Index

A

Absorbents, 88, 92, 100, 133, 149

Absorption in body, 37, 38-39, 135

Academics, see Teaching laboratories

Access control, 91, 93

Accidents, see Emergency preparation and response;

Hazard evaluation;

Injuries;

Litigation and lawsuits;

Risk assessment. Note: Information about specific chemicals (indicated by boldface) is included in the Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries.

Acetaldehyde, 238-239

Acetic acid, 50, 100, 102, 240-241

Acetic acid ethyl ester, see Ethyl acetate

Acetic aldehyde, see Acetaldehyde

Acetone (propane), 37, 38, 102, 129, 242-243

flammability, 46, 48, 50, 96, 112

spills, 32, 48

Acetonitrile, 50, 155, 244-245

Acetoxyethane, see Ethyl acetate

Acetylene,40, 95, 96, 102, 125, 128, 246-247

Acetyl hydroperoxide, see Peracetic acid

Acetylides, 54, 96, 102

ACGIH, see American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists

Acid inhibitors, 51

Acids

explosive hazards, 54, 96

incompatibilities, 54

injuries, 38, 38-40

neutralization, 160-161

spills, 88

see also under names of specific substances

ACN, see Acrylonitrile

Acquisition of chemicals, 4, 24, 25, 67-69, 228

minimization, 4, 64-65, 153

Acrolein,54, 248-249

Acrylaldehyde, see Acrolein

Acrylamide, 250-251

Acrylic aldehyde, see Acrolein

Acrylonitrile, 252-253

Activated carbon, 56, 155, 188

Acute toxicity, 41-43

exposure factors, 36

information sources, 34, 41

in Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries, 41, 42, 236

lethal doses, 36, 41, 42, 43, 47

in Material Safety Data Sheets, 32, 41

of new and unknown compounds, 3

"particularly hazardous substances,"; 41-42, 203, 204

systemic effects, 39

Acyl halides, 161-162

Acylating agents, 45

Administration and supervision, 2, 15-16, 18, 23-24, 64, 176, 226-227

risk assessment, 31, 42

Adverse reactions, 211-212

Aerosols, 91, 92, 94, 194

inhalation of, 38, 83

Aerothene MM, see Dichloromethane

Air, liquefied, 51, 101

Air baths, 114, 117-118

Airborne concentrations, 37-38

explosive limits, 48-49, 50

lethal (LC) values, 36

monitoring, 42-43, 92, 228

threshold limits, 42-43

ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) principle, 61

Alarms, 26, 81, 86, 89, 91, 122, 133, 134, 229

Alcohols, 56, 66, 97, 103,

see also Ethanol;

Isopropyl alcohol;

Methanol

Aldehydes, 55, 162

Aliphatic hydrocarbons,100, 326-327

Alkali metals, 50, 51, 54, 55, 95, 97, 104, 144, 165,

see also Potassium hydroxide;

Sodium hydroxide

Alkalis and bases

explosive hazards, 54, 96

incompatibilities, 51, 54

injuries, 38, 39, 40

neutralization, 160-161

spills, 88

Alkenes, 101

Alkyaluminum compounds, see Organoaluminum compounds

Alkyl lithiums,

see also Butyllithiums

Alkylating agents, 44, 45

Allergens and allergic reactions, 40, 41, 43, 230

skin contact, 38, 40

Allylic halides, 40

Alumina, 162, 163, 188

Aluminum chloride, see Aluminum trichloride

Aluminum trichloride,102, 254-255

American Chemical Society, 4, 35, 64, 202

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) exposure limits, 32, 34, 42, 203

American National Standards

Institute (ANSI), 82, 119, 132

and Material Safety Data Sheets, 31-32

American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), 180, 181, 212

Aminobenzene, see Aniline

Ammonia, 37, 39, 40, 96, 102, 125, 256-257,

see also Ammonium hydroxide

Ammonium hydroxide, 258-259

Ammonium nitrate, 50

Anaphylactic shock, 40

Anhydrides, 161-162

Aniline, 260-261

Animal testing and results

NOTE: Page numbers in boldface under chemical names indicate a Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary for that chemical. These summaries contain information regarding a substance's chemistry, toxicity, and handling in a laboratory setting.



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Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals Index A Absorbents, 88, 92, 100, 133, 149 Absorption in body, 37, 38-39, 135 Academics, see Teaching laboratories Access control, 91, 93 Accidents, see Emergency preparation and response; Hazard evaluation; Injuries; Litigation and lawsuits; Risk assessment. Note: Information about specific chemicals (indicated by boldface) is included in the Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries. Acetaldehyde, 238-239 Acetic acid, 50, 100, 102, 240-241 Acetic acid ethyl ester, see Ethyl acetate Acetic aldehyde, see Acetaldehyde Acetone (propane), 37, 38, 102, 129, 242-243 flammability, 46, 48, 50, 96, 112 spills, 32, 48 Acetonitrile, 50, 155, 244-245 Acetoxyethane, see Ethyl acetate Acetylene,40, 95, 96, 102, 125, 128, 246-247 Acetyl hydroperoxide, see Peracetic acid Acetylides, 54, 96, 102 ACGIH, see American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists Acid inhibitors, 51 Acids explosive hazards, 54, 96 incompatibilities, 54 injuries, 38, 38-40 neutralization, 160-161 spills, 88 see also under names of specific substances ACN, see Acrylonitrile Acquisition of chemicals, 4, 24, 25, 67-69, 228 minimization, 4, 64-65, 153 Acrolein,54, 248-249 Acrylaldehyde, see Acrolein Acrylamide, 250-251 Acrylic aldehyde, see Acrolein Acrylonitrile, 252-253 Activated carbon, 56, 155, 188 Acute toxicity, 41-43 exposure factors, 36 information sources, 34, 41 in Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries, 41, 42, 236 lethal doses, 36, 41, 42, 43, 47 in Material Safety Data Sheets, 32, 41 of new and unknown compounds, 3 "particularly hazardous substances,"; 41-42, 203, 204 systemic effects, 39 Acyl halides, 161-162 Acylating agents, 45 Administration and supervision, 2, 15-16, 18, 23-24, 64, 176, 226-227 risk assessment, 31, 42 Adverse reactions, 211-212 Aerosols, 91, 92, 94, 194 inhalation of, 38, 83 Aerothene MM, see Dichloromethane Air, liquefied, 51, 101 Air baths, 114, 117-118 Airborne concentrations, 37-38 explosive limits, 48-49, 50 lethal (LC) values, 36 monitoring, 42-43, 92, 228 threshold limits, 42-43 ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) principle, 61 Alarms, 26, 81, 86, 89, 91, 122, 133, 134, 229 Alcohols, 56, 66, 97, 103, see also Ethanol; Isopropyl alcohol; Methanol Aldehydes, 55, 162 Aliphatic hydrocarbons,100, 326-327 Alkali metals, 50, 51, 54, 55, 95, 97, 104, 144, 165, see also Potassium hydroxide; Sodium hydroxide Alkalis and bases explosive hazards, 54, 96 incompatibilities, 51, 54 injuries, 38, 39, 40 neutralization, 160-161 spills, 88 Alkenes, 101 Alkyaluminum compounds, see Organoaluminum compounds Alkyl lithiums, see also Butyllithiums Alkylating agents, 44, 45 Allergens and allergic reactions, 40, 41, 43, 230 skin contact, 38, 40 Allylic halides, 40 Alumina, 162, 163, 188 Aluminum chloride, see Aluminum trichloride Aluminum trichloride,102, 254-255 American Chemical Society, 4, 35, 64, 202 American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) exposure limits, 32, 34, 42, 203 American National Standards Institute (ANSI), 82, 119, 132 and Material Safety Data Sheets, 31-32 American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), 180, 181, 212 Aminobenzene, see Aniline Ammonia, 37, 39, 40, 96, 102, 125, 256-257, see also Ammonium hydroxide Ammonium hydroxide, 258-259 Ammonium nitrate, 50 Anaphylactic shock, 40 Anhydrides, 161-162 Aniline, 260-261 Animal testing and results NOTE: Page numbers in boldface under chemical names indicate a Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary for that chemical. These summaries contain information regarding a substance's chemistry, toxicity, and handling in a laboratory setting.

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Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals acute toxicity, 36, 41, 42 carcinogenicity, 43, 44 Animal waste, 7, 60, 151, 152, 156, 158, 159, 232 Annual Report on Carcinogens,43, 44, 203 Anosmia, 42 ANSI, see American National Standards Institute Aprons, 26, 132, 133 Aqua ammonia, see Ammonium hydroxide Aqueous solutions, 85, 148, 152, 155 Argentum, see Silver and silver compounds Argon, 40, 98, 128 Armored hoods, 99 Aromatic amines, 45, 162 Aromatic hydrocarbons, 41, 45 Arsenic hydride, see Arsine Arsenic trihydride, see Arsine Arsine, 262-263 Asbestos, 37 Ascarite, 102 ASHRAE, see American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers. See also ASHRAE/ANSI standards. ASHRAE/ANSI standards, 180, 181, 212 Asphyxiants and asphyxiation, 40, 57, 104, 128, 129, 194 Aspirators, 57, 112, 130 Atomic Energy Act, 152, 201 Audits, see Inspections and audits Autoclaves and autoclaving, 101, 125, 127, 151, 158 multihazardous waste, 6, 7, 151, 156, 157, 159 Autoignition temperature, 48. Note: Information about specific chemicals (indicated by boldface) is included in the Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries. Autooxidation, 54, 55 Azabenzene, see Pyridine Azides, 54, 58, 96, 102, 165 Azimethylene, see Diazomethane Azine, see Pyridine B Back injuries, 57, 60, 121 Bar code labeling, 5, 10, 70 Barriers and barricades, 91, 92, 98, 99, 111 Bases, see Alkalis and bases Benzene, 37, 41, 46, 67, 264-265 Benzol, see Benzene Benzylic halides, 40 Biodegradation, 160 Biohazards, 6, 7, 23, 60, 67, 93-94, 151 Biological safety cabinets (BSCs), 194 Biological waste disposal, 6, 7, 94, 151 disposal regulations, 6, 7, 151 see also Multihazardous waste Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories, 60, 93-94, 194 Biosafety in the Laboratory: Prudent Practices for the Handling and Disposal of Infectious Materials, 94, 194 Birth defects, see Developmental toxicity Bis(chloromethyl)ether, 36, 284 Blankets, 89, 137 Boiling eruptions, 56, 97-98, 117 Boiling points, 32, 48, 128 Borane, see Diborane Boroethane, see Diborane Boron fluoride, see Boron trifluoride Boron halides, 105 Boron hydride, see Diborane Boron trifluoride, 266-267 Bourdon tubes, 125 Brain, 40, 104 Bretherick's Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards, 34, 46 Bromine,39, 268-269 Bromine cyanide, see Cyanogen bromide Bromocyanogen, see Cyanogen bromide Building codes, 72, 212 Bulk quantities, 4, 64, 67, 100, 101 Bunsen burners, 51, 95 Burns, 38, 39, 40, 84, 87, 89, 129 Butanone, see Methyl ethyl ketone tert-Butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP), 270-271 Butyllithiums, 272-273 C Cadmium, 77 Calcium hydride, 164 Calcium hypochlorate, 161 Calcium oxide, 40 Calorimetry, 97 Cancer, 39, 40, 61, see also Carcinogens Canopy hoods, 190-191 Capacitors, 59, 109, 112 Carbolic acid, see Phenol Carbon bisulfide, see Carbon disulfide Carbon dioxide, 40, 67, 134 Carbon disulfide (CS2),37, 48, 95, 102, 274-275 Carbon monoxide (CO),37, 40, 41, 58, 96, 124, 276-277 Carbon oxychloride, see Phosgene Carbon tetrachloride,103, 278-279 Carbonyl chloride, see Phosgene Carcinogens, 33, 40, 45, 61 exposure factors, 36, 37 in Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries, 43 in Material Safety Data Sheets, 32 "select", 41, 43-44, 203-204, 221 Card files, 69 Carts, 60, 68, 84, 122 CAS, see Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Numbers Casarett and Doull's Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons,34 Catalog of Teratogenic Agents,34, 46 Catalysts, 54, 56, 57, 96, 101-102, 103, 165 Cathodes, 58 Caustic potash, see Potassium hydroxide Caustics, see Corrosives and corrosivity Caustic soda, see Sodium hydroxide CD-ROM disks, 31, 35 Celite, 66 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 60, 156 Central nervous system, see Neurotoxicity Centrifuges, 119, 127 Chemical Abstracts (CA) database, 35 Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Numbers, 35, 69, 71 Chemical hygiene officers, 31, 43, 219, 226 Chemical Hygiene Plans (CHPs), 8, 19, 31, 55, 57, 87, 202-203, 204 , 219, 222-223, 225-226, 227-230 Chemical Information Systems (CIS), 35 Chemical properties information sources, 33, 34 in Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries, 33 in Material Safety Data Sheets, 31, 32 Chemical Safety Data Sheets,33-34 "Chemophobia," 2, 17 Chlorinated hydrocarbons, 41, 102 Chlorine,39, 54, 96, 102, 280-281 Chlorine trifluoride, 105 Chloroform,103, 282-283 Chloroformyl chloride, see Phosgene Chloromethyl methyl ether,43-44, 284-285 Chlorotrimethylstannane, see Trimethyltin chloride

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Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals Chromates, 54, 55, 97 Chromatography, 67, 155 Chromium(VI) compounds, 66, 77, 286-287 Chromium trioxide (chromic acid), 66, 102, 286-287 Chronic toxicity, 36, 37, 230-232 in Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries, 236 in Material Safety Data Sheets, 32 of new and unknown compounds, 3 systemic effects, 39 see also Carcinogens Circuit breakers and fuses, 59, 88, 110, 112 Clean Air Act, 9, 148, 201, 209-210 Cleaning, see Housekeeping and cleaning Clean rooms, 193, 194 Clean Water Act, 148 Clinical laboratories, 6, 60, 151 Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products,34 Clothing and protective apparel, 43, 83-84, 87-88, 88, 89, 92, 93, 94, 98, 131-132, 228, 230 CMME, see Chloromethyl methyl ether Cobalt salts, 102 Cold rooms, 59, 82, 111, 194 Cold traps, 58, 103, 112, 113, 128, 129 Color coding, 10, 121-122 Combustion, see Explosibility; Flammability; Ignition sources Commingling of waste, 6, 145, 147, 150 Comprehensive Guide to the Hazardous Properties of Chemical Substances, 34, 41 Compressed Gas Association (CGA) standards, 122, 123, 126 Compressed gases, 57, 104-105, 109, 121-126, 144, 219-220 flammability, 51, 104, 105, 123-124 Computer simulation, 2, 4, 18 Computer systems and services hazard information, 34-35 inventory and tracking, 68, 69-70 Material Safety Data Sheets, 31, 34-35 Condensation, 57, 70, 99, 111, 128, 129 Congenital effects, see Developmental toxicity Connectors, 85, 109 Contact lenses, 82, 94, 132, 230 Containers and packages, 38, 39, 60, 73-74, 76, 93, 113 bulk and economy sizes, 4, 64, 67 flammable substances, 50, 74, 75, 85 and microwaves, 59, 118 smaller sizes, 4, 64-65, 67, 121, 146 transfers among, 38, 64, 66, 71, 96, 128 transport, 68, 69, 84, 92, 121, 128 waste, 74, 75, 84, 85, 145, 148, 157, 207-208 see also Gas cylinders; Glass and glassware; Labels and labeling Contingency plans, 10, 23, 23-24, 25-26, 47, 81, 93, 146 Cooling baths, 59, 109, 128, 129 Copper, 66, 99, 124, 125 Corrosives and corrosivity, 35, 39-40, 41, 43 eye contact, 39, 40, 43 ingestion, 38, 39 inhalation, 39 skin contact, 38, 39, 40, 43 of wastes, 144 Cryogenic liquids, 57, 58, 60, 74, 97, 101, 120, 128-129, 130 Culture of safety, 1-2, 14-20, 24-25 Custodial and maintenance staff, 6, 8, 39, 177, 204 Cuts, 60 Cutting and drilling tools, 109, 120 Cyanides, 40, 41 incompatibilities, 51, 54 in wastes, 142-143, 144, 164-165 see also under names of specific compounds Cyanobromide, see Cyanogen bromide Cyanoethylene, see Acrylonitrile Cyanogen bromide, 288-289 Cyanomethane, see Acetonitrile Cylinders, see Gas cylinders D Deactivation, see Waste treatment methods ''Decay-in-storage" procedures, 7, 10, 151, 152, 154, 159 Decommissioning, 70 Decomposition, 97, 100 Dehydrating and drying agents, 40, 51, 102 Delivery, see Receiving rooms and loading areas; Shipment and transport Department of Transportation (DOT), 68, 121, 146, 209 Designated areas, 91, 93, 101, 220 Dessicators, 85, 131 Detergents, 66 Developmental toxicity, 45-46, 230-231 information sources, 34, 46 Dewar flasks, 57, 85, 99, 128, 130-131 Diacyl peroxides, 163 Diakyl peroxides, 163 Diamide, see Hydrazine Diazirine, see Diazomethane Diazomethane,40, 54, 102, 290-291 Diborane, 292-293 Dibromochloropropane, 40 1, 2-Dibromoethane, see Ethylene dibromide Dichloromethane (methylene chloride),37, 294-295 Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, 40 Diethyl ether,46, 48, 50, 58, 67, 88, 95, 102, 296-297 1, 4-Diethylene dioxide, see Dioxane Diethylene ether, see Dioxane Diethylnitrosamine, 298-299 Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), 97 Differential thermal analysis (DTA), 97 Digestive tract, see Ingestion 2, 4-Diisocyanato-1-methyl benzene, see Toluene diisocyanate Dilution, 95-96, 100-101 Dimethoxyethane, 88 Dimethyl sulfate, 300-301 Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO),38, 50, 102, 302-303 Dimethylene oxide, see Ethylene oxide 1, 1-Dimethylethyllithium, see Butyllithiums Dimethylformamide (DMF), 304-305 Dimethylhydrazines, see Hydrazines Dioxane,102, 306-307 Diphosgene (trichloromethyl) chloroformate, 66 "Dirty Dozen", 57, 58 Disinfection, 6, 7, 60, 151, 156-157 Disposal, see Waste disposal. Note: Information about specific chemicals (indicated by boldface) is included in the Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries. Distillation, 55, 65, 101, 112 DMF, see Dimethylformamide DMSO, see Dimethyl sulfoxide Documentation and record-keeping, 22, 23, 24, 91, 176, 224, 228 adverse reactions, 211-212 emergency response, 23, 24, 176, 228 waste disposal, 6, 141, 146 Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices,34

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Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals Donations and gifts of chemicals, 4, 64 Dose-response relationship, 35, 36, 44 DOT, see Department of Transportation Drains, 175, see also Sewer disposal Dromilac, see Ethidium bromide Dry benzoyl peroxide, 102 Dry boxes, 67, 98 Dry ice, 60, 99, 102, 121, 128, 129 Dusts, 37, 38, 39, 82, 91, 92, 136 explosibility, 50, 56, 97, 102-103 E Earthquakes, see Seismic activity Eating and drinking, 82, 94, 230 EDB, see Ethylene dibromide Education and training in safety practices, 2, 11, 14, 17, 90, 223, 229 emergencies and spills, 23, 87, 89, 92, 93, 149, 210, 229 safety personnel role, 16 shipment and transport, 68-69 student manuals, 3 teaching laboratories, 2, 16-18 waste disposal, 2, 146, 151 Electrical equipment, 5, 59, 109-112, 118-121 codes, 109, 112 as ignition sources, 50, 59, 95, 109, 111, 114-115, 116, 176 insulation, 59, 110-111 wiring and cables, 110-111, 114-115, 119, 175 see also Heaters and heating equipment; Refrigerators and refrigeration; Vacuum systems and operations Electrical fires, 59, 134 Electrical power interruption, 59, 81, 86 Electrochemical equipment, 109 Electrocution and electric shock, 59, 109, 110, 111, 113, 114, 115 Electromagnetic radiation, 58-60, 109, 119-120, see also Radiation and radioactive materials Electron beams (E-beams), 119-120 Electronic systems, see Computer systems and services Elephant trunks, 26, 190 Elevators, 68, 84 Embryos, see Developmental toxicity Emergency preparation and response, 4, 25-26, 73, 81, 86-90, 92-93, 137, 210, 229 chemical inventories, 9, 10, 24, 69, 70, 72, 93 contingency plans, 10, 23, 23-24, 25-26, 47, 81, 93, 146 drills, 93 equipment, 5, 81, 86, 87, 92-93, 133-137 facilities, 26, 84 information sources, 33, 34 in Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries, 4, 33 in Material Safety Data Sheets, 31, 32 waste facilities, 146 see also Fire fighting and fire safety; First aid procedures Environmental health and safety programs, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 11, 16, 18, 20, 31, 177 emergency response and planning, 23-24 Environmental laboratories, 6, 151 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) institutional identification numbers, 10 waste disposal regulations, 6, 7, 9, 10, 143-145, 151, 152, 153, 159-160 Environmental rooms, 70, 194 1, 2-Epoxyethane, see Ethylene oxide Equipment, 5, 109 cutting and drilling, 109, 120 low temperature, 129-130 pressure extremes, 124-128, 175-176 repair and maintenance, 26, 85, 109, 111, 112, 125, 175-176 rotating, 109, 120, 176 stirring and mixing, 50, 59, 95, 99, 109, 110, 111, 114 see also Electrical equipment; Vacuum systems and operations Ergonomics, 109, 121 Esophagus, 38, 39 Ethanal, see Acetaldehyde Ethane, 40 Ethanoic acid, see Acetic acid Ethanol,156, 308-309 Ethers, 55, 58, 101, 102, see also Diethyl ether Ethidium bromide, 310-311 Ethyl acetate, 312-313 Ethyl alcohol, see Ethanol Ethyl ethanoate, see Ethyl acetate Ethyl ether, see Diethyl ether N-Ethyl-N-nitrosoethanamine, see Diethylnitrosamine Ethylene bromide, see Ethylene dibromide Ethylene dibromide (EDB),40, 314-315 Ethylene oxide,103, 316-317 Ethyne, see Acetylene Evacuated systems, 57, 85, 130 Evacuation, 24, 87, 89, 97 Excess material, see Unused and excess material Exhaust systems, 26, 113, 118, 190-191, 192-193, 227 Exits, 72, 84, 86, 91, 176, 228 Experiment planning, 2-3, 22-23, 23-24, 25, 64, 81, 90-91, 230 information sources, 3, 4, 23, 25, 31 regulations, 23, 25, 26-27 steps in, 24-27, 47 see also Risk assessment Experimental materials, 71-72, 211 Expiration, see Shelf life and expiration dates Explosibility, 41, 46, 54-57, 58, 93, 96-104 airborne concentrations, 48-49, 50 information sources, 34, 98 in Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries, 4, 33, 236 in Material Safety Data Sheets, 32 protective shields and devices, 76, 82, 92, 96, 97, 98, 101, 124, 125, 127, 128, 130, 133-134 Note: Information about specific chemicals (indicated by boldface) is included in the Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries. Exposure duration and frequency, 35, 36-37 Exposure limits, 41-42, 47, 91 ACGIH, 32, 34, 42, 203 in Material Safety Data Sheets, 32 OSHA, 8, 32, 42, 91, 199, 203 see also Lethal dose and lethal concentration values Exposure minimization, 3, 22, 47, 64, 81, 82-84, 226, 229-230 biohazards, 93-94 highly toxic substances, 90-93, 231-232 radioactive materials, 94-95 Exposure routes, 35, 37-39 in Material Safety Data Sheets, 32 in risk assessment, 42, 47 see also Eye contact and effects; Ingestion; Inhalation; Injection; Skin contact and effects Exposure signs and symptoms, 32, 33, 34, 42 neurotoxicity, 40-41 Express delivery of chemicals, 67, 68

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Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals Extension cords, 110 Eye contact and effects, 38, 39, 128 lasers, 58, 59 protection against, 26, 43, 81, 92, 94, 98, 119, 128, 132, 230 Eyewashes and eyewash fountains, 88, 92, 136, 137, 228 F Face shields, 26, 43, 82, 92, 98, 119, 128, 132, 149 Fail-safe devices, 115 Falls, 60, 109, 120-121 Fat-soluble substances, 37, 38, 39 Federal Water Pollution Control Act, 201, 207 Ferrous sulfate, 101, 163 Fertility, 40 Fetal effects, see Developmental toxicity; Reproductive toxicity Filters and filtrates, 26, 65, 66, 85, 92, 96, 148, 154, 188-190 Fines, 6, 8, 19, 147, 198, 201 Fire extinguishers, 49, 84, 86, 87, 89, 93, 97, 134, 137 automatic, 134, 135 in Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries, 236 Fire fighting and fire safety, 32, 34, 86, 89-90, 95, 133, 134-135, 137 codes, 34, 67, 72, 74 electrical equipment, 110 hoses, 134-135 waste facilities, 146 Fire Protection for Laboratories Using Chemicals,34 Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials,34, 49 Fires, see Electrical fires; Flammability First aid procedures and equipment, 81, 87-88, 92, 137, 228, 229 eyes, 82, 88, 137, 229 information sources, 33, 34 in Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries, 4, 33 in Material Safety Data Sheets, 31, 32, 87 skin, 87, 229 Flammability, 41, 46, 48-51, 58, 75, 85-86, 93, 95-96, 220 information sources, 32, 34, 50, 86, 95 in Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries, 4, 33, 95, 236 lasers, 58, 59 limits, 46, 48-49, 50, 96 and refrigeration, 74, 84, 95, 96, 113-114 storage hazards, 49, 73, 74, 84, 191 of wastes, 142, 144, 145, 148 Note: Information about specific chemicals (indicated by boldface) is included in the Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries. Flash arresters, 85, 96 Flash points, 46, 48, 50, 104, 144, 220. Note: Information about specific chemicals (indicated by boldface) is included in the Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries. Floods, 109 Flowcharts, 3, 20, 22, 24 Fluorides, 318-319 Fluorination, 66-67 Fluorine,66-67, 320-321 Formaldehyde,36, 37, 40, 322-323, see also Formalin Formalin,156, 322-323 Formula. Note: Information about specific chemicals (indicated by boldface) is included in the Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries. Freezers and freezing, 7, 59, 67, 156 Friction, 54, 100 Frostbite, 128, 129 F-TEDA-BF4, 67 Fume hoods, 8, 38, 59, 81, 83, 96, 110, 178-187, 221, 227, 230 and acutely toxic substances, 42, 91-92, 122 exhaust systems, 188-190, 192-193 face velocities, 83, 178 housekeeping, 73, 83, 180 radioisotope hoods, 187-188 sashes, 83, 92, 98, 180 and volatiles, 38, 148, 188-189 and waste disposal, 8, 9, 26, 92, 179-180 Furnaces, 59, 114, 118 G Gamma rays, 60, 61 Gas burners, 95 Gas cylinders, 51, 57, 67, 68, 74-75, 84, 104, 121-124, 128, 129 labeling, 10, 74, 121-122 leaks, 51, 88-89, 96, 122-123 Gases corrosive, 39, 89 flammable, 46, 51, 57, 88-89, 95, 96, 123-124, 128 inhalation of, 37 oxidants, 50, 88-89 reactivity, 57, 104, 105 toxicity, 57, 104, 105 see also Compressed gases; Liquefied gases Gastrointestinal tract, see Ingestion Gauges, 58, 125 Genoprotection, 44 Gifts of chemicals, 4, 64 Gland joints, 125 Glass and glassware, 49, 58, 60, 65, 75, 85, 92, 230 breakage, 57, 120, 126 pressure and vacuum containers, 57, 101, 126, 127-128, 130-131 waste disposal, 6, 7, 85, 145, 148 Glassblowing, 85, 126 Glove boxes, 26, 91, 92, 94, 193-194 Gloves and hand protection, 26, 32, 43, 83, 85, 88, 89, 92, 94, 98 -99, 111, 129, 132-133, 149, 230 Goggles, 82, 88, 98, 119, 149 GOX, see Oxygen Ground-fault circuit interruptor (GFCI), 110, 111, 112, 118 Grounding, 50, 95, 96, 99, 110, 111, 112, 123 Guidelines, see Experiment planning; Information sources; Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries; Material Safety Data Sheets; Regulations and legislation H Hair and hair follicles, 38, 83, 131 Halides, 51, 102, 166 Halocarbons, 51 Halogens and halogenating agents, 54, 55, 85, 97, 103 in wastes, 142, 143, 146 Halon, 135 Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, 34 Hands, see Gloves and hand protection Hazard evaluation, 3-4, 5, 25-26, 31, 81, see also Risk assessment information sources, 3, 31-35, 81 toxicity, 3, 35-46 Hazardous Materials Transportation Uniform Safety Act, 201, 209 Hazard reduction, see Source reduction; Waste treatment methods Hazardous Substance Data Base (HSDB), 35 HCN, see Hydrogen cyanide Health hazards, see Acute toxicity;

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Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals Carcinogens; Chronic toxicity; Exposure routes; Toxicity Heat, 58, 73 Heat-initiated explosions, 38, 46, 54, 57, 96, 97, 98 Heat of reaction, 57, 97 Heat sensors, 134 Heat transfer, 57, 86, 97 Heaters and heating equipment, 95, 99, 114-118, 176 baths, 95, 114, 115, 117-118, 127 guns, 50, 118 mantles and tapes, 95, 99, 109, 114, 116-117 Heavy metals, 36, 37, 66 disposal, 19, 66, 166 incompatibilities, 54 recycling, 76, 77 Helium, 40, 60, 101, 120, 128 HEPA (high-efficiency particulate air) filters, 92, 187 Hepatitis B virus, 7, 94, 157 Hexamethylphosphoramide (HMPA), 324-325 Hexamethylphosphoric triamide, see Hexamethylphosphoramide Hexane, 326-327 HF, see Hydrogen fluoride High-pressure reactions, 57 High school laboratories, 2, 10, 16, 22 HMPA, see Hexamethylphosphoramide Homidium bromide, see Ethidium bromide Horseplay, 82, 230 Hose, see Tubing and hoses Hot plates, 48, 95, 109, 116 Housekeeping and cleaning, 84, 90, 92, 120-121, 228, 230 solvents, 55-56, 65, 66, 76, 116 waste containers, 150 HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography), 50, 101, 155 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 7, 94, 157 Hydrargyrum, see Mercury Hydrazine,45, 328-329 Hydrazoic acid, see Sodium azide Hydrides, 51 Hydrobromic acid, 330-331 Hydrochloric acid,39, 332-333 Hydrocyanic acid, see Hydrogen cyanide Hydrofluoric acid,40, 88, 338-339 Hydrogen,50, 51, 54, 96, 98, 124, 128, 334-335 Hydrogen arsenide, see Arsine Hydrogen bromide, 330-331 Hydrogen chloride,36, 37, 102, 332-333 Hydrogen cyanide (HCN),36, 40, 51, 93, 143, 336-337 Hydrogen dioxide, see Hydrogen peroxide Hydrogen fluoride (HF), 338-339 Hydrogen peroxide,39, 40, 54, 96, 103, 170, 340-341 Hydrogen selenide, 105 Hydrogen sulfide,36, 96, 342-343 Hydrogenation, 57, 96, 101-102, 127 2-Hydroperoxy-2-methylpropane, see tert-Butyl hydroperoxide Hydrosulfuric acid, see Hydrogen sulfide Hydroxides, see Ammonium hydroxide; Potassium hydroxide; Sodium hydroxide Hydroxybenzene, see Phenol Hypodermics, see Needles and syringes I IARC, See International Agency for Research on Cancer Ice, 60, 121 Ice chests, 82 Ignition sources, 46, 51, 85, 95, 96 electrical equipment, 50, 59, 95, 109, 111, 114-115, 116, 176 Ignition temperature, 48 Impact, 54, 100 Incineration, 6, 55, 147-148, 168-169 multihazardous waste, 6, 7, 151, 153, 155-156, 157, 158 Incompatibility of chemicals, 51-54, 57, 104, 145 information sources, 34, 46 in Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries, 235 and storage, 51, 54, 73, 75, 84 Note: Information about specific chemicals (indicated by boldface) is included in the Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries. Induction heaters, 59 Induction periods, 57, 86, 97 Industrial hygiene offices, 23, 31, 42-43, 81 Industrial laboratories, 18, 32, 65 Industry, see Industrial laboratories; Manufacturers and suppliers Inert materials and gases, 55, 96, 101, 129, 149 cryogens, 57, 129 Infectious agents, 6, 7, 60, 93-94, 151, 156, 157 Inflammability, see Flammability Information sources, 31-35 flammability, 32, 34, 49, 86, 95 risk assessment, 3, 4, 25, 31-35, 47 toxicity, 31, 33, 34, 35, 236 see also Documentation and record-keeping; Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries; Material Safety Data Sheets Infrared radiation, 58, 59, 119, 132 Ingestion, 38-39 protection against, 82-83, 92, 94 Inhalation, 36, 37-38, 39, 40, 42 protection against, 83, 92, 94 Inhibitors, 51, 55, 101 Injection, 39, 83, 94 Injuries, 37, 57, 60, 104, 109, 120, see also First aid procedures Inorganic compounds waste treatment, 163-171 Inorganic Syntheses,160 Inspections and audits, 8, 11, 83, 175-177, 228 of experiment plans, 25 pressure devices, 124, 127 safety and emergency equipment, 7, 8, 11, 25, 136, 137 Institutional structures, 15-16, 18, 23-24 Instructors, see Teachers and instructors Insurance requirements, 72 Interlocks, 91, 126 Intermittent exposure, 36, 37 International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 43, 44, 203, 204 International Loss Control Institute (ILCI), 176, 177 Intravenous exposure, see Injection Inventory and tracking, 4-5, 10, 25, 69-72 and emergency response, 9, 10, 24, 69, 70, 72, 93 toxins, 76, 93 waste, 70, 93, 146 Iodine, 344-345 Iodomethane, see Methyl iodide Ion exchange resins, 155 Ionizing radiation, 60-61 IRIS, 35 Irritants, 39, 41, 43 eye contact, 38, 39 gastrointestinal, 38 skin contact, 38, 39 Isocyanates, 40, see also Toluene diisocyanate Isopropyl alcohol, 50, 129

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Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals J "Just in time" acquisition, 4, 64, 67 K Kalium, see Potassium Kjeldahl reactions, 65 L Labels and labeling, 25, 68, 70, 71-72, 74, 84, 114, 224, 228-229 bar code, 5, 10, 70 cylinders, 10, 74, 121-122 flammability, 48, 86 pressure vessels, 124, 127 by suppliers, 33, 68, 70, 71 warning, 33, 50, 71, 84, 93, 122 waste, 4, 6, 141, 145, 146 Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries (LCSSs), 4, 25, 33, 47, 70, 81, 91, 235-236 information sources for, 235-236 limitations of, 235 preparation of, 34, 47, 235-236 Please also refer to the Laboratory Safety Summaries for specific chemicals (indicated by boldface page numbers in this index). Laboratory coats, 83-84, 98, 131, 132 Laboratory Environment, The,34 Laboratory hoods, see Fume hoods Lab Packs, 6, 19, 146, 147, 150 LAH, see Lithium aluminum hydride Lamps, see Lasers; Light and lighting Landfills, 6, 19, 141, 146, 147, 208 Lasers, 58-59, 82, 109, 119, 133 Latency and "delayed" toxicity, 36, 37, 39, 40, 45 allergens, 40, 43 Law, see Liability; Litigation and lawsuits; Regulations and legislation LC, see Lethal dose and lethal concentration values LCSS, see Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries LD, see Lethal dose and lethal concentration values Lead and lead compounds,56, 77, 103, 152, 153, 155, 156, 346-347 Leaks, 123, 125 flammable gases, 51, 88-89, 96 Legal issues, see Liability; Litigation and lawsuits; Regulations and legislation LEL, see Lower explosive limit Less Is Better: Laboratory Chemical Management for Waste Reduction, 4, 64 Lethal dose (LD) and lethal concentration (LC) values, 36, 41, 42, 43, 47 "Letters to the Editor" column, 35, 46 Liability, 19-20 Life cycle analysis, 22, 64 Lifting, 109, 121 Light and lighting explosive hazards, 48, 54, 96, 100 Liquefied gases, 74, 101, 128-130 cryogenic, 57, 58, 60, 74, 97, 101, 120, 128-129, 130 flammability, 51, 101, 128 Liquids corrosive, 39 disposal, 85, 142, 148, 151 flammable, 46, 96, 191, 219 microscale amounts, 65 oxidants, 50 storage, 75 Liquid scintillation fluid (LSF), 7, 66, 152, 153, 159 Literature reviews, 3, 23, 25, 81, 98 Lithium, 97 Lithium aluminum hydride (LAH),58, 103, 163-164, 348-349 Lithium tetrahydroaluminate, see Lithium aluminum hydride Litigation and lawsuits, 2, 19-20 Lower explosive limit (LEL), 48-49, 50 Low-level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, 158 Low-valent metal salts, 51 LOX, see Oxygen Lungs, 37, 39 Lye, see Sodium hydroxide M Magnesium, 97 Magnetic fields, 59-60, 120 Maintenance and repair, 26, 85, 109, 111, 112, 125, 175-176, 228 Major hazards, see Hazard evaluation; Hazard reduction; Hazardous Materials Transportation Uniform Safety Act; Hazardous Substance Data Base (HSDB). Note: Information about specific chemicals (indicated by boldface) is included in the Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries. Male sterility, 40 Manometers, 58 Manufacturers and suppliers, 5, 10-11, 76 labeling by, 33, 68, 70, 71 and Material Safety Data Sheets, 3, 31, 32, 68 reporting, 68, 210 Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs), 4, 24, 25, 31-32, 33, 34, 47, 68, 70, 81, 210, 224 experimental materials, 72, 211 McLeod gauges, 58 Mechanical shock, 54, 96, 98, 100, 128 Medical certification and surveillance, 33, 91, 92, 136, 221, 223-224, 228 Medical waste, see Biological waste; Multihazardous waste MEK, see Methyl ethyl ketone Melting points, 32 Mental planning and checklists, 3, 22-23 Mercaptans, 161 Mercury, 38, 112-113, 350-351 in meters and gauges, 58, 116 reclamation, 76, 89 spills, 89 waste, 65, 66, 113 Metal alkyls, 95 Metal fires and explosions, 89, 96, 97, 104, 134 Metal halides, 51, 165-166 Metal hydrides, 51, 95, 102, 163-164 Metal hydroxides, 40, 396-397 Metal nitrides, 51, 54 Metal oxides, 37, 51 Methanal, see Formaldehyde Methane, 40, 96, 128 Methanol, 37, 48, 50, 155, 352-353 Methyl acetone, see Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl alcohol, see Methanol Methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE), 67 Methylene chloride, see Dichloromethane Methyl chloride, 105 Methyl chloromethyl ether, see Chloromethyl methyl ether Methyl cyanide, see Acetonitrile Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), 354-355 Methyl iodide, 356-357 Methyl sulfate, see Dimethyl sulfate Methyl sulfoxide, see Dimethyl sulfoxide Methylbenzene, see Toluene Methylcarbinol, see Ethanol 1-Methylpropyllithium, see Butyllitiums Met-L-X, 97, 134 Microorganisms, see Biohazards

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Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals Microscale and miniaturized operations, 2, 4, 5, 18, 32, 57, 65, 153 Microwave devices, 59, 119 ovens, 50, 59, 109, 114, 118, 119 Minimization, see Exposure minimization; Microscale and miniaturized operations; Source reduction; Waste minimization Mixed waste, see Multihazardous waste Molecular Sieves, 155, 162, 163, 188 Molecular weights, 32 Monitoring and testing, 91, 92, 100, 222 airborne concentrations, 42-43, 92, 228 fume hoods, 180-181 pressure equipment, 124, 127 regulatory compliance, 8, 16, 25 of wastes, 142-143, 144, 149-150 Mouth, 37, 38, 39 MSDS, see Material Safety Data Sheets Mucous membranes, 37, 94 Multihazardous waste, 5, 6-7, 93, 95, 141, 150-152 autoclaving, 6, 7, 151, 156, 157, 159 chemical-biological, 7, 155-157 chemical-radioactive-biological, 7, 81, 159 chemical-radioactive (mixed), 7, 10, 152-155 commercial disposal, 151, 155, 156, 158 incineration, 6, 7, 151, 153, 155-156, 157, 158 minimization, 7, 67, 151, 152, 153, 157 radioactive-biological, 7, 152, 157-159 recycling, 154 regulations, 6, 7, 10, 151, 153, 156, 157, 159 storage, 154 substitution of materials, 7, 67, 152, 153 treatment, 6-7, 67, 153, 154-155, 159-160 Multimeters, 112 Muriatic acid, see Hydrochloric acid Mutagenicity, 44 information sources, 33 N NARM (naturally-occurring or accelerator-produced radioactive material) , 151, 152 National Electrical Code (NEC), 109, 112 National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) electrical code, 109, 112, 212 fire hazard ratings, 34, 48, 50, 51 hazard diamond, 50 storage regulations, 74 National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 121 National Institutes of Health, 60, 156, 160 National Library of Medicine, 35 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination Systems (NPDES), 201, 207 National Toxicology Program (NTP), 43, 44, 203, 204 Natrium, see Sodium Natural products, 45 Needles and syringes, 39, 83, 94, 151 disposal, 6, 7, 39, 120, 157, 159 Neurotoxicity, 37, 40-41 Neutralization of waste, 6, 26, 85, 142, 147, 154, 155, 160-161 gas leaks, 89 spills, 88, 149 NFPA, see National Fire Protection Association Nickel alloys, 124 Nickel carbonyl,58, 358-359 Nitrates, 54, 97, 103, 171 Nitric acid,39, 56, 97, 360-361 Nitrites, 54 Nitrogen, 40, 51, 57, 60, 99, 101, 103, 120, 128, 129 Nitrogen compounds, 54, 96, 103 Nitrogen dioxide (NO2),36, 37, 39, 54, 362-363 Nitrogen peroxide, see Nitrogen dioxide Nitrogen triiodide, 54 Nitrosamines, 298-299. See also Diethylnitrosamine N-Nitroso compounds, 45, 54, 103 N-Nitrosodiethylamine, see Diethylnitrosamine NLM, see National Library of Medicine Noise extremes, 109, 118, 120 Nose, 37, 39 Notebooks, see Documentation and record-keeping Nuclear Regulatory Commission (U.S. NRC) radiation exposure limits, 61 waste disposal regulations, 7, 10, 144, 151, 152, 153, 158, 159 Nucleating agents, 56 O Occupational Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards,33 Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), 204 exposure limits, 8, 32, 42, 91, 199, 203 Hazard Communication Standard, 8, 32, 72, 199, 204-205 Hazardous Energy Standard, 109, 199 Laboratory Standard, 1, 8, 9, 19, 32, 41, 44-45, 72, 198, 199, 202 -205, 219-234 Material Safety Data Sheets, 31 Occupational Exposure to Blood borne Pathogens, 6, 7, 151, 156, 157, 199 Personal Protection Standard, 83, 199 Respiratory Standard, 136 Odor and odor thresholds, 42, 70, 236 Odor. Note: Information about specific chemicals (indicated by boldface) is included in the Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries. Odorants, 51 Oil baths, 95, 114, 117 Oil of vitriol, see Sulfuric acid Oily rags, 50 Olfactory fatigue, 42 On-line services, see Computer systems and services Ordering, see Acquisition of chemicals Organic compounds waste treatment, 156, 161-163 Organic peroxides, 54-55, 58, 75, 76, 97, 99-101, 162, 221 Organoaluminum compounds, 410-411 Organohalogen compounds, 45 Organometallic compounds, 51, 89, 97, 103 Organotin compounds, 412-413 Orphaned materials, 70, 71 OSHA, see Occupational Safety and Health Administration Osmic acid, see Osmium tetroxide Osmium(IV) oxide, see Osmium tetroxide Osmium tetroxide, 364-365 Outlet receptacles, 109-110 Ovens, 59, 114, 116 microwave, 50, 59, 109, 114, 118, 119 Oxacyclopentane, see Tetrahydrofuran

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Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals Oxidants and oxidation, 40, 46, 50-51, 66, 85, 95, 129, 221 reactivity, 51, 54, 55-56, 75, 97, 100, 104 wastes, 142, 144, 154, 160, 170-171 Oxides, 51 Oxycyclopropane, see Ethylene oxide Oxygen,46, 48, 51, 96, 101, 103, 129, 366-367 gas (GOX), 366-367 liquid (LOX),51, 57, 101, 128, 366-367 Ozone,37, 103, 368-369 P Palladium on carbon,58, 96, 103, 370-371 Paracelsus, 36 Paraformaldehyde, see Formaldehyde Parr bombs, 103 "Particularly hazardous substances",; 41-42, 47, 203-204 Particulates, 56 inhalation of, 37, 38, 136 Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology,34, 47 Pd/C, see Palladium on carbon Peer inspections, 8, 177 Pentane, 88 Peracetic acid, 372-373 Perchlorates, 54, 55, 58, 96, 103, 374-375 Perchloric acid,55, 75, 95, 97, 103, 170-171, 374-375 Permanganates, 97, 103 Permissible exposure limits (PELs), 42, 47, 203, 204, 222 Perosmic oxide, see Osmium tetroxide Peroxides and peroxide formation, 56, 67, 84, 96, 97, 102, 103, 162 -163 organic, 54-55, 58, 75, 76, 97, 99-101, 162, 221 Peroxyacetic acid, see Peracetic acid Personal protective equipment, 26, 43, 90, 93, 98, 128, 131-133, 230 emergencies and spills, 32, 88, 135, 149 see also Clothing and protective apparel; Gloves and hand protection; Respirators Petroleum ether, 88 Phenol,38, 39, 40, 152, 376-377 Phenylamine, see Aniline Phenylmethane, see Toluene Phorbol esters, 44 Phosgene,37, 66, 378-379 Phosphate buffer, 35 Phosphine, 105 Phosphorus,39, 50, 103-104, 380-381 Phosphorus pentoxide, 40, 102 Phosphorus trichloride, 104 Physical properties information sources, 33, 34 in Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries, 33 in Material Safety Data Sheets, 4, 31, 32 of product mixtures, 25 in risk assessment, 25, 42, 90 of wastes, 6, 142 Note: Information about specific chemicals (indicated by boldface) is included in the Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries. Pipets and pipetting, 82-83, 94, 230 Placenta, 40 Planning, see Chemical Hygiene Plans; Emergency preparation and response; Experiment planning Plasma torches, 160 Plastic equipment, 126 Platinum, 96, 103 Poison, see Toxins and toxicity under headings beginning with "Exposure" in this index Policy development, 15-16 emergency response planning, 23-24 Pollution control, see Recycling; Source reduction; Waste minimization; Waste treatment methods Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 156, 212 Polymerization, 96, 97, 124 Polyols, 103 Postdoctoral training, 17 Potassium,50, 51, 58, 97, 103, 104, 382-383 Potassium chloride waste disposal, 6 Potassium cyanide, 394-395 Potassium fluoride, 318 Potassium hydrate, see Potassium hydroxide Potassium hydride,164, 384-385 Potassium hydroxide, 396-397 Potassium iodide, 100 Potassium metals, 58 Potassium permanganate, 55-56, 188 Pregnancy, see Developmental toxicity; Reproductive toxicity Premanufacture notification (PMN), 210-211 Preparation, see Emergency preparation and response; Experiment planning Presidents of institutions, 15 Pressure bottle, 101 Pressure control, 193 Pressure extremes, 57, 109, 124-128, 175-176 Pressure regulators, 74, 122, 123, 124, 175, 176 Pressure relief devices, 124, 125, 127, 128 Primary school education, 2, 16 Principal investigators, 15, 16, 17-18 and safety violations, 19, 20 Proctor and Hughes' Chemical Hazards of the Workplace,34 Products of incomplete combustion (PICs), 156 Professional standards of conduct, 14, 18, 82 Project managers, 15, 16, 17 2-Propanone, see Acetone 2-Propenal, see Acrolein 2-Propeneamide, see Acrylamide 2-Propenenitrile, see Acrylonitrile Protection, see Emergency preparation and response; Personal protective equipment Prudent Practices ... (earlier editions), 1, 4, 5, 94, 160, 225 Prussic acid, see Hydrogen cyanide Publicly owned treatment works (POTW), 148, 152, 154 Public notification and outreach, 2, 18, 82, 177, 201, 210 Pull stations, 86, 133 Pulmonary edema, 39 Purchasing systems, 67-68 Putrescible waste, 7, 151, 156, 158 Pyridine,102, 386-387 Pyrolysis, 160 Pyrophorics, 50, 51, 57, 75, 95 Q Quicksilver, see Mercury R Radiation and radioactive materials, 23, 60-61, 67, 94-95, 109, 187 -188 disposal, 6, 7, 10, 94, 95, 151, 152, 157-159 see also Multihazardous waste Radiofrequency (RF) hazards, 59, 109, 119 Raney nickel, 56, 96, 102, 103 RCRA, see Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

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Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals Reaction Hazard Index (RHI), 46 Reactive systems screening tool, 97 Reactivity, 46, 51-54, 93, 96-104, 144 with human body tissues, 37, 38 information sources, 34, 46 in Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries, 4, 33, 235 in Material Safety Data Sheets, 32 and refrigeration, 75, 76 Note: Information about specific chemicals (indicated by boldface) is included in the Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries. Receiving rooms and loading areas, 64, 67, 68 Recombinant DNA, 23, 151, 156 Recycling, 2, 6, 9, 19, 26, 65, 76-77, 85, 145, 149 manufacturer and supplier role, 10 multihazardous waste, 154 solvents, 19, 71, 76 Red phosphorus, see Phosphorus Reducing agents, 51, 54, 55, 75, 97, 100, 104 Reduction of hazards, see Source reduction; Waste treatment methods References, see Information sources Refrigerators and refrigeration, 50, 59, 70, 74, 75, 82, 84, 93, 111, 113-114, 158 flammability hazards, 74, 84, 95, 96, 113-114 Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS), 35 Regulations and legislation, 2, 8-10, 15, 16, 19-20, 198-202 compliance monitoring, 8, 16, 25 electrical codes, 109, 112 and experiment planning, 23, 25, 26-27 fines, 6, 8, 19, 147, 198, 201 fire codes, 34, 67, 72, 74 geographic consistency, 9-10 multihazardous waste, 6, 7, 10, 150-160 performance-based, 9 radioactive waste, 6, 7, 10, 151-154, 157-159 shipping and transport, 25, 68-69, 209 state, 8, 204 storage, 25, 67, 72 waste disposal, 5-6, 7, 8-9, 26, 81, 84, 141, 143-145, 146, 205-209 waste treatment, 6, 7, 9, 76, 81, 147, 148, 208 see also Exposure limits; Occupational Safety and Health Administration Regulators, see Pressure regulators Relief devices, see Pressure relief devices Remote operations, 61, 94, 99, 125 Repair, see Maintenance and repair Reproductively Active Chemicals: A Reference Guide,46 Reproductive toxicity, 36, 40, 41, 44-46, 61, 203, 204, 221 information sources, 33, 34, 46 Research laboratories, 2, 3, 18, 19, 22, 65, 71, 152, 156 Resins, 155 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), 6, 8-9, 76, 144, 147 , 152, 160, 198, 199, 205-209 Respiration, see Inhalation; Respirators Respirators, 26, 92, 93, 94, 135-136, 137, 149, 224 Reuse, see Recycling Review, see Experiment planning; Literature reviews Risk assessment, 3-4, 24, 25, 31, 47, 64 emergency response, 25 explosibility, 46, 54-57 flammability, 46, 48-51 information sources, 3, 4, 25, 31-35, 47 physical hazards, 57-60 reactivity, 46, 51-54 toxicity, 41-46, 47, 90-91 waste disposal, 6, 67 Rotary evaporators, 131 Rotating equipment, 109, 120, 176 Route of exposure, see Exposure routes Rubber buckets, 60, 69 Runaway reactions, 57, 86, 97, 124-125 S Safety cans, 74, 75, 85, 145 Safety glasses, 26, 43, 81, 92, 98, 119, 132 Safety programs, see Environmental health and safety programs Safety showers, 84, 86, 87, 89, 92, 135, 136, 137 Salmonella, 94 Salt baths, 95, 114, 117 Sand baths, 95, 114, 117 Sanitary sewers, see Sewer disposal SARA, see Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials,34, 41 Scale of operation, 2, 19, 22, 23, 25, 32, 44, 66, 86, 160 and explosion hazards, 57, 58, 86, 97, 99 miniaturization, 2, 4, 5, 18, 32, 57, 65, 153 Schools, see Teaching laboratories Scrubbers, 26, 92, 188 Sebaceous glands, 38 Secondary education, see High school laboratories Security guards, 86, 91 Seismic activity, 51, 73, 74, 122 Select carcinogens, 41, 43-44, 203-204, 221 Sensitivity of instruments, 2, 65 Sensitizers, see Allergens and allergic reactions Sewer disposal, 50, 85, 147, 148 hazard reduction, 66 multihazardous waste, 6, 7, 151, 152, 153, 154, 156, 159 Shaker vessels, 127 Sharing of chemicals, see Transfer and exchange Sharps, 39, 83, 94 disposal, 6, 7, 39, 83, 120, 148, 151, 157, 159 Shelf life and expiration dates, 4, 25, 70, 75, 93, 99, 100 Shelving, 68, 72, 73 Shipment and transport, 4, 32, 49, 68-69 regulations, 25, 68-69, 209 waste, 146, 209 Shock, see Electrocution and electric shock; Mechanical shock Shoes and boots, 32, 132, 149, 230 coverings, 88, 132 Short-term exposure limits (STELs), 34, 42, 47, 203 Sigma-Aldrich Library of Chemical Safety Data, 34, 41 Signs, see Exposure signs and symptoms; Warning signs and signals Silane, 105 Silica, 37 Silver and silver compounds,125, 388-389 Silyl halides, 105 Simulation, see Computer simulation Siphons and siphoning, 83, 230 Skellysolve B, see Hexane Skin contact and effects, 38, 39, 81, 83, 92, 129

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Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals allergens, 38, 40 cold and cryogenic substances, 128-129 Slips and falls, 60, 109, 120-121 Slot hoods, 190 Smoke detectors, 134 Smoking, 82, 94, 95, 100, 230 Sodium,51, 58, 97, 103, 104, 390-391 Sodium amide, 104 Sodium azide,102, 392-393 Sodium bicarbonate, 88, 134 Sodium borohydride, 164 Sodium cyanide, 36, 37, 394-395 Sodium fluoride, 318 Sodium hydrate, see Sodium hydroxide Sodium hydride,164, 384-385 Sodium hydroxide,39, 396-397 Sodium hypochlorate, 161 Sodium salt, see Sodium azide Solids corrosive, 39, 144 disposal, 85, 142 microscale amounts, 65 oxidants, 50 Solubility, 46 in human body, 37, 38 Solvents airborne concentrations, 38 disposal, 84-85, 146 flammability, 49, 59, 84, 86, 88 incompatibilities, 51, 84-85 minimizing use of, 65, 66, 67 recycling, 19, 71, 76 spills, 88 Source reduction, 4, 18-19, 24, 25, 26, 64-67, 90 in acquisition, 4, 64-65, 153 Speed of operation, 2 Spills and spill control, 19, 87, 88, 92-93, 94, 133, 137 contigency plans, 87 disposal, 87, 88, 141, 149 flammability, 50, 60, 88 in Material Safety Data Sheets, 32 peroxides, 100, 101 Spontaneous combustion, 50, 56, 96 Sprays, see Mists and sprays Stabilization and stabilizers, 19, 55, 100, 101 Staggered gait, 41 Standards Completion Program, 33 Standards for Protection Against Radiation from Sealed Gamma Sources, Stannous fluoride, 318 Static electricity, 50, 95, 96, 99, 123-124 Sterility, 40, 59 Still pots, 58, 76 Stirring and mixing, 86, 100, 103 equipment, 50, 59, 95, 99, 109, 110, 111, 114 Stockrooms, see Storage Stomach, 38, 39 Storage, 4-5, 24, 25, 64, 67, 69, 72-76, 84, 228 compatibility guidelines, 51, 54, 73, 75, 84 and container sizes, 64, 67, 74, 75 difficult-to-reach, 60, 72, 84, 121 flammability hazards, 49, 73, 74, 84, 191 in Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries, 4, 33, 236 in Material Safety Data Sheets, 4, 31, 32, 75 peroxides, 55, 75, 76, 100, 101 regulations, 25, 67, 72 toxins, 76, 93 waste, 6, 84, 145-146, 154 Note: Information about specific chemicals (indicated by boldface) is included in the Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries. Students, 15, 16, 19, 204 Stuffing boxes, 125 Styrofoam buckets, 131 Substitution of less hazardous materials, 5, 65, 66-67, 90 multihazardous waste, 7, 67, 152, 153 Sulfides incompatibilities, 51, 54 wastes, 142, 161 Sulfonyl halides, 161-162 Sulfur, 89 Sulfur dioxide (SO2), 398-399 Sulfur hydride, see Hydrogen sulfide Sulfur monochloride, 166 Sulfur oxide, see Sulfur dioxide Sulfuric acid,39, 55, 56, 104, 400-401 Sunlight, 73 Superconducting magnets, 60, 120 Supercritical fluids, 57, 67, 130, 155, 160 Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), 9, 200, 210 Supervision, see Administration and supervision Suppliers, see Manufacturers and suppliers Sweat glands, 38 Swern oxidation, 66 Symptoms, see Exposure signs and symptoms Syringe injection calorimetry (SIC), 97 Syringes, see Needles and syringes Systemic toxicity, 35, 39, 41 T TBHP, see tert-Butyl hydroperoxide TDI, see Toluene diisocyanate Teachers and instructors, 2, 10, 16, 17 Teaching laboratories biohazards, 60 and computer simulation, 2, 18 experiment planning, 22, 24 graduate, 2, 16, 17-18, 22 legal issues, 19-20, 204 material reduction and miniaturization, 18, 57, 65, 66 and Material Safety Data Sheets, 32 recycling and transfer, 71, 76, 77 and source reduction, 18, 19 undergraduate, 2, 16, 17, 22, 24, 57, 76 waste management, 10, 16, 65, 66, 141, 150 Teamwork, 14, 15 Technicians, 15, 17 Technological advances, 2, 4, 18 Teflon, 100, 124, 126, 127 Telephones, 81, 83, 86, 87, 133, 137 Temperature extremes, 57, 109, 126, 127 Teratogens, see Developmental toxicity; Reproductive toxicity Testing, see Monitoring and testing Tetracarbonyl nickel, see Nickel carbonyl Tetrachloromethane, see Carbon tetrachloride Tetrahydrofuran (THF),88, 102, 161, 402-403 Tetramethylene acid, see Tetrahydrofuran TFA, see Trifluoroacetic acid Thermal analysis, 46, 56, 86, 97 Thermal desorption, 160 Thermal oxidizers, 190 Thermometers, 116 THF, see Tetrahydrofuran Thiols, 161 Thorium dioxide, 58 Threshold dose, 36 carcinogens, 44 Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices. 34 Threshold limit values (TLVs), 33, 34, 42, 47, 203 Throat, 37, 98

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Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals Time weighted average (TWA), 42, 47 TLV, see Threshold limit values Toluene,67, 71, 100, 404-405 Toluene diisocyanate (TDI), 406-407 Toluol, see Toluene Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), 144, 152, 154 Toxicity data, see Toxins and toxicity. Note: Information about specific chemicals (indicated by boldface) is included in the Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries. Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), 9, 200, 210-212 Toxins and toxicity, 3, 41-46, 47, 90-91 information sources, 31, 33, 34, 35, 236 in Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries, 4, 33, 235, 236 in Material Safety Data Sheets, 4, 31, 32 mixtures and combinations, 3, 25, 35-36, 51, 57, 81, 93 reduction of, 65, 90 spills, 88, 92-93 target organs, 35, 39, 41 see also Acute toxicity; Allergens and allergic reactions; Asphyxiants; Carcinogens; Chronic toxicity; Corrosives and corrosivity; Developmental toxicity; Irritants; Neurotoxicity; Reproductive toxicity; and under headings beginning with "Exposure" in this index TOXLINE, 35 Toxoplasma, 94 Trace metals, 97 Trachea, 37 Training, see Education and training in safety practices Transfer and exchange of chemicals, 69, 70-71 inventory and tracking, 69, 70, 71 unused and excess material, 65, 67, 69 Transport, see Shipment and transport Treatment, see Waste treatment methods Treatment, storage, and disposal facilities (TSDF), 147, 149-150 Trialkyaluminum reagents, see Trimethylaluminum Tributyltin chloride, see Organotin compounds Tributyltin hydride, see Organotin compounds Trichloracetic acid (TCA), 154 Trichloroaluminum, see Aluminum trichloride Trichloroethylene, 37, 104 Trichloromethane, see Chloroform Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), 408-409 Trifluoroborane, see Boron trifluoride Trifluoroethanoic acid, see Trifluoroacetic acid 1, 8, 9-Trihydroxyanthracene , 44 Trimethylalane, see Trimethylaluminum Trimethylaluminum, 410-411 Trimethyltin chloride, 412-413 Triphosgene bis(trichloromethyl)carbonate, 66 Trips, 60, 109, 120-121 TSCA, see Toxic Substances Control Act Tube furnaces, 118, 128 Tuberculosis, 94 Tubing and hoses, 85, 99, 109, 124, 126, 128, 175 TWA, see Time weighted average Tygon, see, Tubing and hoses U UEL, see Upper explosive limit Ulcers, 39 Ultrasonic equipment, 66, 109, 118-119 Ultraviolet peroxidation, 160 Ultraviolet radiation, 58, 59, 82, 119, 133 Unattended experiments, 25, 86, 91, 127, 176, 230 Underground storage tanks, 209 Universities, see Graduate research laboratories Unstable materials, 67, 68, 75 Unused and excess material disposal, 4, 64-65, 67 exchange and transfer, 65, 67, 69 peroxides, 100 storage, 84 Upper explosive limit (UEL), 48-49 Used-chemical stockrooms, 67, 71 V Vacuum systems and operations, 57-58, 85, 92, 109, 110 explosive hazards, 103, 111, 125, 128, 130-131 pumps, 99, 112-113, 130 spill cleanup, 89 Vapor density. Note: Information about specific chemicals (indicated by boldface) is included in the Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries. Vapor pressure, 37-38, 46. Note: Information about specific chemicals (indicated by boldface) is included in the Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries. Vapors, 91, 92 eye protection, 82 flammability, 46, 48, 50, 59, 95-96, 111 inhalation of, 37 releases, 6, 8, 38, 141, 148, 154 Variable autotransformers, 110, 111, 114, 115, 117, 127 Vehicles, 69 Venting and ventilation systems, 3, 8, 26, 38, 51, 81, 94, 191-192, 227, maintenance, 83, 194-195 pumps, 99, 113 storage, 72, 76, 145, 154, 191 see also Fume hoods Vials, 59 Vinyl amide, see Acrylamide Vinyl cyanide, see Acrylonitrile Visible radiation, 58, 59 Visitors, 82, 98, 132 Vitrification, 160 Volatile substances, 37, 38, 73, 83, 93, 112 W Warning properties, 42 Warning signs and signals, 26, 68, 88, 89, 91, 93, 99, 125, 229 emergencies and spills, 88, 92 hazard diamond, 50 storage, 74, 75, 76, 113 Waste characterization, 6, 141-143 regulatory definitions, 5, 144-145, 206 Waste disposal, 2, 4, 5-6, 6, 19, 24, 25, 26, 65, 67, 70, 84-85, 93, 229, 230, accumulation times and amounts, 9, 10, 206 atmospheric releases, 6, 8, 38, 141, 148, 154 central accumulation, 6, 84, 145-146, 150 commingling, 6, 145, 147, 150 containers, 74, 75, 84, 85, 145, 148, 157, 207-208 in Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries, 4, 33 land, 6, 19, 141, 146, 147, 208

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Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals in Material Safety Data Sheets, 31, 32 nonhazardous, 6, 65, 85, 148-149 offsite TSDF, 147, 149-150 peroxides, 55, 100-101, 102 radioactive, 6, 7, 10, 94-95, 150-155, 157-160 records, 6, 141, 146 regulations, 5-6, 7, 8-9, 26, 81, 84, 141, 143-145, 146, 205-209 satellite accumulation, 84, 145, 146, 206-207 sharps, 6, 7, 39, 83, 120, 148, 151, 157, 159 at small institutions, 10, 147, 150 storage, 6, 84, 145-146, 154 surplus material, 4, 64-65, 67 toxins, 93, 144-145 see also Incineration; Multihazardous waste; Sewer disposal; Waste minimization; Waste treatment methods Waste minimization, 2, 9, 18, 19, 22, 26, 64, 65-67, 76, 147, 208 multihazardous, 7, 67, 151, 152, 153, 154-155, 157 unused material, 64-65 see also Recycling; Source reduction Waste treatment methods, 6, 26, 65, 93, 146-147, 160-171 multihazardous waste, 6-7, 67, 153, 154-155, 159-160 neutralization, 6, 26, 85, 142, 147, 154, 155, 160-161 regulations, 6, 7, 9, 76, 81, 147, 148, 208 Wastewater, see Sewer disposal Water, 36, 82, 98, 134 Water-cooled equipment, 109 Water gas, see Hydrogen Water-miscible substances, 85, 148 Water pressure, 81 Water reactivity, 50, 51, 54, 55, 75, 95, 97, 103, 165-166 of wastes, 142, 144 Water solubility and body tissues, 37, 38, 39 of wastes, 142, 148 Welding gas, see Acetylene Wet oxidation, 160 White phosphorus, see Phosphorus Wiring and cables, 110-111, 114-115, 119, 175 Wood alcohol, see Methanol Work flow, 3, 20, 22, 24 Working alone, 86, 90, 230 X X-rays and x-ray equipment, 60, 61, 109, 119-120 Xylene, 76 Z Zirconium, 56, 102