1. Chemical hygiene officer(s), whose appointment is essential (7) and who must:

  1. Work with administrators and other employees to develop and

  2. Monitor procurement, use, and disposal of chemicals used in the lab (8);

  3. See that appropriate audits are maintained (8);

  4. Help project directors develop precautions and adequate facilities (10);

  5. Know the current legal requirements concerning regulated substances (50); and

  6. Seek ways to improve the chemical hygiene program (8, 11).

  1. Laboratory supervisor, who has overall responsibility for chemical hygiene in the laboratory (21) including responsibility to:

    1. Ensure that workers know and follow the chemical hygiene rules, that protective equipment is available and in working order, and that appropriate training has been provided (21, 22);

    2. Provide regular, formal chemical hygiene and housekeeping inspections including routine inspections of emergency equipment (21, 171);

    3. Know the current legal requirements concerning regulated substances (50, 231);

    4. Determine the required levels of protective apparel and equipment (156, 160, 162); and

    5. Ensure that facilities and training for use of any material being ordered are adequate (215).

  1. Project director or director of other specific operation, who has primary responsibility for chemical hygiene procedures for that operation (7).

  2. Laboratory worker, who is responsible for:

    1. Planning and conducting each operation in accordance with the institutional chemical hygiene procedures (7, 21, 22, 230); and

    2. Developing good personal chemical hygiene habits (22).

C. The Laboratory Facility

  1. Design. The laboratory facility should have:

    1. An appropriate general ventilation system (see C4 below) with air intakes and exhausts located so as to avoid intake of contaminated air (194);

    2. Adequate, well-ventilated stockrooms/storerooms (218, 219);

    3. Laboratory hoods and sinks (12, 162);

    4. Other safety equipment including eyewash fountains and drench showers (162, 169); and

    5. Arrangements for waste disposal (12, 240).

  1. Maintenance. Chemical-hygiene-related equipment (hoods, incinerator, etc.) should undergo continual appraisal and be modified if inadequate (11, 12).

  2. Usage. The work conducted (10) and its scale (12) must be appropriate to the physical facilities available and, especially, to the quality of ventilation (13).

  3. Ventilation—

    1. General laboratory ventilation. This system should: Provide a source of air for breathing and for input to local ventilation devices (199); it should not be relied on for protection from toxic substances released into the laboratory (198); ensure that laboratory air is continually replaced, preventing increase of air concentrations of toxic substances during the working day (194); direct air flow into the laboratory from non-laboratory areas and out to the exterior of the building (194).

    2. Hoods. A laboratory hood with 2.5 linear feet of hood space per person should be provided for every 2 workers if they spend most of their time working with chemicals (199); each hood should have a continuous monitoring device to allow convenient confirmation of adequate hood performance before use (200, 209). If this is not possible, work with substances of unknown toxicity should be avoided (13) or other types of local ventilation devices should be provided (199). See pp. 201-206 for a discussion of hood design, construction, and evaluation.

    3. Other local ventilation devices. Ventilated storage cabinets, canopy hoods, snorkels, etc. should be provided as needed (199). Each canopy hood and snorkel should have a separate exhaust duct (207).

    4. Special ventilation areas. Exhaust air from glove boxes and isolation rooms should be passed through scrubbers or other treatment before release into the regular exhaust system (208). Cold rooms and warm rooms should have provisions for rapid escape and for escape in the event of electrical failure (209).

    5. Modifications. Any alteration of the ventilation system should be made only if thorough testing indicates that worker protection from airborne toxic substances will continue to be adequate (12, 193, 204).

    6. Performance. Rate: 4-12 room air changes/hour is normally adequate general ventilation if local exhaust systems such as hoods are used as the primary method of control (194).

    7. Quality. General air flow should not be turbulent and should be relatively uniform throughout the laboratory, with no high velocity or static areas (194, 195); airflow into and within the hood should not be excessively turbulent (200); hood face velocity should be adequate (typically 60-100 lfm) (200, 204).

    8. Evaluation. Quality and quantity of ventilation should be evaluated on installation (202), regularly monitored (at least every 3 months) (6, 12, 14, 195), and reevaluated whenever a change in local ventilation devices is made (12, 195, 207). See pp. 195-198 for meth-

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