Clean Air Act (CAA)

42 USC 7401 et seq.

Protection of air quality and human health


Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA)

42 USC 7409 et seq.

Expansion of air quality protection

Requires development of specific rules for laboratories

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants(NESHAP)

40 CFR 70

Control of air pollutant emissions


Montreal Protocol: Protection of Stratospheric Ozone

40 CFR 82

Control of emission of ozone-depleting compounds

Severely limits use of certain chlorofluorocarbons

Federal Water Pollution Control Act (FWPCA)

33 USC 1251 et seq.

Improvement and protection of water quality


Criteria and Standards for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)

40 CFR 125

Control of discharge to public waters


General Pretreatment Regulations for Existing and New Sources of Pollution

40 CFR 403

Control of discharge of pollutants to public treatment works

Implemented by local sewer authorities

Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA)

49 USC 1801 et seq.

Control of movement of hazardous materials


Hazardous Material Regulations

49 CFR 100-199

Regulation of packaging, labeling, placarding, and transporting


Hazardous Materials Training Requirements

49 CFR 172.700-704

Assurance of training for all persons involved in transportation of hazardous materials

Also known as HM126F

Atomic Energy Act (AEA) Energy Reorganization Act(ERA)

42 USC 2073 et seq.

42 USC 5841 et seq.

Establish standards for protection against radiation hazards

See also OSHA, Ionizing Radiation

Standards for Protection Against Radiation; Licenses

10 CFR 20

10 CFR 30-35

Establish exposure limits and license conditions

Rules promulgated by Nuclear Regulatory Commission

National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)

42 USC 4321 et seq.

Ensure consideration of all environmental effects


Requirements of the Council on Environmental Quality

40 CFR 6 and 1506

Indicate requirements for Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)


as criminal penalties. Perhaps of general importance, violations can erode community confidence in an institution's seriousness of purpose in safeguarding the environment and complying with the law. It should be recognized that "prudent practice" involves not only scientific prudence but also prudent behavior in terms of the risks of violation of law or regulation, that is, the risk of adverse publicity for the institution and the risk of damaging the important trust and support of the community for the overall academic enterprise.

It is also prudent for institutions that handle chemicals in laboratories to participate in the regulatory process so that regulators will understand the impact that proposed rules can have on the laboratory environ-

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