enterprise and welcome teachers of science as legitimate members of the scientific community. Scientists must take the time to become informed about what is expected in science education in schools and then take active roles in support of policies to strengthen science education in their local communities.
In higher education, 2- and 4-year college professors need to model exemplary science pedagogy and science curriculum practices. Teachers need to be taught science in college in the same way they themselves will teach science in school. Changing the pedagogical practices of higher education is a necessary condition for changing pedagogical practices in schools. The culture of higher education is such that the requisite changes will occur only if individual professors take the initiative. Concerned administrators must encourage and support such change. In addition, college and university administrators must coordinate the efforts of science and education faculty in the planning of courses and programs for prospective teachers.
Helping the ordinary citizen understand the new vision of school science is a particularly challenging responsibility for the members of the science education and scientific communities. Because the new vision of school science may be a departure from their own science experience, people outside of science education might find the new vision difficult to accept. However, their understanding and support is essential. Without it, science education will not have the consistent political and long-term economic support necessary to realize the vision.
Parents should understand the goals of school science and the resources necessary to achieve them. They must work with teachers to foster their children's science education and participate in the formulation of science education policy.
Taxpayers need to understand the benefits to larger society of a scientifically literate citizenry. They need to understand the goals of school science and the need for science facilities and apparatus to support science learning. They need to be active in schools and on school boards.
Managers in the private sector should understand the benefits to their businesses of a scientifically literate work force and bring their resources to bear on improving science education. They and their employees should promote science education in schools in whatever ways possible.
Managers and employees of industrial-and university-research laboratories, museums, nature parks, and other science-rich institutions need to understand their roles and responsibilities for the realization of the vision of science education portrayed in the Standards.
Last, but most important, students need to understand the importance of science in their present and future lives. They need to take responsiblity for developing their understanding and ability in science.