Content Standard: K—12

Unifying Concepts and Processes

STANDARD: As a result of activities in grades K-12, all students should develop understanding and abilities aligned with the following concepts and processes:

  • Systems, order, and organization

  • Evidence, models, and explanation

  • Constancy, change, and measurement

  • Evolution and equilibrium

  • Form and function

Developing Student Understanding

This standard presents broad unifying concepts and processes that complement the analytic, more discipline-based perspectives presented in the other content standards. The conceptual and procedural schemes in this standard provide students with productive and insightful ways of thinking about and integrating a range of basic ideas that explain the natural and designed world.

The unifying concepts and processes in this standard are a subset of the many unifying ideas in science and technology. Some of the criteria used in the selection and organization of this standard are

  • The concepts and processes provide connections between and among traditional scientific disciplines.

  • The concepts and processes are fundamental and comprehensive.

  • The concepts and processes are understandable and usable by people who will implement science programs.

  • The concepts and processes can be expressed and experienced in a developmentally appropriate manner during K-12 science education.

Each of the concepts and processes of this standard has a continuum of complexity that



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