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On Being a Scientist: Responsible Conduct in Research BIBLIOGRAPHY Volume I of Responsible Science: Ensuring the Integrity of the Research Process (National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1992) presents a thorough analysis of scientific misconduct made by the Panel on Scientific Responsibility and the Conduct of Research under the Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy of the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. Volume II of Responsible Science (National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1993) contains a number of background papers, a selection of guidelines for the conduct of research, and examples of specific research policies and procedures for handling allegations of misconduct in science. In The Responsible Conduct of Research in the Health Sciences (National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1989), the Institute of Medicine's Committee on the Responsible Conduct of Research examines institutional policies and procedures designed to strengthen the professional standards of academic research. Sharing Research Data, edited by Stephen E. Fienberg, Margaret E. Martin, and Miron L. Straf (National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1985), lays out general principles to govern the sharing of research results and the materials used in research. An early but still excellent book on experimental and statistical methods for data reduction is E. Bright Wilson's An Introduction to Scientific Research (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1952). A more general book from the same period that remains useful today is The Art of Scientific Investigation by W. I. B. Beveridge (Third Edition, Vintage Books, New York, 1957). A broad overview of the philosophy, sociology, politics, and psychology of science can be found in John Ziman's An Introduction to Science Studies: The Philosophical and Social Aspects of Science and Technology (Cambridge University Press, New York, 1984). Ziman analyzes many of the changes going on in contemporary science in Prometheus Bound: Science in a Dynamic Steady State (Cambridge University Press, New York, 1994). Many pioneering essays by Robert K. Merton have been collected in The Sociology of Science (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1973). Stephen Cole analyzes and critiques some of the more modern work in the sociology of science in Making Science: Between Nature and Society (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass. 1992). Gerald Holton discusses the thematic presuppositions of scientists and the integrity of science in chapters 1 and 12 of his book Thematic Origins of Scientific Thought: Kepler to Einstein (Revised Edition, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1988). Holton elaborates on the historical context of research ethics in "On Doing One's Damnedest: The Evolution of Trust in Scientific Findings," which is chapter 7
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On Being a Scientist: Responsible Conduct in Research in Einstein, History, and Other Passions (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1994). The roles of recognition and credit in science are discussed in chapters 8-10 of David Hull's Science as Process: An Evolutionary Account of the Social and Conceptual Development of Science (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1988). Peter B. Medawar addresses the concerns of beginning researchers in his book Advice to a Young Scientist (Harper & Row, New York, 1979). "Honor in Science" by C. Ian Jackson, is a booklet offering "practical advice to those entering careers in scientific research" (Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society, Research Triangle Park, N. C., 1992). Ethics, Values, and the Promise of Science (Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society, Research Triangle Park, N. C., 1993), the proceedings of a 1992 forum held by Sigma Xi, contains a number of interesting papers on ethical scientific conduct. Several insightful books offer advice for researchers about succeeding in a scientific career, including A Ph.D. Is Not Enough: A Guide to Survival in Science by Peter J. Feibelman (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1993), The Incomplete Guide to the Art of Discovery by Jack E. Oliver (Columbia University Press, New York, 1991), and The Joy of Science by Carl J. Sindermann (Plenum Publishers, New York, 1985). Alexander Kohn presents a number of case studies of misconduct and self-deception from the history of science and medicine in False Prophets: Fraud and Error in Science and Medicine (Basil Blackwell, New York, 1988). A lively book that discusses several historic cases of self-deception in science is Diamond Dealers and Feather Merchants: Tales from the Sciences by Irving M. Klotz (Birkhauser, Boston, 1986). The story of cold fusion is well told in Cold Fusion: The Scientific Fiasco of the Century by John R. Huizenga (Oxford University Press, New York, 1993) and in Gary Taubes' Bad Science: The Short Life & Hard Times of Cold Fusion (Random House, New York, 1993). Harriet Zuckerman gives a thorough, scholarly analysis of scientific misconduct in "Deviant Behavior and Social Control in Science" (pp. 87-138 in Deviance and Social Change , Sage Publications, Beverly Hills, Calif., 1977). Frederick Grinnell has a chapter on scientific misconduct in the second edition of The Scientific Attitude (Guilford Press, New York, 1992). The American Association of Medical Colleges has gathered a large number of case studies in Teaching the Responsible Conduct of Research Through a Case Study Approach (American Association of Medical Colleges, Washington, D.C., 1994). Research Ethics: Cases and Materials , edited by Robin Levin Penslar (Indiana University Press, Bloomington, 1994), contains a number of extended case studies as well as essays on various aspects of research ethics. In Understanding Ethical Problems in Engineering Practice and Research (Cambridge University Press, New York, 1995), Caroline Whitbeck examines issues of professional ethics (such as the
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On Being a Scientist: Responsible Conduct in Research engineer's or chemist's responsibility for safety) and research ethics. The American Association for the Advancement of Science and the American Bar Association have jointly issued several publications on issues of scientific ethics, including Good Science and Responsible Scientists: Meeting the Challenge of Fraud and Misconduct in Science , by Albert H. Teich and Mark S. Frankel (American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, D.C., 1991). The report Scientific Freedom and Responsibility , prepared by John T. Edsall (American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, D.C., 1975), remains an important statement on the social obligations of scientists in the modern world. Rosemary Chalk has compiled a series of papers from Science magazine on ethics, scientific freedom, social responsibility, and a number of other topics in Science, Technology, and Society: Emerging Relationships (American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, D.C., 1988). The Barbara McClintock quotation on the first page of the document came from A Feeling for the Organism: The Life and Work of Barbara McClintock by Evelyn Fox Keller (W.H. Freeman, San Francisco, 1983). Among audiovisual materials, the NOVA program "Do Scientists Cheat?" stands out as a balanced treatment of ethical issues in the conduct of research.
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