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FINANCIAL SUPPORT: The development of this document was supported by grants from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute and the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. Support for dissemination of this document was provided by the following corporations and disciplinary societies: Bristol Myers Squibb Company, Glaxo Research Institute, SmithKline Beecham Corp., Sigma Xi, the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, the American Society for Microbiology, the American Chemical Society, the American Institute for Biological Sciences, the American Sociological Association, the American Statistical Association , the Association of American Medical Colleges, the American Institute of Physics, and the American Physical Society. Additional support was provided by the Basic Science Fund of the National Academy of Sciences, whose contributors include the AT&T Foundation, Atlantic Richfield Foundation, BP America, Dow Chemical Company, E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., IBM Corporation, Merck and Company, Inc., Monsanto Company, and Shell Oil Companies Foundation.

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ON THE COVER: The cover depicts the names of some of the scientists who have been awarded the Nobel Prize. The design of the cover and the report was done by Isely &/or Clark Design.

PHOTOGRAPH CREDITS:Calar Alto Observatory (Page 16); Ira Wexler/College of Engineering/University of Maryland (Page 12); National Library of Medicine/National Institutes of Health (Page 25); U.S Department of Agriculture (Pages 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 13, 23).

International Standard Book Number 0-309-05196-7

Printed in the United States of America

First Printing, January 1995

Second Printing, June 1995

Third Printing, April 1996

Fourth Printing, August 1998



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