stances are appropriately labeled with identity and warning labels (48).

  1. Spills: Assure that contingency plans, equipment, and materials to minimize exposures of people and property in case of accident are available (233-4).

  2. Storage: Store containers of these chemicals only in a ventilated, limited access (48, 227, 229) area in appropriately labeled, unbreakable, chemically resistant, secondary containers (48, 229).

  3. Glove boxes: For a negative pressure glove box, ventilation rate must be at least 2 volume changes/ hour and pressure at least 0.5 inches of water (48). For a positive pressure glove box, thoroughly check for leaks before each use (49). In either case, trap the exit gases or filter them through a HEPA filter and then release them into the hood (49).

  4. Waste: Use chemical decontamination whenever possible; ensure that containers of contaminated waste (including washings from contaminated flasks) are transferred from the controlled area in a secondary container under the supervision of authorized personnel (49, 50, 233).

  1. Animal Work with Chemicals of High Chronic Toxicity

  1. Access: For large scale studies, special facilities with restricted access are preferable (56).

  2. Administration of the toxic substance: When possible, administer the substance by injection or gavage instead of in the diet. If administration is in the diet, use a caging system under negative pressure or under laminar air flow directed toward HEPA filters (56).

  3. Aerosol suppression: Devise procedures which minimize formation and dispersal of contaminated aerosols, including those from food, urine, and feces (e.g., use HEPA filtered vacuum equipment for cleaning, moisten contaminated bedding before removal from the cage, mix diets in closed containers in a hood) (55, 56).

  4. Personal protection: When working in the animal room, wear plastic or rubber gloves, fully buttoned laboratory coat or jumpsuit and, if needed because of incomplete suppression of aerosols, other apparel and equipment (shoe and head coverings, respirator) (56).

  5. Waste disposal: Dispose of contaminated animal tissues and excreta by incineration if the available incinerator can convert the contaminant to non-toxic products (238); otherwise, package the waste appropriately for burial in an EPA-approved site (239).

F. Safety Recommendations

The above recommendations from "Prudent Practices" do not include those which are directed primarily toward prevention of physical injury rather than toxic exposure. However, failure of precautions against injury will often have the secondary effect of causing toxic exposures. Therefore, we list below page references for recommendations concerning some of the major categories of safety hazards which also have implications for chemical hygiene:

  1. Corrosive agents: (35-6)

  2. Electrically powered laboratory apparatus: (179-92)

  3. Fires, explosions: (26, 57-74, 162-4, 174-5, 219-20, 226-7)

  4. Low temperature procedures: (26, 88)

  5. Pressurized and vacuum operations (including use of compressed gas cylinders): (27, 75-101)

G. Material Safety Data Sheets

Material safety data sheets are presented in "Prudent Practices" for the chemicals listed below. (Asterisks denote that comprehensive material safety data sheets are provided.)

*Acetyl peroxide (105)

*Acrolein (106)


Ammonia (anhydrous) (91)

*Aniline (109)

*Benzene (110)

*Benzo[a]pyrene (112)

*Bis(chloromethyl) ether (113)

Boron trichloride (91)

Boron trifluoride (92)

Bromine (114)

*Tert-butyl hydroperoxide (148)

*Carbon disulfide (116)

Carbon monoxide (92)

*Carbon tetrachloride (118)

*Chlorine (119)

Chlorine trifluoride (94)

*Chloroform (121)

Chloromethane (93)

*Diethyl ether (122)

Diisopropyl fluorophosphate (41)

*Dimethylformamide (123)

*Dimethyl sulfate (125)

*Dioxane (126)

*Ethylene dibromide (128)

*Fluorine (95)

*Formaldehyde (130)

*Hydrazine and salts (132)

Hydrofluoric acid (43)

Hydrogen bromide (98)

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