In this example, Ms. M. believes that her understanding of the history of scientific ideas enriches her understanding of the nature of scientific inquiry. She also wants the students to understand how ideas in science develop, change, and are influenced by values, ideas, and resources prevalent in society at any given time. She uses an historical approach to introduce an important concept in life science. She provokes an interest in the topic by purposely showing an overhead beyond what is developmentally appropriate for high-school students. Her lecture is interrupted with questions that encourage discussion among students. The research activity, primarily using print material which she has been collecting for a long time, includes discussion. The questions about factors that might influence contemporary research return the students to issues that are of immediate concern to them.

[This example highlights some elements of Teaching Standards A and B; 9–12 Content Standards A, C, F and G; and Program Standard B.]

Ms. M. was beginning the second round of planning for the high-school biology class. She had set aside three weeks for a unit on green plants. Now it was time to decide what would happen during those three weeks. Students came to the class with some knowledge and understanding about green plants, but they still had many questions. As a way to get students to focus some of their questions, and to highlight the interdependence of science and civilization, she was going to begin the unit with a lecture on photosynthesis. Lecturing was something she seldom did. However, the purpose here was not to lay out the details of the photosynthetic process, but to illustrate how the scientific community's knowledge of photosynthesis had changed over time.

She would begin the lecture by putting a transparency on the overhead projector of that detailed diagram of photosynthesis which had been sent to her free from one of the pharmaceutical companies. One of the high-school textbooks that she kept as a reference said that scientists now had described 80 separate but interdependent reactions that made up photosynthesis. The high-school students would not study these reactions. Rather, she wanted the students to observe the complexity of the current knowledge about photosynthesis, and this diagram was a useful introduction to her lecture. She would ask the students how long the scientific community had known about these many complex reactions; why this knowledge was important; how they had come to know so much; was there still more detail to be described?

Next she would ask the students to tell her what they already knew about photosynthesis. She expected most would recall that carbon dioxide, water, sugar, oxygen and sunlight were important and many would recall growing plants in dark cupboards and under boxes in middle school. The next two questions would have to be worded carefully: Why is photosynthesis so important or, put another way, what is the fundamental question that photosynthesis answers? And how long have scientists known about photosynthesis?

With this introduction, she would lecture about the seventeenth century experiment of

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