these standards call for students to develop abilities to identify and state a problem, design a solution—including a cost and risk-and-benefit analysis—implement a solution, and evaluate the solution.

Science as inquiry is parallel to technology as design. Both standards emphasize student development of abilities and understanding. Connections to other domains, such as mathematics, are clarified in Chapter 7, Program Standards.

Science in Personal and Social Perspectives Standards

An important purpose of science education is to give students a means to understand and act on personal and social issues. The science in personal and social perspectives

TABLE 6.4. EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE STANDARDS

LEVELS K-4

LEVELS 5-8

LEVELS 9-12

Properties of earth materials

Structure of the earth system

Energy in the earth system

Objects in the sky

Earth's history

Geochemical cycles

Changes in earth and sky

Earth in the solar system

Origin and evolution of the earth system

 

 

Origin and evolution of the universe

TABLE 6.5. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS

LEVELS K-4

LEVELS 5-8

LEVELS 9-12

Abilities to distinguish between natural objects and objects made by humans

Abilities of technological design

Abilities of technological design

Abilities of technological design

Understanding about science and technology

Understanding about science and technology

Understanding about science and technology

 

 

standards help students develop decision-making skills. Understandings associated with the concepts in Table 6.6 give students a foundation on which to base decisions they will face as citizens.

History and Nature of Science Standards

In learning science, students need to understand that science reflects its history and is an ongoing, changing enterprise. The standards for the history and nature of science recommend the use of history in school science programs to clarify different aspects of scientific inquiry, the human aspects of science, and the role that science has played in the development of various cultures. Table 6.7 provides an overview of this standard.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement