Figures and Tables

FIGURES

1.1

 

Pattern of interactions through which laboratory safety can be arranged within an institution.

 

15

1.2

 

Protocol for planning and carrying out an experiment with chemicals in a laboratory.

 

20

3.1

 

National Fire Protection Association system for classification of hazards.

 

49

6.1

 

Standard design for a three-wire grounded outlet.

 

110

6.2

 

Standard wiring convention for 110-V electric power to equipment.

 

111

6.3

 

Schematic diagram of properly wired variable autotransformers.

 

115

7.1

 

Flow chart for categorizing unknown chemicals.

 

143

7.2

 

Multihazardous waste.

 

150

8.1

 

Effect of baffles on face velocity profile.

 

183

8.2

 

Non-Bypass fume hood.

 

183

8.3

 

Bypass fume hood.

 

184

8.4

 

Benchtop fume hood.

 

186

8.5

 

Distillation fume hood.

 

186

8.6

 

''Walk-in" fume hood.

 

187

8.7

 

Typical fume hood scrubber schematic.

 

189

8.8

 

Typical specific ventilation hoods.

 

191

TABLES

3.1

 

Acute Toxicity Hazard Level

 

42

3.2

 

Probable Lethal Dose for Humans

 

42

3.3

 

Examples of Compounds with a High Level of Acute Toxicity

 

42

3.4

 

Examples of Select Carcinogens

 

44

3.5

 

Classes of Carcinogenic Substances

 

45

3.6

 

Examples of Reproductive Toxins

 

46

3.7

 

NFPA Fire Hazard Ratings, Flash Points, Boiling Points, Ignition Temperatures, and Flammable Limits of Some Common Laboratory Chemicals

 

48

3.8

 

Examples of Oxidants

 

50

3.9

 

Partial List of Incompatible Chemicals (Reactive Hazards)

 

52

3.10

 

Classes of Incompatible Chemicals

 

54

3.11

 

Functional Groups in Some Explosive Compounds

 

55

3.12

 

Types of Compounds Known to Autooxidize to Form Peroxides

 

55

3.13

 

Classes of Chemicals That Can Form Peroxides Upon Aging

 

56

3.14

 

The "Dirty Dozen"

 

58

4.1

 

Related and Compatible Storage Groups

 

73

4.2

 

Storage Limits for Flammable and Combustible Liquids for Laboratories: B Classification with Sprinkler System

 

74

4.3

 

Container Size for Storage of Flammable and Combustible Liquids

 

75

6.1

 

Summary of Magnetic Field Effects

 

120

7.1

 

High- and Low-Toxicity Cations and Preferred Precipitants

 

167

7.2

 

High- and Low-Hazard Anions and Preferred Precipitants

 

168

7.3

 

pH Ranges for Precipitation of Metal Hydroxides and Oxides

 

169

7.4

 

Precipitation of Sulfides

 

170

9.1

 

Federal Laws and Regulations Affecting Laboratories

 

199



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