aid, handling and storage, disposal, and fire precautions. Each summary includes a list of references.

  1. A Comprehensive Guide to the Hazardous Properties of Chemical Substances, P. A. Patnaik, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1992. This particularly valuable guide is written at a level appropriate for the typical laboratory worker. It covers about 1,500 substances; sections in each entry include uses and exposure risk, physical properties, health hazards, exposure limits, fire and explosion hazards, and disposal/destruction. Entries are organized into chapters according to functional group classes, and each chapter begins with a general discussion of the properties and hazards of the class.

  2. Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices, 1994-1995, American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, Ohio, 1994. A handy booklet listing ACGIH threshold limit values (TLVs) and short-term exposure limits (STELs). These values are under continuous review, and this booklet is updated annually. The ACGIH's multivolume publication Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices reviews the data (with reference to literature sources) that were used to establish the threshold limit values.

  3. Fire Protection for Laboratories Using Chemicals (NFPA Standard Code No. 45), National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, Massachusetts, 1991. This is the national fire safety code pertaining to laboratory use of chemicals.

  4. Bretherick's Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards, 4th edition, L. Bretherick, Butterworth, London, 1990. An extremely comprehensive compilation of examples of violent reactions, fires, and explosions due to unstable chemicals, as well as reports on known examples of incompatibility between reactive chemicals.

  5. Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials, 8th edition, three volumes, Richard J. Lewis, Sr., Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1992. This compilation of data for 20,000 chemical substances contains much of the information found in a typical MSDS, including physical and chemical properties, data on toxicity, flammability, reactivity, and explosibility, and a concise safety profile describing symptoms of exposure. This is a useful reference for checking the accuracy of an MSDS and a valuable resource to assist workers in preparing their own LCSSs.

  6. Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials, 10th edition, National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, Massachusetts, 1991. This resource contains hazard data on more than 400 chemicals.

  7. Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology, 4th edition, G. D. Clayton and F. E. Clayton, editors, Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1994, Volume 2, Toxicology (part C). A classic and authoritative reference on the toxicology of different classes of organic and inorganic compounds. The six parts of volume 2 consist of several thousand pages of information organized by functional group class. The focus in Patty's is on health effects; hazards due to flammability, reactivity, and explosibility are not covered.

  8. Proctor and Hughes' Chemical Hazards of the Workplace, 3rd edition, G. J. Hathaway, N. H. Proctor, J. P. Hughes, and M. L. Fischman, editors, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1991. This resource provides an excellent summary of the toxicology of 542 chemicals. Most entries are one to two pages in length and include signs and symptoms of exposure with reference to specific clinical reports.

  9. Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, 3rd edition, two volumes, Marshall Sittig, Noyes Publications, Park Ridge, New Jersey, 1991. This very good reference, which is written with the industrial hygienist in mind, covers 800 substances.

  10. Sigma-Aldrich Library of Chemical Safety Data, 2nd edition, Robert E. Lenga, editor, two volumes, Sigma-Aldrich, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 1988. This compilation of safety data for approximately 14,500 chemicals is in tabular form. It presents considerably less information than is found in a typical MSDS or LCSS, but it is convenient as a single source of information for a very large number of substances.

  11. Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products, 5th edition, Robert E. Gosselin, Roger P. Smith, and Harold C. Hodge, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, Maryland, 1984. This reference is designed to assist the physician in dealing with cases of acute chemical poisoning. It contains trade names of products and their ingredients.

  12. Casarett and Doull's Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons, 4th edition, M. O. Amdur, J. Doull, and C. D. Klaassen, editors, Pergamon Press, New York, 1991. This complete and readable overview of toxicology is a good textbook but is not arranged as a ready reference for handling laboratory emergencies.

  13. Catalog of Teratogenic Agents, 7th edition, Thomas H. Shepard, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, 1992. This catalog is one of the best references available on the subject of reproductive and developmental toxins.

  14. The Laboratory Environment, R. Purchase, editor, Special Publication Number 136, Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 1994.

3.B.6 Computer Services

In addition to computerized MSDSs, a number of computer databases are available that supply data for

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