Measure, collect, and organize data

Represent situations verbally, numerically, graphically, geometrically, or symbolically

Develop ability to use realistic applications and modeling in trigonometry

Explore chance

Recognize and describe patterns

Use estimations

Understand connections within a problem situation, its model as a function in symbolic form, and the graph of that function

Use variables to express relationship

Identify and use functional relationships


Develop skills of estimation and judgment

Develop and use tables, graphs, and rules to describe situations

Use functions that are constructed as models of real-world problems


Use statistical methods to describe, analyze, evaluate, and make decisions

Know how to use statistics and probability


Use geometry in solving problems



Create experimental and theoretical models of situations involving probabilities


Source: NCTM, 1989

Districts should use the professional development standards to provide teachers with opportunities to develop and enhance the needed capabilities for effective science teaching. Funding and professional time for such development is an essential part of district budgets.

The emphasis on the need for professional teachers of science does not diminish the need for other school personnel who enhance the science program. In addition to an administrative team and teaching colleagues, other support personnel might include the resource librarian, a laboratory technician, or maintenance staff.

TIME IS A MAJOR RESOURCE IN A SCIENCE PROGRAM. Science must be allocated sufficient time in the school program every day, every week, and every year. The content standards define scientific literacy; the amount of time required to achieve scientific literacy for all students depends on the particular program. The time devoted to science education must be allocated to meet the needs of an inquiry-based science program. No matter what the scheduling model, a school schedule needs to provide sufficient and flexible use of time to accommodate the needs of the students and what is being learned. In addition to time with students and with colleagues, teachers of science also spend considerable time preparing materials, setting up activities, creating the learning environment, and organizing student experiences. This time must be built into the daily teaching schedule.

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