tion in accordance with the requirements of state and federal regulations (12).

  1. Signs and Labels

Prominent signs and labels of the following types should be posted:

  1. Emergency telephone numbers of emergency personnel/facilities, supervisors, and laboratory workers (28);

  2. Identity labels, showing contents of containers (including waste receptacles) and associated hazards (27, 48);

  3. Location signs for safety showers, eyewash stations, other safety and first aid equipment, exits (27) and areas where food and beverage consumption and storage are permitted (24); and

  4. Warnings at areas or equipment where special or unusual hazards exist (27).

  1. Spills and Accidents

  1. A written emergency plan should be established and communicated to all personnel; it should include procedures for ventilation failure (200), evacuation, medical care, reporting, and drills (172).

  2. There should be an alarm system to alert people in all parts of the facility including isolation areas such as cold rooms (172).

  3. A spill control policy should be developed and should include consideration of prevention, containment, cleanup, and reporting (175).

  4. All accidents or near accidents should be carefully analyzed with the results distributed to all who might benefit (8, 28).

  1. Information and Training Program

  1. Aim: To assure that all individuals at risk are adequately informed about the work in the laboratory, its risks, and what to do if an accident occurs (5, 15).

  2. Emergency and Personal Protection Training: Every laboratory worker should know the location and proper use of available protective apparel and equipment (154, 169). Some of the full-time personnel of the laboratory should be trained in the proper use of emergency equipment and procedures (6). Such training as well as first aid instruction should be available to (154) and encouraged for (176) everyone who might need it.

  3. Receiving and stockroom/storeroom personnel should know about hazards, handling equipment, protective apparel, and relevant regulations (217).

  4. Frequency of Training: The training and education program should be a regular, continuing activity-not simply an annual presentation (15).

  5. Literature/Consultation: Literature and consulting advice concerning chemical hygiene should be readily available to laboratory personnel, who should be encouraged to use these information resources (14).

  1. Waste Disposal Program

  1. Aim: To assure that minimal harm to people, other organisms, and the environment will result from the disposal of waste laboratory chemicals (5).

  2. Content (14, 232, 233, 240): The waste disposal program should specify how waste is to be collected, segregated, stored, and transported and include consideration of what materials can be incinerated. Transport from the institution must be in accordance with DOT regulations (244).

  3. Discarding Chemical Stocks: Unlabeled containers of chemicals and solutions should undergo prompt disposal; if partially used, they should not be opened (24, 27). Before a worker's employment in the laboratory ends, chemicals for which that person was responsible should be discarded or returned to storage (226).

  4. Frequency of Disposal: Waste should be removed from laboratories to a central waste storage area at least once per week and from the central waste storage area at regular intervals (14).

  5. Method of Disposal: Incineration in an environmentally acceptable manner is the most practical disposal method for combustible laboratory waste (14, 238, 241). Indiscriminate disposal by pouring waste chemicals down the drain (14,231,242) or adding them to mixed refuse for landfill burial is unacceptable (14). Hoods should not be used as a means of disposal for volatile chemicals (40, 200). Disposal by recycling (233, 243) or chemical decontamination (40, 230) should be used when possible.

E. Basic Rules and Procedures for Working with Chemicals

The Chemical Hygiene Plan should require that laboratory workers know and follow its rules and procedures. In addition to the procedures of the sub programs mentioned above, these should include the rules listed below.

  1. General Rules

The following should be used for essentially all laboratory work with chemicals:

  1. Accidents and Spills—Eye Contact: Promptly flush eyes with water for a prolonged period (15 minutes) and seek medical attention (33, 172).

    Ingestion: Encourage the victim to drink large amounts of water (178).

    Skin Contact: Promptly flush the affected area with water (33, 172, 178) and remove any contaminated

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