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TABLE 7.1. EXAMPLES OF MATHEMATICS THAT STUDENTS SHOULD USE AND UNDERSTAND
Measure, collect, and organize data
Represent situations verbally, numerically, graphically, geometrically, or symbolically
Develop ability to use realistic applications and modeling in trigonometry
Recognize and describe patterns
Understand connections within a problem situation, its model as a function in symbolic form, and the graph of that function
Use variables to express relationship
Identify and use functional relationships
Develop skills of estimation and judgment
Develop and use tables, graphs, and rules to describe situations
Use functions that are constructed as models of real-world problems
Use statistical methods to describe, analyze, evaluate, and make decisions
Know how to use statistics and probability
Use geometry in solving problems
Create experimental and theoretical models of situations involving probabilities
Source: NCTM, 1989
Districts should use the professional development standards to provide teachers with opportunities to develop and enhance the needed capabilities for effective science teaching. Funding and professional time for such development is an essential part of district budgets.
The emphasis on the need for professional teachers of science does not diminish the need for other school personnel who enhance the science program. In addition to an administrative team and teaching colleagues, other support personnel might include the resource librarian, a laboratory technician, or maintenance staff.
TIME IS A MAJOR RESOURCE IN A SCIENCE PROGRAM. Science must be allocated sufficient time in the school program every day, every week, and every year. The content standards define scientific literacy; the amount of time required to achieve scientific literacy for all students depends on the particular program. The time devoted to science education must be allocated to meet the needs of an inquiry-based science program. No matter what the scheduling model, a school schedule needs to provide sufficient and flexible use of time to accommodate the needs of the students and what is being learned. In addition to time with students and with colleagues, teachers of science also spend considerable time preparing materials, setting up activities, creating the learning environment, and organizing student experiences. This time must be built into the daily teaching schedule.
Marking the culmination of a three-year, multiphase process, on April 10th, 2013, a 26-state consortium released the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), a detailed description of the key scientific ideas and practices that all students should learn by the time they graduate from high school.