Prudent Practices in the Laboratory

Handling and Disposal of Chemicals

Committee on Prudent Practices for Handling, Storage, and Disposal of Chemicals in Laboratories

Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology

Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1995



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Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals Prudent Practices in the Laboratory Handling and Disposal of Chemicals Committee on Prudent Practices for Handling, Storage, and Disposal of Chemicals in Laboratories Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1995

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Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for this report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. Support for this project was provided by the Department of Energy, American Chemical Society, National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, Camille and Henry Dreyfus Foundation, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chemical Manufacturers Association, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, and Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Administration. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Prudent practices in the laboratory : handling and disposal of chemicals / Committee on Prudent Practices for Handling, Storage, and Disposal of Chemicals in Laboratories, Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology, Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications, National Research Council. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-309-05229-7 1. Hazardous substances. 2. Chemicals—Safety measures. 3. Hazardous wastes. I. National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Prudent Practices for Handling, Storage and Disposal of Chemicals in Laboratories. T55.3.H3P78 1995 660'.2804—dc20 95-32461 Copyright 1995 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America First Printing, April 1995 Second Printing, January 1999 Third Printing, January 2000

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Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals COMMITTEE ON PRUDENT PRACTICES FOR HANDLING, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL OF CHEMICALS IN LABORATORIES EDWARD M. ARNETT, Duke University, Chair W. EMMETT BARKLEY, Howard Hughes Medical Institute PETER BEAK, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign EDWIN D. BECKER, National Institutes of Health HENRY E. BRYNDZA, E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Co. IMOGENE L. CHANG, Cheyney University CAROL CREUTZ, Brookhaven National Laboratory RICK L. DANHEISER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology ERIC M. GORDON, Affymax Research Institute ROBERT J. LACKMEYER, C/VS Inc. LEE MAGID, University of Tennessee at Knoxville THOMAS F. McBRIDE, U.S. Department of Energy ANN M. NORBERG, 3M EDWARD W. PETRILLO, Bristol-Myers Squibb STANLEY H. PINE, California State University at Los Angeles FAY M. THOMPSON, University of Minnesota TAMAE MAEDA WONG, Study Director KASANDRA GOWEN, Project Assistant SARAH W. PLIMPTON, Editorial Assistant JENNIFER F. BUTERA, Project Assistant SUBCOMMITTEE ON ASSESSING CHEMICAL HAZARDS RICK L. DANHEISER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Chair W. EMMETT BARKLEY, Howard Hughes Medical Institute PETER BEAK, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign JAMES A. BOND, Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology WILLIAM M. HAYNES, Monsanto Co. CURTIS D. KLAASSEN, University of Kansas EDWARD W. PETRILLO, Bristol-Myers Squibb CHARLES F. REINHARDT, E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Co. PHILIP G. WATANABE, Dow Chemical Co. SUBCOMMITTEE ON LABORATORY SPACE AND EQUIPMENT ROBERT J. LACKMEYER, C/VS Inc., Chair DALE T. HITCHINGS, Hitchings Associates, P.C. JOHN S. NELSON, Affiliated Engineers Inc. SUBCOMMITTEE ON MIXED WASTE EDWIN D. BECKER, National Institutes of Health, Chair PATRICIA A. BAISDEN, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory THOMAS F. CECICH, Glaxo Inc. ERIC M. GORDON, Affymax Research Institute PETER A. REINHARDT, University of Wisconsin at Madison

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Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals SUBCOMMITTEE ON POLLUTION PREVENTION FAY M. THOMPSON, University of Minnesota, Chair MARGARET-ANN ARMOUR, University of Alberta PETER C. ASHBROOK, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign IMOGENE L. CHANG, Cheyney University ANN M. NORBERG, 3M STANLEY H. PINE, California State University at Los Angeles PETER A. REINHARDT, University of Wisconsin at Madison SUBCOMMITTEE ON REGULATORY ISSUES THOMAS F. McBRIDE, U.S. Department of Energy, Chair PETER C. ASHBROOK, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign DAVID W. DRUMMOND, University of Wisconsin at Madison JULIA E. EPLEY, Pillsbury, Madison & Sutro ANN M. NORBERG, 3M JAMES H. STEWART, Harvard University WAYNE R. THOMANN, Duke University BOARD ON CHEMICAL SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY ROYCE W. MURRAY, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Co-chair EDWIN P. PRZYBYLOWICZ, Rochester Institute of Technology, Co-chair PAUL S. ANDERSON, The Du Pont Merck Pharmaceutical Company DAVID C. BONNER, Premix Inc. PHILIP H. BRODSKY, Monsanto Company MARVIN H. CARUTHERS, University of Colorado GREGORY R. CHOPPIN, Florida State University FRED P. CORSON, Dow Chemical Company MOSTAFA EL-SAYED, Georgia Institute of Technology JOANNA S. FOWLER, Brookhaven National Laboratory BERTRAM O. FRASER-REID, Duke University JUDITH C. GIORDAN, Henkel Corporation JOSEPH G. GORDON II, IBM Almaden Research Center L. LOUIS HEGEDUS, W.R. Grace & Co. GEORGE J. HIRASAKI, Rice University DOUGLAS A. LAUFFENBERGER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology MARSHA I. LESTER, University of Pennsylvania W. HARMON RAY, University of Wisconsin GABOR A. SOMORJAI, University of California at Berkeley JOHN J. WISE, Mobil Research and Development Corp. DOUGLAS J. RABER, Director SCOTT T. WEIDMAN, Senior Program Officer TAMAE MAEDA WONG, Senior Program Officer SYBIL A. PAIGE, Administrative Associate MARIA P. JONES, Senior Project Assistant SARAH W. PLIMPTON, Editorial Assistant JENNIFER F. BUTERA, Project Assistant

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Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals COMMISSION ON PHYSICAL SCIENCES, MATHEMATICS, AND APPLICATIONS RICHARD N. ZARE, Stanford University, Chair RICHARD S. NICHOLSON, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Vice Chair STEPHEN L. ADLER, Institute for Advanced Study SYLVIA T. CEYER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology SUSAN L. GRAHAM, University of California at Berkeley ROBERT J. HERMANN, United Technologies Corporation RHONDA J. HUGHES, Bryn Mawr College SHIRLEY A. JACKSON, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission KENNETH I. KELLERMANN, National Radio Astronomy Observatory HANS MARK, University of Texas at Austin THOMAS A. PRINCE, California Institute of Technology JEROME SACKS, National Institute of Statistical Sciences L.E. SCRIVEN, University of Minnesota LEON T. SILVER, California Institute of Technology CHARLES P. SLICHTER, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign ALVIN W. TRIVELPIECE, Oak Ridge National Laboratory SHMUEL WINOGRAD, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center CHARLES A. ZRAKET, MITRE Corporation (ret.) NORMAN METZGER, Executive Director

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Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Harold Liebowitz is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Harold Liebowitz are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals Preface In the early 1980s, the National Research Council (NRC) produced two major reports on laboratory safety and laboratory waste disposal: Prudent Practices for Handling Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories (1981) and Prudent Practices for Disposal of Chemicals from Laboratories (1983). To provide safety and waste management guidance to laboratory workers, managers, and policy-makers that would be responsive to knowledge and regulations in the 1990s, the NRC's Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology initiated an update and revision of the earlier studies. After extensive consultation with members of the broad chemistry and laboratory communities, the full committee was appointed in September 1992. It first convened in November 1992 and held five additional meetings during the next two years. Several highly specialized areas were addressed by the appointment of several subcommittees, which met in conjunction with the full committee or independently as appropriate. The Committee on Prudent Practices for Handling, Storage, and Disposal of Chemicals in Laboratories and its subcommittees were charged to: establish the scope of changes and new material required to update Prudent Practices 1981 and Prudent Practices 1983, evaluate recent developments and trends in the scientific communities and regulatory areas, develop strategies for implementing safety programs, which include risk assessment methods in planning laboratory work with hazardous chemicals, develop a follow-up plan for training aids by obtaining consensus on the report and reviewing suggestions, and address such topics as procurement, storage, and disposal of chemicals; hazards of known chemicals; handling of chemicals; work practices; generation and classification of chemical waste; off-site transportation and landfills; and incinerators and small-scale combusters. Prudent Practices 1981 and Prudent Practices 1983 were conceived during the late 1970s in recognition of growing public expectations for health and safety in the workplace, protection of the environment, and the responsible use of hazardous chemicals. Since their original publication in the early 1980s, these reports have been distributed widely both nationally and internationally. In 1992, the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry and the World Health Organization published Chemical Safety Matters, a document based on Prudent Practices 1981 and Prudent Practices 1983, for wide international use. The original motivation for drafting Prudent Practices 1981 and Prudent Practices 1983 was to provide an authoritative reference on the handling and disposal of chemicals at the laboratory level. These volumes not only served as a guide to laboratory workers, but also offered prudent guidelines for the development of regulatory policy by government agencies concerned with safety in the workplace and protection of the environment. Pertinent health-related parts of Prudent Practices 1981 are incorporated in a nonmandatory section of the OSHA Laboratory Standard (29 CFR 1910.1450; reprinted as Appendix A). OSHA's purpose was to provide guidance for developing and implementing its required Chemical Hygiene Plan. Now, after nearly a decade and a half, the present volume (Prudent Practices 1995) responds to societal and technical developments that are driving significant change in the laboratory culture and laboratory operations relative to safety, health,

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Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals and environmental protection. The major drivers for this new culture of laboratory safety include the following: The increasing regulatory compliance burden and associated time and financial penalties for noncompliance; The OSHA performance-based Laboratory Standard that places responsibility on individual laboratories to develop site-specific laboratory health programs, including certain elements such as written procedures, a designated coordinator for the written procedures, employee information and training, and compliance with OSHA-specified exposure limits; An increasingly litigious society and the growth of tort law; The increase in "public interest" groups and the realization by laboratory operators that operation of a laboratory is a privilege that carries a responsibility to go beyond mere compliance to "doing what is right" in the eyes of fellow workers and society; The myriad technical advances in our understanding of hazards and risk evaluation, improvements in chemical analysis, improvements in miniaturization and automation of laboratory operations, and the availability of vastly improved safety equipment, atmosphere-monitoring devices, and personal protective equipment; and A greater understanding and acceptance of the critical elements necessary for an effective culture of safety. After careful consideration of these technical, regulatory, and societal changes, the committee chose to rewrite, rather than simply revise, much of the material in the previous two volumes and to condense them into a single one. In this 1995 revision, the committee has sought primarily to describe this new laboratory culture, identify its key elements, and provide certain information and procedures that have been developed within that culture. To ensure prudent handling in a coordinated manner from "cradle to grave," this new volume incorporates much material from the Prudent Practices 1981 and Prudent Practices 1983 volumes. In addition, in response to users of Prudent Practices 1981 who have emphasized the value of the information on how to handle compounds that pose special hazards, the committee has compiled Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries (Appendix B) that provide chemical and toxicological information for 88 substances commonly found in laboratories. Although most of the information provided for these compounds will maintain its value, data on some properties, especially toxicological ones, should be updated frequently. Accordingly, the most recent Material Safety Data Sheets provided by the manufacturer or other updated sources should be consulted before work is done with hazardous compounds. At every stage in the development of this book, the committee has maintained a close dialogue with the community of expected users through discussions with experts, participation of observers at committee meetings, and presentations to various professional organizations. In addition, subcommittees of experts were appointed to provide advice in several specialized areas. The goal in these discussions with authorities and with the general community of industrial and academic researchers and teachers has been to determine what are considered prudent practices for laboratory operations. "Laboratory" means (following the OSHA Laboratory Standard) "a workplace where relatively small quantities of hazardous chemicals are used on a non-production basis." Through definition of the corollary terms "laboratory scale" and "laboratory use," OSHA expanded on this definition to encompass additional criteria: a laboratory is a place in which (1) "containers used for reactions, transfers,

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Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals and other handling of substances are designed to be easily and safely manipulated by one person," (2) "multiple chemicals or chemical procedures are used," and (3) "protective laboratory practices and equipment are available and in common use to minimize the potential for employee exposure to hazardous chemicals." The definition excludes operations (1) in which the procedures involved are part of or in any way simulate a production process or (2) whose function is to produce commercial quantities of materials. Dialogue with the chemical community has shown that there are many effective ways in which institutions can organize for safety in the laboratory when there is a sincere commitment to safe practice and institutional support. Accordingly, a single organizational model of institutional safety cannot be proposed as being typical. The aim throughout has been to offer generally useful guidelines rather than specific blueprints. Public support for the laboratory use of chemicals depends on compliance with regulatory laws as a joint responsibility of everyone who handles or makes decisions about chemicals, from shipping and receiving clerks to laboratory workers and managers, environmental health and safety staff, and institutional administrators. This shared responsibility is now a fact of laboratory work as inexorable as the properties of the chemicals that are being handled. The use of chemicals, like the use of automobiles or electricity, involves some irreducible risks. However, all three of these servants to humankind have demonstrated benefits that enormously outweigh their costs if they are handled sensibly. The passage of time has demonstrated the value of Prudent Practices 1981 and Prudent Practices 1983 not only as guides to safe laboratory practice but also through their influence on the drafting of reasonable regulations. The committee hopes that its efforts will have a comparable beneficial impact as chemistry continues its central role in society.

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Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals Acknowledgments Many technical experts, representing a wide variety of laboratories that use chemicals, provided input to this book. Their involvement through participation at workshops and committee meetings, submission of written materials, and review of technical material prepared by the committee has enhanced the book, and their efforts are greatly appreciated. The Committee on Prudent Practices for Handling, Storage, and Disposal of Chemicals in Laboratories thanks the following people both for their participation in the workshops and for contributions to the revision of Prudent Practices 1995. Robert Alaimo, Proctor & Gamble; Bruce Backus, University of Minnesota; David Bammerlin, BP Warrensville; John Bartmess, University of Tennessee; John Beltz, Purdue University; Charles E. Billings, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Daniel Brannegan, Pfizer; William H. Breazeale, Jr., Francis Marion University; Ronald Bresell, University of Wisconsin; Don G. Brown, University of Washington; Elise Ann B. Brown, USDA; Holmes C. Brown, Afton Associates, Inc.; Judy Brown, Edison Career Center; Rebecca Byrne, University of Illinois; Elna Clevenger, National Cathedral School; Robert G. Costello, W.R. Grace & Co.; Elizabeth Cotsworth, Environmental Protection Agency; Jeffrey L. Davidson, Environmental Protection Agency; Hugh Davis, Environmental Protection Agency; M. Sue Davis, Brookhaven National Laboratory; Gary Diamond, Syracuse Research Corporation; Howard Dobres, Drug Enforcement Administration; Laurence J. Doemeny, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health; Greg L. Engstrom, 3M; Sandra A. Filippi, Prince George's Community College; Edward Gershey, Rockefeller University; Renae Goldman, 3M; Judith Gordon, Environmental Protection Agency; Carl Gottschall, E.G.&G.; Frederick D. Greene, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Rolf Hahne, Dow Chemical Co.; Clayton E. Hathaway, Chesterfield, Missouri; Donna Heidel, R. W. Johnson; Jennifer Hernandez, Graham & James; Joseph Kanabrocki, University of Wisconsin; Glenn Ketcham, University of California; Robert Kohler, Monsanto; Po Yung Lu, Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Maureen Matkovich, American Chemical Society; Greg McCarney, 3M; Anne McCollister, Risk Communication International; Robert Meister, Eli Lilly; William G. Mikell, E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Co. (ret.); L. Jewel Nicholls, Sauk Rapids, Minnesota; Dan Pilipauskas, G. D. Searle; John E. Pingel, University of Illinois; Frank Priznar, Weston Inc.; Edward H. Rau, National Institutes of Health; Cynthia L. Salisbury, Compliance Solutions Inc.; David Schleicher, American Chemical Society; Eileen B. Segal, Chemical Health and Safety; William E. Shewbart, Dow Chemical Co.; Richard Shuman, Merck & Company; Reinhard Sidor, General Electric Co.; John Softy, Environmental Safety Office; Mary Ann Solstad, SOLSTAD Health and Safety Evaluations; Christine Springer, Scripps Research Institute; Ralph Stuart, University of Vermont; Martin J. Steindler, Argonne National Laboratory; Stephen A. Szabo, Conoco Inc./DuPont; Linda J. Tanner, 3M; David Vandenberg, University of California at Santa Barbara; George H. Wahl, North Carolina State University; Kenneth Williamson, Mount Holyoke College; Howard Wilson, Environmental Protection Agency; and Nola Woessner, University of Illinois. Although the above list is extensive, it does not include all the individuals who have contributed their time, energy, and knowledge to this project. In full recognition that this report would not have been produced without the involvement of individuals not specifically mentioned here, the committee acknowledges their efforts by thanking the community at large.

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Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals Contents     OVERVIEW AND RECOMMENDATIONS   1 1   THE CULTURE OF LABORATORY SAFETY   13     A. Introduction,   14     B. The New Culture of Laboratory Safety,   14     C. Responsibility and Accountability for Laboratory Safety,   14     D. Special Safety Considerations in Academic Laboratories,   16     E. The Safety Culture in Industry,   18     F. Factors That Are Changing the Culture of Safety,   18     G. Organization of This Book,   20 2   PRUDENT PLANNING OF EXPERIMENTS   21     A. Introduction,   22     B. Levels of Formality in Experiment Planning,   22     C. Individual Responsibilities for Planning Experiments,   23     D. Institutional Policies and Emergency Response Planning,   23     E. Steps for Planning an Experiment,   24 3   EVALUATING HAZARDS AND ASSESSING RISKS IN THE LABORATORY   29     A. Introduction,   31     B. Sources of Information,   31     C. Toxic Effects of Laboratory Chemicals,   35     D. Flammable, Reactive, and Explosive Hazards,   46     E. Physical Hazards,   57     F. Biohazards,   60     G. Hazards from Radioactivity,   60 4   MANAGEMENT OF CHEMICALS   63     A. Introduction,   64     B. Source Reduction,   64     C. Acquisition of Chemicals,   67     D. Inventory and Tracking of Chemicals,   69     E. Storage of Chemicals in Stockrooms and Laboratories,   72     F. Recycling of Chemicals, Containers, and Packaging,   76 5   WORKING WITH CHEMICALS   79     A. Introduction,   81     B. Prudent Planning,   81     C. General Procedures for Working with Hazardous Chemicals,   82     D. Working with Substances of High Toxicity,   90     E. Working with Biohazardous and Radioactive Materials,   93

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Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals     F. Working with Flammable Chemicals,   95     G. Working with Highly Reactive or Explosive Chemicals,   96     H. Working with Compressed Gases,   104 6   WORKING WITH LABORATORY EQUIPMENT   107     A. Introduction,   109     B. Working with Water-Cooled Equipment,   109     C. Working with Electrically Powered Laboratory Equipment,   109     D. Working with Compressed Gases,   121     E. Working with High/Low Pressures and Temperatures,   126     F. Using Personal Protective, Safety, and Emergency Equipment,   131     G. Emergency Procedures,   137 7   DISPOSAL OF WASTE   139     A. Introduction,   141     B. Chemically Hazardous Waste,   141     C. Multihazardous Waste,   150     D. Procedures for the Laboratory-Scale Treatment of Surplus and Waste Chemicals,   160 8   LABORATORY FACILITIES   173     A. Introduction,   175     B. Laboratory Inspection Programs,   175     C. Laboratory Ventilation,   178     D. Room Pressure Control Systems,   193     E. Special Systems,   193     F. Maintenance of Ventilation Systems,   194 9   GOVERNMENTAL REGULATION OF LABORATORIES   197     A. Introduction,   198     B. Risk and Regulation,   198     C. The OSHA Laboratory Standard: Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories,   202     D. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act,   205     E. The Clean Air Act,   209     F. SARA Title III, Community Right-To-Know and Emergency Notification and Response,   210     G. The Toxic Substances Control Act,   210     H. Regulation of Laboratory Design and Construction,   212     BIBLIOGRAPHY   213     APPENDIXES   217     A OSHA Laboratory Standard   219     B Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries   235     INDEX   415

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Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals Figures and Tables FIGURES 1.1   Pattern of interactions through which laboratory safety can be arranged within an institution.   15 1.2   Protocol for planning and carrying out an experiment with chemicals in a laboratory.   20 3.1   National Fire Protection Association system for classification of hazards.   49 6.1   Standard design for a three-wire grounded outlet.   110 6.2   Standard wiring convention for 110-V electric power to equipment.   111 6.3   Schematic diagram of properly wired variable autotransformers.   115 7.1   Flow chart for categorizing unknown chemicals.   143 7.2   Multihazardous waste.   150 8.1   Effect of baffles on face velocity profile.   183 8.2   Non-Bypass fume hood.   183 8.3   Bypass fume hood.   184 8.4   Benchtop fume hood.   186 8.5   Distillation fume hood.   186 8.6   ''Walk-in" fume hood.   187 8.7   Typical fume hood scrubber schematic.   189 8.8   Typical specific ventilation hoods.   191 TABLES 3.1   Acute Toxicity Hazard Level   42 3.2   Probable Lethal Dose for Humans   42 3.3   Examples of Compounds with a High Level of Acute Toxicity   42 3.4   Examples of Select Carcinogens   44 3.5   Classes of Carcinogenic Substances   45 3.6   Examples of Reproductive Toxins   46 3.7   NFPA Fire Hazard Ratings, Flash Points, Boiling Points, Ignition Temperatures, and Flammable Limits of Some Common Laboratory Chemicals   48 3.8   Examples of Oxidants   50 3.9   Partial List of Incompatible Chemicals (Reactive Hazards)   52 3.10   Classes of Incompatible Chemicals   54 3.11   Functional Groups in Some Explosive Compounds   55 3.12   Types of Compounds Known to Autooxidize to Form Peroxides   55 3.13   Classes of Chemicals That Can Form Peroxides Upon Aging   56 3.14   The "Dirty Dozen"   58 4.1   Related and Compatible Storage Groups   73 4.2   Storage Limits for Flammable and Combustible Liquids for Laboratories: B Classification with Sprinkler System   74 4.3   Container Size for Storage of Flammable and Combustible Liquids   75 6.1   Summary of Magnetic Field Effects   120 7.1   High- and Low-Toxicity Cations and Preferred Precipitants   167 7.2   High- and Low-Hazard Anions and Preferred Precipitants   168 7.3   pH Ranges for Precipitation of Metal Hydroxides and Oxides   169 7.4   Precipitation of Sulfides   170 9.1   Federal Laws and Regulations Affecting Laboratories   199

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