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REFERENCES Andrews, R.W., T.F. Dale, ant! I.A McNeish. 1994. Total System Performance Assessment-An Evaluation of the Potential Yucca Mountain Repository. Prepared for U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. INTERA, Inc., Las Vegas, Rev. Barraclough, I.M., S.F. Mobbs, and ].R. Cooper. 1992. Radiological Protection Objectives for the Land-Based Disposal of Solid Radioactive Wastes. Documents of the National Radiation Protection Boarci (NRPB), 3, No. 3, London, U.K. Berkovitz, D.M. 1992. Pariahs en cl prophets: nuclear energy, global warming, ant! intergenerational justice. Columbia J. Environ. Law 1 7:245. Charles, D., and G.M. Smith. 1991. Project 90 Conversion of Releases From the Geosphere to Estimates of Individual Doses to Man. Swedish Nuclear Regulatory Commission. SKI Tech. Rep. 9 I: 14. July. Comar, C. 1979. Risk: A pragmatic de minimis approach. Science 2-3:319. Crowe, B.M., F.V. Perry, G.A. Valentine, P.C. Walimann, and R. Kossik. 1994. Simulation Modeling of the Probability of Magmatic Disruption of the Potential Yucca Mountain Site. Preparer! for the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM. Dansgaard, W., S.J. Johnsen, H.B. CIausen, D. DahI-Jensen, N.S. Gundestrup, C. U. Hammer, C.J. Hvidberg, I.P. Steffensen, A.E. Sveinbjornsclottir, I. Jouzel, and G. Bond. 1993. Evidence for general instability of past climate from a 250-kyr ice-core record. Nature 364:218-220. 199

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200 YUCCA MOUNTAIN STANDARDS Davis, P.A., R. Zach, M.E. Stephens, B.D. Amiro, G.A. Bird, ].A.K. Reid, M.T. Shepparcl, S.C. Sheppard, and M. Stephenson. 1992. The Disposal of Canada's Nuclear Fuel Waste: The Biosphere Moclel, BlOTRAC, for Postclosure Assessment. AECL-10720. Atomic Energy of Canada, Ltd. Dejonghe, P. 1993. Technical Bases for Yucca Mountain Stanciarcis (TYMS): Approaches to Health-Based Standards in different countries. Report to the NRC Committee on Technical Bases for Yucca Mountain Standards (TYMS). DOE (U.S. Department of Energy). 198X. Site Characterization Plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada. DOE/RW-0 199. Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C. DOE (U.S. Department of Energy). ~ 992. Technical Assistance to EPA on 40 CFR 191. Office of Environment, Health, ant! Safety, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C. DOE (U.S. Department of Energy). ~993a. Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Five-Year Plan. Volume I. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office. DOE (U.S. Department of Energy). 1993b. Evaluation of the Potentially Adverse Condition "Evidence of Extreme Erosion During the Quatinary PeriocI" at Yucca Mountain. Topical Report YMP/92- 41-TPR. U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C. Eisenbud, M. 1981. The concept of cle minimis close. Pp 64-75 In Quantitative Risk in Standards Setting. Proceedings No. 2, Proceedings of the Sixteenth Annual Meeting of the National Council on Radiation Protection ant} Measurements (NCRP), April 2-3, 1980, Bethesda, Md.

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REFERENCES 201 EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1991. Human Health Evaluation Manual, Part B. Development of risk-based preliminary remediation goals. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response Directive 9285.7-018. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1992. Summary of EPA Of flee of Radiation Programs Carbon- 14 Dosimetry as Used in the Analysis for High-Leve! and Transuranic Wastes. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1993. High-Leve] and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes. Background Information Document for Amendments to 40 CFR Part 191. EPA 402-R-93- 073. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute). 1994. A Proposed Public Health and Safety Standard for Yucca Mountain. Presentation and Supporting Analysis. EPRI TR- 104012. Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA. Henley, E.~., ant! H. Kumamoto. 1992. Probabilistic risk assessment: Reliability, engineering, design, and analysis. P. 568 in Inst. Elect. Electron Eng. Press. New York. HoIciren, I. 1992. Radioactive Waste Management in the United States: Evolving Prospects. Annual Review of Energy 17:235-259. IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency). 1989. Safety Principles and Technical Criteria for the Underground Disposal of High Level Radioactive Wastes. Safety Series 99. IAEA Vienna, Austria. {CRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection). 1991. Radiation Protection, 1990 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Pergamon Press, ICRP Publ. 60. Annals of the {CRP. Oxford, U.K.

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202 YUCCA MOUNTAIN STANDARDS ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection). 1985a. Radiation Protection Principles for the Disposal of Solid Radioactive Waste, {CRP Publ. 46. Annals of the ICRP, Vo] 15, No. 4. Pergamon Press, Oxford, U.K. ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection). l985b. Principles of Monitoring for the Radiation Protection of the Population, ICRP Publ. 43. Annals of the ICRP, Vol. ~ 5, No. ~ . Pergamon Press, Oxford, U.K. ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection). 1977. Recommendations of the {CRP. ICRP Publ. 26. Annals of the ICRP, Vol. 1, No. 3. Reprinted (with adclitions) in 1987. Superseded by ICRP Publ. 60. 1990 (International Commission on Racliological Protection). Pergamon Press, Oxford, U.K. Jannik, N.O., F.M. Phillips, G.~. Smith, ant} D. Elmore. 1991. A 36C} chronology for lacustrine sedimentation in the Pleistocene Owens River System: Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 103:1 146-1 159. Napier, B.A., R.A. Peloquin, D.~. Streng, and J.V. Ramschell. 1988. GENI: The Hanford Environmental Radiation Dosimetry Software System. PNL-6584. Pacific Northwest Laboratory. RichiancI, Washington. NCRP (National Council on Radiation Protection ant] Measurements). 1 987a. Recommendations on Limits for Exposure to Ionizing Racliation, NCRP Report No. 9 ~ . National Council on Raciiation Protection and Measurements, Bethesda, Md. NCRP (National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements). 1987b. Ionizing Radiation Exposure of the Population of the United States, NCRP Report No. 93. National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. Bethesda, McI. NCRP (National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements). 1993. Limitation of Exposure to Ionizing Radiation, NCRP Report.

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204 YUCCA MOUNTAIN STANDARDS UCLA-ENG-22-94. School of Engineering and Applied Science, University of California, Los Angeles. Ortiz, T.S., R.L. Williams, F.B. Nimick, B.C. Whittet, ant! D.~. South. 1985. A Three Dimensional Mode! of Reference Thermal/Mechanical and Hydrological Stratigraphy at Yucca Mountain, Southern Nevada. SANDS4- ~ 076. Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM. Reeves, M., N.A. Baker, and ].D. Dupgid. 1994. Review anti Selection of Unsaturated Flow Models. Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. INTERA, Inc., Las Vegas, Rev. Schiager, K.J., W.~. Bair, M.W. Carter, A.P. Hull, and ].E. Till. 19X6. De Minimis Environmental Radiation Levels: Concepts and Consequences. Special Report, Health Physics, Vol. 50, No. 5. Pergamon Press, Oxford, U.K. Smith, G.M. and D.P. Hodgkinson. 1988. Briefing Document on Alternative Criteria for Disposal of Radioactive Waste in Deep Geological Repositories. Prepared for the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate. INTERA, Ltd. Oxfordshire, U.K. Straume, T., S.D. Egbert, W.A. Woolson, R.C. Finkel, P.W. Kubik, H.E. Gove, P. Sharman, and M. Hoshi. 1992. Neutron Discrepancies in the DSXb Hiroshima Dosiemtry System. Health Physics, Vol. 63, No. 4: 421-426. Szabo, By., P.T. Kolesar, A.C. Riggs, A. Winograd, and K.R. Ludwig. 1994. Paleoclimate inferences from a 120,000-year calcite record of water-table fluctuations in Browns Room of Devils Hole, Nevada. Quat. Res. 41:59-69. Travis, C.C., S.A. Richter, E.A.C. Crouch, R. Wilson, and E.D. Klema. 1987. Risk and Regulation. Chemtech, Vol. 17, No. 8, 478-483.

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REFERENCES UNSCEAR (Uniter! Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation). 19X8. Sources, Effects, and Risks of Ionizing Radiation. Uniter] Nations. New York. Whitney, J.W. 1994. Recent Progress in Geologic ant] Siesmic Investigations at Yucca Mountain, NV. Presentation at U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board meeting on Probabilistic Siesmic and Voicanic Hazard Estimation. March 8-9. San Francisco, CA. von WinterfelUt, D. 1994. Preventing Human Intrusion into a High- Leve} Nuclear Waste Repository: A Iterative Review with Implications for Standard Setting. Report to NRC Committee on Technical Bases for Yucca Mountain Standards (TYMS). 205 Wilson, M.L., J.H. Gauthier, R.W. Barnard, G.E. Barr, H.A. Dockery, E. Dunn, R.R. Eaton, D.C. Guerin, N. Lu, M.J. Martinez, R. Nilson, C.A. Rautman, T.H. Robey, B. Ross, E.E. Ryder, A.R. Schenker, S.A. Shannon, L.H. Skinner, W.G. Halsey, I.D. Gansemer, L.C. Lewis, A.D. Lamont, I.R. Triay, A. Meijer, and D.E. Morris. 1994. Total-System Performance Assessment for Yucca Mountain - SNE Second Iteration (TSPA- 1993~. SAND93-2675. Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM. Winograd, A. and B.~. Szabo. 1988. Water-table decline in the south- central Great Basin cluring the Quaternary: Implications for toxic waste disposal. Pp. 1275-1280 in Geologic and Hydrologic Investigations of a Potential Nuclear Waste Disposal Site at Yucca Mountain, Southern Nevada. Carr, M.D., and J.C. Yonst, ells. USGS Bull. 1790, U.S. Geological Survey. Denver, Colo. Winogra(l, Id., T.B. Coplen, I.M. Landwehr, A.C. Riggs, K.R. Ludwig. B.~. Szabo, P.T. Kolesar, ant! K. Revesz. 1992. Continuous 500,000-year climate record from vein calcite in Devils Hole, Nevada. Science 258:255-260. Of

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