TABLE 6.6. SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES

LEVELS K-4

LEVELS 5-8

LEVELS 9-12

Personal health

Personal health

Personal and community health

Characteristics and changes in populations

Populations, resources, and environments

Population growth

Types of resources

Natural hazards

Natural resources

Changes in environments

Risks and benefits

Environmental quality

Science and technology in local challenges

Science and technology in society

Natural and human-induced hazards

 

 

Science and technology in local, national, and global challenges

TABLE 6.7. HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE STANDARDS

LEVELS K-4

LEVELS 5-8

LEVELS 9-12

Science as a human endeavor

Science as a human endeavor

Science as a human endeavor

 

Nature of science

Nature of scientific knowledge

 

History of science

Historical perspectives

Form of the Content Standards

Below is an example of a content standard. Each content standard states that, as the result of activities provided for all students in the grade level discussed, the content of the standard is to be understood or the abilities are to be developed.

Physical Science (Example)

CONTENT STANDARD B: As a result of the activities in grades K-4, all students should develop an understanding of

  • Properties of objects and materials

  • Position and motion of objects

  • Light, heat, electricity, and magnetism

After each content standard is a section entitled, Developing Student Understanding (or abilities and understanding, when appropriate), which elaborates upon issues associated with opportunities to learn the content. This section describes linkages among student learning, teaching, and classroom situations. This discussion on developing student understanding, including the remarks on the selection of content for grade levels, is based in part on educational research. It also incorporates the experiences of many thoughtful people, including teachers, teacher educators, curriculum developers, and educational researchers. (Some references to research on student understanding and abilities are located at the end of the chapter.)

The next section of each standard is a Guide to the Content Standard, which



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