 74-76   social behavior in, 73-74   veterinary care of, 78-79 Captive primates, 11, 13, 117 Capture procedures, 25, 65, 78, 88 Capuchin monkeys (Cebus), 8, 17, 37, 80-82, 84-85, 87 Cardiac response, excessive, 1, 11 Cardiomyopathy, 89 Caregivers. See Personnel Catheterization, 51 Cebids, 80-89   cognition in, 87   housing, 83-84   nutrition for, 83-85   and personnel, 87-88   reproduction and development in, 43, 86-87   social behavior in, 85-86   veterinary care of, 88-89 Cebus, 8, 80 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 46, 101-102 Cercopithecus aethiops, 8, 91 Change, 1, 11, 13, 14, 78 Chaos, organized, 17 Chasing behavior, 35 Chemical communication, 38, 42, 70, 86 Chewing behavior, 24 Chimpanzees (Pan), 8, 37, 42-43, 51, 102-106, 108-112, 153 Clothing   distinctive, 41   protective, 44, 48-49, 102 CMV, 156 Cognition, 110-111, 120   in apes (hominoids), 110-111   in callitrichids, 77   in cebids, 87   investigations of, 8   in Old World monkeys (cercopithecids), 98-99   orienting activities to, 20   in prosimians, 64 Colds, 112 Cold sores, 79 Colitis, 79 Colobine monkeys, 42, 91-92, 94-96 Colobus, 8, 91 Colony management, 2, 24, 116, 118, 147 Communication, 38, 42-43, 70, 86 Companionship. See Social companionship Competition, 3, 35, 97 Computer tasks for primates, 22, 110-111, 120 Coping effectively, 1-2, 11 Copraphagy, 17, 73, 108, 153 Corrals, cleaning, 33, 38 Crab-eating macaques (Macaca fascicularis), 8 Cross-species fostering, 117

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--> D Daily care, 11, 21, 38-39, 112, 153 Data collection, using cooperative methods, 45 Debilitation, 152 Dehydration, 88 Dental modification, 36 Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), 113 Development factors. See Reproduction and development Diarrhea, 65-66, 78 Direct eye contact. See Staring Discomfort, minimizing, 47 Disease transmission, 22, 35, 44, 48-49.   See also individual disease agents Distress   anticipatory, 20   chronic, 1-2, 6, 11   dealing with, 121   signs of, 6 Distress vocalizations, 1, 11, 13, 78 Disturbance, dealing with, 121 Documentation, 2, 25-26, 28, 122, 148, 153 Duke University Primate Center, 57-67 Dull eyes, 78 E Ebola-related filovirus infection guidelines, 46 Ebola-Reston virus, 101 End-point criteria, 153 Engineering standards, versus performance standards, 5-6 Enhancement program, implementing, 43-44 Enrichment, 6, 20-22.   See also Environment   guidelines for, 3   mode of presentation, 22   novel foods as, 40, 149   plans, 27-30, 145-155   during quarantine, 102 Entamoeba histolytica, 156 Environment   enriching, 10, 20-22, 28-29, 35, 71, 119-120   influence on mental state, 1 Environmental disruptions. See Change Environmental Enhancement Plan, 153 Environmental stimuli, 11-12, 14, 20, 33-34 Escaped animals, 44 Euthanasia, 35, 153 ''Exemption from Social Housing" form, 152 Experimental protocols. See Research protocols Exploration behavior, 2 Eye contact. See Staring Eye-poking behavior, 12, 17 F Face shields, 44 Facial expressions, 1, 11, 13, 49 Falls, protecting against, 59, 83 Favored activities, 20 Fear, 13 Feeding, 22, 39-40, 73, 88-89   changes in, 36   extending time for, 107   frequency of, 22 Fighting behavior, 17, 33, 121 Filovirus, threat of, 102 Food   as enrichment, 40, 149   ensuring animals receive daily ration, 21   hiding, 20   masking taste of medicine with, 100, 112   novel, 40   snacks, 79   treats, 20, 22, 106-107, 151, 153 Foraging behavior, 2-3, 18, 20, 83, 150-151 Foraging puzzles, 20-22, 64, 106, 150 Force, using minimal, 44, 65 Foster parenting, cross-species, 117 G Galagos, 7, 42, 56, 59-61, 63-64, 67 Geladas, 92, 96 Gibbons, 8, 42, 103-104, 110, 112 Glomerulonephritis, chronic, 89 Gloves, 44 Goeldi's monkeys, 69, 72-74 Gorillas, 8, 103-105, 107, 109-110 Green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops), 8, 92, 102 Grimacing, 13 Grooming, 19-20 Group attacks, 17 Group housing, 3-4, 22-24, 35-38, 118 Groups   forming, 17, 64, 119.   See also Cage companions

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-->   monogamous pairs, 42   multimale, 42-43   one-male, 42   size, 119 Guenons, 8, 42, 92, 96, 100 Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, 24, 27, 47, 49, 95, 105 H Hair-plucking behavior, 12 Hand-raised animals, 43, 49, 77 Hazardous agents, protection from, 44, 48-49 Health hazards, preventing, 24 Herpes tamarinus, 85, 89 Herpesvirus ateles, 156 Herpesvirus saimiri, 79, 156 Herpesvirus simiae, 101 Herpesvirus simplex, 79, 89 Herpesvirus T, 156 Holding units, 48 Hormonal concentrations, abnormal, 1, 11 Hospitalizations, 46 Housing, 2-4, 32-38, 156-157.   See also Cages;   Group housing;   Individual housing;   Sanitation;   Social housing   for apes (hominoids), 104-107   for callitrichids, 69-72   for cebids, 83-84   designing, 22-25   for Old World monkeys (cercopithecids), 94-95   for prosimians, 57-60   removing animals from, 46 Howler monkeys, 8 Huddling behavior, 84 Human interactions, 2-3, 25-26, 43-45, 49, 149 Humidity requirements, 67 Husbandry practices, 33, 37, 120-121, 153.   See also Sanitation Hyperaggression. See Aggressive behavior I IACUCs. See Institutional animal care and use committees Idiosyncratic behavior, 12 Ill-being, 12, 114.   See also Psychological well-being Incompatible animals, 17, 152 Individual animals, 1, 6, 14-15, 18-19, 41-42, 117 Individual housing, 17, 33-35, 52, 149-152.   See also Isolating primates Indris, 7, 42, 55, 59, 61, 64-65 Infants. See Rearing infants; Young Infectious diseases, 156-157.   See also individual disease agents Inner states. See Mental states Inspections. See Daily care; Monitoring Institutional animal care and use committees (IACUCs), 24, 48, 53-54, 99, 151-152 Institutions   commitments needed from, 121-122   monitoring and assessing primates, 4, 25   program goals of, 27   training responsibilities of, 4   types of housing offered, 19 Instrumentation, selecting, 51 Intervention, 34, 54 Introductions, 36-37, 153 Intuition, 114 Invasive procedures, 45, 51-52 Isolation, 2, 16-17, 48-49, 152 L Language acquisition, investigations of, 8 Langurs, 42 Leaf-eating monkeys, 8 Learning, research needed on, 120 Legal factors, cage size, 23 Lemur catta, 7 Lemurs, 7, 42-43, 55, 58 Lethargic behavior, 39 Lip smacking, 43 Locomotor expression   balancing foraging with, 18   providing for suitable, 2-4, 87   variation in, 32 Lorises, 7, 42, 56, 59-64, 66-67 M Macaques (Macaca), 8, 13-14, 34, 37, 43, 49, 51, 90-102   bonnet (Macaca radiata), 13-14   crab-eating (Macaca fascicularis), 8, 93   pigtail (Macaca nemestrina), 8, 14

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-->   rhesus (Macaca mulatta), 8, 12, 17, 37, 40, 92-93, 98-99, 102, 146-150, 153 Maladaptive behavior, 1, 6, 11 Mangabeys, 8, 94, 96 Manipulanda, 120.   See also Objects Marmosets (Callithrix), 8, 32, 69-77, 146, 153 Masks, protective, 44 Mating patterns, 42-43 Measles, 79, 89 Medical treatment, 12 Medicines, masking taste with food, 100, 112 Memory, research needed on, 120 Mental states, 1, 6, 114.   See also Stressors Mixed-genera housing, 156-157 Monitoring, 4, 25, 29-30, 153 Monkeys. See Macaques; New World monkeys; Old World monkeys; individual species Monogamous pairs, 42 Multimale groups, 42-43 Multiple research use, 52-53 Mumps, 79 Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 156 N Names. See Scientific names National Agricultural Library, 25 National Research Council (NRC), 5-6 Natural objects, using, 25, 120 Nesting materials, 106 Nets, 37, 65, 78 Neuropharmacological studies, 54 New World monkey (callitrichids, cebids), 7-8, 68-89 Night monkeys (Aotus), 8, 39, 42, 57, 80-83, 88-89 Nonhuman primate environmental-enhancement (EE) plan, 145-155 Nonhuman primate importation regulations, 46 Nonhuman primates (NHPs). See Primates Nonsocial enrichment, 21 Norplant®, 108-109 Novel foods, 40 Nutrition, 39-40   for apes (hominoids), 107-108   for callitrichids, 72-73   for cebids, 84-85   for Old World monkeys (cercopithecids), 95   for prosimians, 60-62 O Objects   natural, 25, 120   providing variety of, 24 Observation, 25, 35-36 Odor, 67, 70, 77, 86.   See also Olfactory contact;   Pheromone communication;   Scent-marking behavior Old World monkeys (cercopithecids), 7-8, 90-102   cognition in, 98-99   housing, 94-95   nutrition for, 95   and personnel, 99-100   reproduction and development in, 43, 97-98   social behavior in, 95-97   veterinary care of, 100-102 Olfactory contact, 148-150 One-male groups, 42 Orangutans, 8, 42, 103-105, 108-110 Orul monkeys. See Night monkeys P Pain, 47, 53 Pairings, social, 119 Pan, 8, 104 Rapio, 8, 91-93, 95-96, 100-102 Passive behavior, 1, 11 Patas monkeys, 8, 42, 92, 94, 96 Pathological behavior, 1, 6, 11 Perches, 84, 118, 150 Performance standards, 3, 5-6 Personnel, 43-45.   See also Researchers;   Technicians;   Veterinary medical staff   with apes (hominoids), 111-112   with callitrichids, 77-78   with cebids, 87-88   distinctive clothing for, 41   immunizations recommended for, 112   introducing gradually, 111   with Old World monkeys (cercopithecids), 99-100   with prosimians, 65   safety of, 17, 37, 48, 50, 111   screening for tuberculosis, 101   training, 4, 25, 100 Pharmacological restraint. See Restraint Pheromone communication, 38 Physical abilities, orienting activities to, 20

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--> Physical environment, 1, 11, 39 Physical restraint. See Restraint Physical well-being, 1, 4, 10 Pigtail macaques (Macaca nemestrina), 8, 14 Piloerection, chronic, 78 Plans for psychological well-being, 2-4, 15-30   components of, 26   evaluating, 24, 48   samples of, 145-155 Platyrrhines, 8 Play, 20, 105, 115 Positive reinforcement, 41 Postural expression, 1, 11   huddling, 84   providing for suitable, 2-4   unusual, 13 Pottos, 7 Predictability, achieving, 120-121 Presbytis, 8 Preventive medicine, 45 Primates.   See also Behaviors   in captivity, 11, 13, 117   classification of, 6-7   cognition in, 110-111, 120   common features of, 8   diversity of, 31   exhibition, 46   incompatible, 17   as individuals, 1, 6, 14-15, 18-19, 41-42, 117   meeting needs of, 1-4, 15   multiple research use of, 52-53   protecting, 54, 156-157   safety of, 50   timid, 87   wild state of, 18, 42, 115 Procedures, responsibility for developing, 4 Prosimians, 7, 55-67   cognition in, 64   housing, 57-60   lifestyles of, 57   nutrition for, 60-62   and personnel, 65   pheromone communication in, 38, 42   reproduction and development in, 63-64   social behavior in, 62-63   special considerations, 66-67   veterinary care of, 65-66 Protective clothing, 44, 48-49, 102 Protocols. See Research protocols Psychological states. See Mental states Psychological well-being, 10-14   checklist for, 26-30   defined, 1, 10, 15-16   documenting, 26   effect of research conditions on, 47-54, 151-152   evaluating, 113-114, 120-122   general care and, 31-46   indexes of, 114-115   legislation concerning, 5   plans for, 2-4, 15-30   research into theory of, 114 Public Health Service (PHS) Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals , 47 Puzzles, 20-22, 64, 106, 120, 150 Q Quarantine, 32, 45-46, 102, 121 R Rearing infants.   See also Young   atypical environments for, 49   in captivity, 49, 117   by hand, 43   individual history of, 2-3 Recordkeeping. See Documentation Recovery periods, providing, 52-53 Redirection of aggression, 34 Regurgitation and reingestion, 108 Reinforcement, 41 Reintroductions, 36-37, 85, 101, 153 Relationships   forming, 44   improving, 121 Remediation   assigning personnel to, 2   documenting efforts toward, 26, 153   strategies for, 2 Reproduction and development, 12-13.   See also Mating patterns   in apes (hominoids), 109-110   in callitrichids, 74-76   in cebids, 86-87   in Old World monkeys (cercopithecids), 97-98   in prosimians, 63-64 Reproductive success, 11-12

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--> Researchers, 31 Research primates. See Primates Research protocols, 17, 32   dealing with consequences of, 12   effect on psychological well-being, 47-54, 151-152   evaluating periodically, 26, 48   influence on housing, 19, 32, 152   innovations in, 122   involving infectious diseases, 48 Resocialization, 17 Restraint, 40, 44-45, 49-50, 100, 155 Rewards. See Snacks; Treats Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), 8, 12, 17, 37, 40, 92-93, 98-99, 102, 146-150, 153 Rhesus monkeys. See Rhesus macaques Rocking, 12 Routine, 20   disruptions in, 14, 153   establishing, 41, 121 Rubeola, 156 S Safety, 17, 37, 48, 50, 111 Saguinus, 8 Saimiri, 80-81 Sakis, 8 Sanitation, 25, 33, 38, 59.   See also Cages;   Housing;   Husbandry practices   of manipulable objects, 21   recommended compromises with maximum, 2, 24, 58, 62, 70-71, 86 Scent-marking behavior, 24, 62, 74, 85-86 Scientific names, listed, 55-56, 68, 80-81, 90-91, 103 Self-biting, 12, 17, 34 Self-clasping, 12 Self-initiated activities, 20 Self-injury, 12   chronic, 34-35   preventing, 11 Self-mouthing, 12 Self-stimulation, 115 Semisocial species, 42 Sensory contact, maintaining, 45-46 Separation, premature, 35 SHF, 157 Shigella infections, 12 Shipping, 121, 146 Siamangs, 42, 103-104, 110 Sifakas, 7, 55, 59, 61, 63-66 Single housing. See Individual housing Sluggishness, 78 Snacks, 79.   See also Treats Social behavior   of apes (hominoids), 108-109   of callitrichids, 73-74   of cebids, 85-86   of Old World monkeys (cercopithecids), 95-97   of prosimians, 62-63 Social companionship, 2-3, 16-20, 28.   See also Social deprivation   benefits of, 12, 33   compatible, 17, 38   providing, 148-149   variables affecting need for, 3 Social deprivation, 12, 99, 116-117 Social environment, 1, 11 Social grooming, 19-20 Social housing, 3-4, 22-24, 35-38, 151-152 Social pairings, long-term, 119 Social stimulation, 43 Social units, planning, 36-38 Solitary species, 42 Space requirements   calculating minimums, 3-4   while fleeing from aggression, 23, 25 Species, listed, 55-56, 68, 80-81, 90-91, 103 Species-appropriate behavior. See Species-typical behavior patterns Species-typical behavior patterns, 1-2   characteristics involved, 13   defined, 19   diversity in, 11, 13-16   need for information about, 6-7, 13-14   opportunities to engage in, 2-3, 11, 18-22   in subjects raised in captivity, 49   in the wild, 18 Spider monkeys, 8, 81-82, 85-86, 89 Spitting, 112 Spontaneous occurrences, 35 Squirrel monkeys (Saimiri), 8, 37, 80-81, 84, 87, 89, 147, 150-151, 153 Standard operating procedures (SOPs), 34, 146, 151-153 Standards, 5-6   absolutes not desirable, 2   implementing, 27, 30   validating against performance, 3 Staring, 43, 49, 99, 150 Stimuli. See Environmental stimuli

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--> Streptococcus pneumoniae, 112 Stressors, 45-46, 78-79   absence of chronic, 114-115   human traffic, 33   inability to cope with, 17   minor, 2   reducing, 2, 13, 41, 44, 147   research needed, 114, 121   spotting, 153 Stride characteristics, identifying, 118 Subjective component, 6 Substance abuse, animal modeling of, 54 Surfaces, providing variety of, 24 Surgery, 52 SV40, 157 Swings, 150 T Tactile contact, 33, 150 Talapoins, 8, 94, 96 Tamarins (Saguinus), 8, 69-77 Tarsiers, 7, 56, 60, 62, 64, 66-67 Technicians, 31, 88, 121-122   familiar with animals, 44, 78, 107   tips for, 41, 77 Television watching, 22, 111, 120 Temperament, providing for balanced, 1, 11, 16 Temperature requirements, 32, 83, 105-106 Threatening behavior, 35-36, 49 Time budgets, 18 Titi monkeys, 8, 42, 80, 86, 88 Tongue-flicking behavior, 74 Toxoplasma, 66 Toys for primates, 21-22, 149 Training animals, 40-42, 51, 100, 112, 153 Training personnel, 25, 100   assessment of, 121   responsibility for, 4, 122 Transfer cages, 37, 50, 88, 100 Treats, 20, 22, 106-107, 151.   See also Snacks Trichomoniasis, 65 Tuberculosis, 46, 101, 156 U Uacaris, 8 U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), 5-6, 25, 113 U.S. Department of Defense, 113 U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, 113 U.S. Government Principles for the Utilization and Care of Vertebrate Animals, 47 Universities Federation for Animal Welfare, 107 University of the Southeast (USE), 145 V Vasectomizing, 108-109 Vervets (Cercopithecus aethiops), 8 Veterinary care, 11   of callitrichids, 78-79   of cebids, 88-89   of Old World monkeys (cercopithecids), 100-102   of prosimians, 65-66 Veterinary medical staff, 24, 31, 45-46 Video tasks for primates, 22, 110-111, 120 Viral infections, 89 Visual contact, 105, 148, 150 Vitamins, 39, 73, 84-85 Vocalizations, 1, 11, 13, 49, 57, 77-78 Voluntary interactions, providing opportunities for, 20 Vulnerability, 25 W Walls, 32, 49 Water, 24, 38-39 Weight loss, 78-79 Well-being. See Physical well-being; Psychological well-being Wild primates, 18, 42 Withdrawal, 13 Woolly monkeys, 8, 81-82, 86, 89 X Xenophobia, 17 Y YABA, 157 Yersinia, 66 Young.   See also Rearing infants   attacks on, 85   neglect of, 66-67, 75-76, 119, 153 Z Zoonoses, 37, 100-101