TABLE 3.5 Classes of Carcinogenic Substances

Alkylating agents

Hydrazines

a-Halo ethers

Hydrazine (and hydrazine salts)

Bis(chloromethyl) ether

1,2-Diethylhydrazine

Methyl chloromethyl ether

1,1-Dimethylhydrazine

Sulfonates

1,2-Dimethylhydrazine

1,4-Butanediol dimethanesulfonate (myleran)

 

Diethyl sulfate

N-Nitroso compounds

Dimethyl sulfate

N-Nitrosodimethylamine

Ethyl methanesulfonate

N-Nitroso-N-alkylureas

Methyl methanesulfonate

 

Methyl trifluoromethanesulfonate

Aromatic amines

1,3-Propanesultone

4-Aminobiphenyl

Epoxides

Benzidine (4, 4'-diaminobiphenyl)

Ethylene oxide

a-Naphthylamine

Diepoxybutane

ß-Naphthylamine

Epichlorohydrin

Aniline

Propylene oxide

o-Anisidine (2-methoxyaniline)

Styrene oxide

2,4-Diaminotoluene

Aziridines

o-Toluidine

Ethylenimine

 

2-methylaziridine

Aromatic hydrocarbons

Diazo, azo, and azoxy compounds

Benzene

4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene

Benz[a]anthracene

Electrophilic alkenes and alkynes

Benzo[a]pyrene

Acrylonitrile

 

Acrolein

Natural products (including antitumor drugs)

Ethyl acrylate

Adriamycin

 

Aflatoxins

Acylating agents

Bleomycin

ß-Propiolactone

Cisplatin

ß-Butyrolactone

Progesterone

Dimethylcarbamyl chloride

Reserpine

 

Safrole

Organohalogen compounds

 

1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane

Miscellaneous organic compounds

Mustard gas (bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide)

Formaldehyde (gas)

Vinyl chloride

Acetaldehyde

Carbon tetrachloride

1,4-Dioxane

Chloroform

Ethyl carbamate (urethane)

3-Chloro-2-methylpropene

Hexamethylphosphoramide

1,2-Dibromoethane

2-Nitropropane

1,4-Dichlorobenzene

Styrene

1,2-Dichloroethane

Thiourea

2,2-Dichloroethane

Thioacetamide

1,3-Dichloropropene

 

Hexachlorobenzene

Miscellaneous inorganic compounds

Methyl iodide

Arsenic and certain arsenic compounds

Tetrachloroethylene

Chromium and certain chromium compounds

Trichloroethylene

Thorium dioxide

2,4,6-Trichlorophenol

Beryllium and certain beryllium compounds

 

Cadmium and certain cadmium compounds

 

Lead and certain lead compounds

 

Nickel and certain nickel compounds

 

Selenium sulfide

teratogenic (malformation) effects on fetuses. Many reproductive toxins are chronic toxins that cause damage after repeated or long-duration exposures with effects that become evident only after long latency periods. Developmental toxins act during pregnancy and cause adverse effects on the fetus; these effects include embryo lethality (death of the fertilized egg, embryo, or fetus), teratogenic effects, and postnatal functional



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