Meeting the Nation’s Needs for Biomedical and Behavioral Scientists

SUMMARY OF THE 1993 PUBLIC HEARING

Laura Lathrop and Pamela Ebert Flattau, editors

Committee on National Needs for Biomedical and Behavioral Research Personnel

Studies and Surveys Unit

Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C. 1994



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Meeting the Nation’s Needs for Biomedical and Behavioral Scientists: Summary of the 1993 Public Hearing Meeting the Nation’s Needs for Biomedical and Behavioral Scientists SUMMARY OF THE 1993 PUBLIC HEARING Laura Lathrop and Pamela Ebert Flattau, editors Committee on National Needs for Biomedical and Behavioral Research Personnel Studies and Surveys Unit Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1994

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Meeting the Nation’s Needs for Biomedical and Behavioral Scientists: Summary of the 1993 Public Hearing NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard to appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by persons other than the author according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This material is based on work supported by the National Institutes of Health. Copyright 1994 by the National Academy of Sciences . All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.

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Meeting the Nation’s Needs for Biomedical and Behavioral Scientists: Summary of the 1993 Public Hearing NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OFFICE OF SCIENTIFIC AND ENGINEERING PERSONNEL STUDIES AND SURVEYS UNIT COMMITTEE ON NATIONAL NEEDS FOR BIOMEDICAL AND BEHAVIORAL RESEARCH PERSONNEL Ira J. Hirsh, Co-chair Washington University (Retired) Central Institute for the Deaf John D. Stobo, Co-chair Department of Medicine The Johns Hopkins University Helen M. Berman Department of Chemistry Rutgers University Francis J. Bullock Arthur D. Little, Inc. Edwin C. Cadman Department of Medicine Yale University School of Medicine Nancy E. Cantor Department of Psychology Princeton University Eli Ginzberg Eisenhower Center for the Conservation of Human Resources Columbia University Robert Hill * Department of Biochemistry Duke University Medical Center R. Duncan Luce Institute for Mathematical and Behavioral Sciences University of California at Irvine Ruth McCorkle School of Nursing University of Pennsylvania Raymond Nickerson Bolt Beranek & Newman (Retired) Mary J. Osborn Department of Microbiology & Biology University of Connecticut Health Center Cecil Payton Department of Microbiology & Biology Morgan State University Richard Ranney School of Dentistry University of Maryland at Baltimore Michael Rothschild Division of Social Sciences University of California at San Diego Donald Steinwachs Department of Health Policy and Management The Johns Hopkins University Richard Thompson Program for Neural, Informational, and Behavioral Sciences University of Southern California *   Resigned March 1994.

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Meeting the Nation’s Needs for Biomedical and Behavioral Scientists: Summary of the 1993 Public Hearing COMMITTEE ON NATIONAL NEEDS FOR BIOMEDICAL AND BEHAVIORAL RESEARCH PERSONNEL PANEL ON ESTIMATION PROCEDURES Michael Rothschild, Chair Division of Social Sciences University of California at San Diego Eugene Hammel Department of Demography University of California at Berkeley Alan Krueger Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs Princeton University Robert Mare Center for Demography and Ecology University of Wisconsin Aage Sørensen Department of Sociology Harvard University NRC PROJECT STAFF Alan Fechter, Executive Director Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel Pamela Ebert Flattau Director, Studies and Surveys Unit Jeffrey E. Kallan Staff Officer Elaine Lawson Research Associate Laura Lathrop Project Consultant Donna Wiss Hannah Patricia A. Takach Anne L. Gallagher Administrative Assistants

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Meeting the Nation’s Needs for Biomedical and Behavioral Scientists: Summary of the 1993 Public Hearing NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OFFICE OF SCIENTIFIC AND ENGINEERING PERSONNEL ADVISORY COMMITTEE Linda S. Wilson, Chair President Radcliffe College Ernest Jaworski, Vice Chair Monsanto Company (Retired) Betsy Ancker-Johnson Vice President for Environmental Activities General Motors (Retired) David Breneman Graduate School of Education Harvard University David L. Goodstein Vice Provost Professor of Physics and Applied Physics California Institute of Technology Lester A. Hoel Hamilton Professor of Civil Engineering University of Virginia Juanita M. Kreps Department of Economics Duke University Donald Langenberg Chancellor University of Maryland System Judith S. Liebman Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Barry Munitz Chancellor The California State University Kenneth Olden Director, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences National Institutes of Health Ewart A.C. Thomas Department of Psychology Stanford University Annette B. Weiner Dean, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences New York University William H. Miller (Ex-officio) Department of Chemistry University of California

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Meeting the Nation’s Needs for Biomedical and Behavioral Scientists: Summary of the 1993 Public Hearing PREFACE In 1994 we mark the twentieth anniversary of the National Research Act of 1974 (P.L. 93-348) which established the National Research Service Awards (NRSA) program. In its 20 years of operation, the NRSA program has made it possible for many thousands of talented individuals in the basic biomedical, behavioral, and clinical sciences to sharpen their research skills and to apply those skills to topics of special concern to the nation, such as aging, hypertension, the genetic basis of disease, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), cancer, environmental toxicology, nutrition and health, and substance abuse. The NRSA legislation of 1974 directed the Secretary of Health and Human Services (as the department is known today) to arrange for a continuing study of “national needs” for biomedical and behavioral scientists and to request that the National Academy of Sciences conduct that study. In 1992, the National Research Council (NRC) -- the operating arm of the National Academy of Sciences, the Institute of Medicine, and the National Academy of Engineering -agreed to undertake the tenth in a series of NRC studies of the NRSA program. In December 1992, the NRC appointed the Committee on National Needs for Biomedical and Behavioral Research Personnel, which we have been privileged to chair. It was our committee’s task to establish the nation’s overall need for biomedical and behavioral scientists, the subject areas in which such personnel are needed, and the number of such personnel in each area for 1994 and beyond. The results of our deliberations may be found in a separate volume published by the National Academy Press, Meeting the Nation’s Needs for Biomedical and Behavioral Scientists (Washington, D.C., 1994). An important activity during the study process was the Public Hearing we convened on May 3, 1993, at the National Academy of Sciences Auditorium in Washington, D.C. Many training grant directors, students, and representatives of professional societies generously donated their time by first responding to our request for suggestions about ways to improve the NRSA program, and next by participating in the public hearing. This report summarizes the main issues we identified from the numerous presentations at the oneday meeting and provides a record of the testimony submitted by the 35 speakers. This report does not represent an endorsement of these suggestions by the committee or the National Research Council. Rather, we offer these ideas for further consideration by the research and policy communities. The committee would especially like to thank Walter Schaffer, Research Training and Research Resources Officer at the National Institutes of Health for contributing to the design of the public hearing and to Pamela Ebert Flattau, Director of the NRC/OSEP Studies and Surveys Unit who effectively organized the meeting. Laura Lathrop, project consultant, assisted us in organizing the material that is the subject of this report and, together with Dr. Flattau edited this report. Patricia Takach, our administrative assistant, skillfully coordinated the production of this volume which involved working with speakers and with the committee. To all these individuals, we express our gratitude for their efforts. IRA J. HIRSH JOHN D. STOBO, Co-Chairs Committee on National Needs for Biomedical and Behavioral Research Personnel

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Meeting the Nation’s Needs for Biomedical and Behavioral Scientists: Summary of the 1993 Public Hearing CONTENTS     SUMMARY OF ISSUES AND SUGGESTIONS FROM SPEAKERS   1     Issue 1. The Need for Realistic Assessments of Supply and Demand,   2     Issue 2. Attracting Young People to Careers in Science,   3     Issue 3. Stable Research Funding,   4     Issue 4. NRSA Stipends and Stipend Packages,   5     Issue 5. Expanding the Medical Science Training Program,   6     Issue 6. Women in Research,   7     Issue 7. Minorities in Research,   8     Issue 8. Increasing the Effectiveness of the NRSA Program,   10     APPENDIXES   13     APPENDIX A.Letter of Solicitation,   15     APPENDIX B.List of Respondents,   17     APPENDIX C.Public Hearing Program: May 3, 1993,   25     APPENDIX D.Testimony,   27     Irwin M. Arias,   27;     David Brautigan,   28;     Gail H. Cassell,   30;     Phillip J. Cozzi,   33;     Julia R. Fielding,   34;     Susan A. Gerbi,   35;     Barton W. Giddings,   39;     Lee Goldman,   40;     Richard J. Grand,   41;     Ada K. Jacox,   43;     Elizabeth W. Jones,   47;     James M. Jones,   48;     Homayoun Kazemi,   50;     George A. Kimmich,   52;     Alan G. Kraut,   54;     Terry Ann Krulwich,   57;     Vince J. LiCata,   59;     Daniel Linzer,   61;     Carey Nien-Kai Lumeng,   64;     Thomas E. Malone,   65;     Bryan E. Marshall,   68;     Pat McCloskey,   69;     Thomas J. Meyer,   71;     Page S. Morahan,   72;     Susan Persons,   75;     Cornelius J. Pings,   76;     Joanne M. Pohl,   78;     Dominick P. Purpura,   80;     Irwin Sandler,   82;     Peter R. Shank,   85;     Judson D. Sheridan,   86;     Herbert B. Silber,   88;     Harold Slavkin,   90;     Ora A. Weisz,   93;     and Miyuki Yamaguchi,   94.

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