tication in doing analysis. Questions that guided each student's analysis include

    What factors—personal, technological, cultural, and/or scientific—led this person to the investigation?

    How was the investigation designed and why was it designed as it was?

    What data did the investigator collect?

    How did the investigator interpret the data?

    How were the investigator's conclusions related to the design of the investigation and to major theoretical or cultural assumptions, if any?

    How did the investigator try to persuade others? Were the ideas accepted by contemporaries? Are they accepted today? Why or why not?

    How did the results of this investigation influence the investigator, fellow investigators, and society more broadly?

    Were there ethical dimensions to this investigation? If so, how were they resolved?

    What element of this episode seems to you most characteristic or most revealing about the process of science? Why?


    Each student in the class selects an account of one scientific investigation and analyzes it using the questions above. When the analyses are completed, they are handed in to the teacher who passes them out to other members of the class for peer review. Prior to the peer reviews, the teacher and the class have reviewed the framework for analysis and established criteria for evaluating the quality of the analyses. The teacher reviews the peer reviews and, if appropriate, returns them to the author. The author will have the opportunity to revise the analysis on the basis of the peer review before submitting it to the teacher for a grade.


    The teacher's grade will be based both on the student's progress in conducting such analyses and on how well the analysis meets the criteria set by the teacher in consultation with the class.

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