Index

A

Active learning, 28, 62

characteristics of, 2, 20

in professional development of teachers, 56

American Association for the Advancement of Science, 14, 15, 200

American Association of Physics Teachers, 14

American Chemical Society, 14

Assessment(s)

of ability to inquire, 98-100

achievement measures, 79-82

authentic approach, 78, 83-84

avoiding methodological bias in, 86

changes in emphases in standards, 76-78, 100

conceptual development, 5-6

conceptual trends, 76-78

content standards and, 112

criteria for evaluation of, 5

cross-test comparison, 78

curriculum planning and, 87

data analysis, 38-42, 90

data collection, 38, 84, 85

design standards, 78-79

for development of self-directed learners, 88

equity issues in, 222

examples of implementation, 39-41, 47-49, 80-81, 136, 146-147, 162-164, 202-203

fairness in, 85-86

to improve classroom practice, 87

internal consistency, 79

large-scale, 89-90

methods, 6, 37-38, 84

with multiple variables, 76

opportunity for students to demonstrate achievement, 84

of opportunity to learn, 6, 76-78, 79, 82-83

process components of, 76

professional development of teachers, 42-43, 63, 67, 89, 97-98

program standards, 211

public perception and understanding, 89, 211

regional and national application, 78, 89-90

reliability, 84

reporting and interpreting results, 43, 86-87, 88-89

resource expenditures for, 79

role of, 5-6, 38, 76, 87-89

role of standards for, 5, 75-76

sample assessments of student science achievement, 91-100

scoring rubrics, 93, 95, 97

stability of measures, 84-85

Standard A, 78-79

Standard B, 79-83

Standard C, 83-85

Standard D, 85-86

Standard E, 86-87

stated purpose of, 79

student evaluations of scientific inquiries and results, 171, 202-203

student goals and, 30

student self-assessment, 42, 88

of students with disabilities, 86, 222

of student understanding of natural world, 91-98

system standards and, 230-231

teacher collaborations for, 67

teacher self-assessment, 69

teaching standards, 37-43

technical quality of, related to use, 83-85

validity issues, 78, 83

Atomicity, scientific concept of, 149, 150, 177, 178-179

Authentic assessment, 78, 83-84

B

Benchmarks for Science Literacy, 15, 200

Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, 14

Biology. See Life science

Business and industry

consideration in curriculum planning, 231

in implementation of standards, 245

importance of scientific literacy, 1-2, 12

C

Cell biology, 155, 156, 181, 184-185

Certification for teaching

organizational participants, 229-230

role of professional development standards in, 56

Chemical reactions, 179

Classification concepts and practice, 128, 181, 185

Colleges and universities

admissions requirements, 231

education of science teachers, 60-61, 63-67, 238

Community contexts

curriculum design, 231

design of science program content, 231

development of science program in, 51

educational resources outside the school, 45, 220-221

educational system in, 227-228

health concepts, 197-198

implementation of standards, 245

professional development of teachers in, 57, 67

social perspectives of science, 138-141

Computers, 145, 175

Content Core, The, 14

Content standards, 6-7

changes in emphases in, 113



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--> Index A Active learning, 28, 62 characteristics of, 2, 20 in professional development of teachers, 56 American Association for the Advancement of Science, 14, 15, 200 American Association of Physics Teachers, 14 American Chemical Society, 14 Assessment(s) of ability to inquire, 98-100 achievement measures, 79-82 authentic approach, 78, 83-84 avoiding methodological bias in, 86 changes in emphases in standards, 76-78, 100 conceptual development, 5-6 conceptual trends, 76-78 content standards and, 112 criteria for evaluation of, 5 cross-test comparison, 78 curriculum planning and, 87 data analysis, 38-42, 90 data collection, 38, 84, 85 design standards, 78-79 for development of self-directed learners, 88 equity issues in, 222 examples of implementation, 39-41, 47-49, 80-81, 136, 146-147, 162-164, 202-203 fairness in, 85-86 to improve classroom practice, 87 internal consistency, 79 large-scale, 89-90 methods, 6, 37-38, 84 with multiple variables, 76 opportunity for students to demonstrate achievement, 84 of opportunity to learn, 6, 76-78, 79, 82-83 process components of, 76 professional development of teachers, 42-43, 63, 67, 89, 97-98 program standards, 211 public perception and understanding, 89, 211 regional and national application, 78, 89-90 reliability, 84 reporting and interpreting results, 43, 86-87, 88-89 resource expenditures for, 79 role of, 5-6, 38, 76, 87-89 role of standards for, 5, 75-76 sample assessments of student science achievement, 91-100 scoring rubrics, 93, 95, 97 stability of measures, 84-85 Standard A, 78-79 Standard B, 79-83 Standard C, 83-85 Standard D, 85-86 Standard E, 86-87 stated purpose of, 79 student evaluations of scientific inquiries and results, 171, 202-203 student goals and, 30 student self-assessment, 42, 88 of students with disabilities, 86, 222 of student understanding of natural world, 91-98 system standards and, 230-231 teacher collaborations for, 67 teacher self-assessment, 69 teaching standards, 37-43 technical quality of, related to use, 83-85 validity issues, 78, 83 Atomicity, scientific concept of, 149, 150, 177, 178-179 Authentic assessment, 78, 83-84 B Benchmarks for Science Literacy, 15, 200 Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, 14 Biology. See Life science Business and industry consideration in curriculum planning, 231 in implementation of standards, 245 importance of scientific literacy, 1-2, 12 C Cell biology, 155, 156, 181, 184-185 Certification for teaching organizational participants, 229-230 role of professional development standards in, 56 Chemical reactions, 179 Classification concepts and practice, 128, 181, 185 Colleges and universities admissions requirements, 231 education of science teachers, 60-61, 63-67, 238 Community contexts curriculum design, 231 design of science program content, 231 development of science program in, 51 educational resources outside the school, 45, 220-221 educational system in, 227-228 health concepts, 197-198 implementation of standards, 245 professional development of teachers in, 57, 67 social perspectives of science, 138-141 Computers, 145, 175 Content Core, The, 14 Content standards, 6-7 changes in emphases in, 113

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--> criteria for selection of, 109-110 curriculum and, 20, 22-23, 103, 110, 111, 212-214 in development of student goals, 30 diversity of learning experiences and, 20, 221-222 earth and space science, 106 grades K-4, 130-134 grades 5-8, 158-161 grades 9-12, 187-190 examples of implementation, 34-35, 39, 47-49, 64-66, 80-81, 124-125, 131-133, 136, 146-147, 150-153, 162-164, 182-183, 194-196, 202-203, 215-217 grades K-4, 110 Standard A, 121-123 Standard B, 123-127 Standard C, 127-129 Standard D, 130-134 Standard E, 135-138 Standard F, 138-141 Standard G, 141 grades 5-8, 110 Standard A, 143-148 Standard B, 149-155 Standard C, 155-158 Standard D, 158-161 Standard E, 161-166 Standard F, 166-170 Standard G, 170-171 grades 9-12, 110 Standard A, 173-176 Standard B, 176-181 Standard C, 181-187 Standard D, 187-190 Standard E, 190-193 Standard F, 193-199 Standard G, 200-202 history and nature of science, 104, 107 grades K-4, 141 grades 5-8, 170-171 grades 9-12, 200-202 implementation, 7, 103, 110-112 life science, 106 grades K-4, 127-129 grades 5-8, 155-158 grades 9-12, 181-187 local considerations, 231 personal and social perspectives of science grades K-4, 138-141 grades 5-8, 166-170 grades 9-12, 193-199 physical science, 106 grades K-4, 123-127 grades 5-8, 149-155 grades 9-12, 176-181 presentation format, 108-109 program standards and, 209-210, 212, 213 rationale, 104 scientific inquiry, 104, 105 grades K-4, 121-123 grades 5-8, 143-148 grades 9-12, 173-176 system standards and, 230-231 technology and science, 106-107 grades K-4, 135-138 grades 5-8, 161-166 grades 9-12, 190-193 unifying concepts and processes, 104-105, 115-119 Council of State Science Supervisors, 14 Creative thinking, 46 Critical thinking, 33, 145, 175 Curriculum assessment practice and, 87, 211 college/university preparation of science teachers, 61, 238 components of, 22, 212 content standards and, 6-7, 20, 22-23, 103, 110, 111 coordination across subjects, 214 defined, 2-3, 22 developmentally appropriate, 212-214 development of student goals and, 30 equity issues in design of, 222 flexibility, 30, 213 framework, 211 mathematics-science coordination, 214-218 patterns in program design, 212-214 program standards, 7-8 research and development process, 213 selection of units and courses of study, 211 social considerations, 231 teaching practice consistent with, 211 teaching standards for planning of, 30-31 Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics, 13 D Diet and nutrition, 139, 140, 168, 197 Disabilities and handicaps, 37 access to learning opportunities, 20, 221 assessment of students with, 86, 222 District level assessment activities, 89-90 changes in emphases in system standards, 240 in educational system, 227, 228 implementation of program standards, 8, 210 implementation of standards, example of, 234-237 science program planning, 51-52, 211-212 Duration of class, 37 E Earth and space science developing student understanding grades K-4, 130-134 grades 5-8, 158-159 grades 9-12, 187-189 earth system, 159-160, 189 evolution of earth, 160, 189-190 fundamental concepts underlying standards for grades K-4, 134 grades 5-8, 159-161 grades 9-12, 189-190

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--> geochemical cycles, 189 grades K-4, content standards for, 106, 130-134 grades 5-8, content standards for, 106, 158-161 grades 9-12, content standards for, 106, 187-190 nature of change, 134 objects in space, 134 origin and evolution of universe, 190 properties of earth materials, 134 solar system, 160-161, 215-217 Earth Science Education Coalition, 14 Earthworms, 34-35 Ecosystem studies, 157-158 Education, Department of, 14 Educational system, 8 communication within, 231 components of, 8, 228-229 coordination and cooperation in, 8, 51 government functioning in, 228 reform of, 9, 21, 28, 52, 211 role of, 228 role of assessments in, 5, 76 role of national standards in, 12 science program planning, 51-52 state functioning in, 227-228, 229 structure and functioning, 8, 227-228 support for science teaching, 4, 27, 28, 37, 211, 222-224 See also System standards Education Development Center, 14 Egg drop experiment, 162-164 English as second language, 37 Environmental studies, 139, 140, 167, 168 ecosystems, 157-158, 193-197 environmental quality issues, 198 interdependence of organisms, 186, 193 natural and human-induced hazards, 168-169, 198-199 natural resource management, 11, 198 Equity, 2 fairness in assessment practice, 85-86 in science education policy-making, 232-233 science teaching standards and, 4, 16, 20 student access to opportunities, 221-222 Evaporation, 124-125 Everybody Counts: A Report to the Nation on the Future of Mathematics Education, 13 Evolution, scientific concept of adaptation, 156, 158 example of classroom activity, 182-183 grades 9-12 content standards, 185 natural selection, 181-184, 185 as unifying concept, 119 Examples of implementation of assessment standards, 39-41, 47-49, 80-81, 136, 146-147, 162-164, 202-203 of content standards, 34-35, 39, 47-49, 64-66, 80-81, 124-125, 131-133, 136, 146-147, 150-153, 162-164, 182-183, 194-196, 202-203, 215-217 of professional development standards, 34-35, 64-66, 131-133, 150-153, 234-237 of program standards, 34-35, 39, 47-49, 64-66, 80-81, 124-125, 131-133, 146-147, 150-153, 162-164, 182-183, 194-196, 215-217, 234-237 student science achievement assessment, 91-99 of system standards, 34-35, 39, 64-66, 124-125, 150-153, 162-164, 234-237 of teaching standards, 34-35, 39, 47-49, 64-66, 80-81, 124-125, 131-133, 136, 146-147, 150-153, 162-164, 182-183, 194-196, 202-203, 215-217 F Federal government changes in emphases in system standards, 239 in educational system, 228 system standards, 230-231 in teacher certification, 229, 230 Field experiences, 44, 220-221 for development of pedagogical content knowledge, 67 Form and function, scientific concept of, 119 Fossils, 182-183 G Gender issues, in assessment, 85-86 Genetics, 64-66, 157, 185 Goals of standards, 2, 10, 13, 21 for professional development of teachers, 55-56 for science teaching, 27 for student assessment, 75, 76 for student inquiry skills, 105 Grades K-4 content standards, 110 earth and space science content standard, 130-134 history and nature of science, content standard for understanding, 141 life science content standard, 127-129 personal and social perspectives of science, content standard for, 138-141 physical science content standard, 123-127 science and technology content standard, 135-138 scientific inquiry in, content standards for, 121-123 teacher knowledge, 60 unifying concepts and processes in, 104-105, 115-119 Grades 5-8 content standards, 110 earth and space science content standard, 158-161 history and nature of science, content standard for understanding, 170-171 personal and social contexts of science, content standard for understanding, 166-170 physical science content standard, 149-155 science and technology content standard, 161-166 science as inquiry in, content standards for, 143-148 unifying concepts and processes in, 105, 115-119 Grades 9-12 content standards, 110 earth and space science content standards, 187-190 graduation requirements, 231

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--> history and nature of science, content standards for, 200-202 life science content standards, 181-187 personal and social perspectives of science, content standards for understanding, 193-199 physical science content standards, 176-181 science and technology, content standards for understanding, 190-193 science as inquiry in, content standards for, 173-176 unifying concepts and processes in, 104-105, 115-119 Graduation requirements, 231 H Health science, 138-141, 157, 167, 168, 197-198 History and nature of science, 104, 107 culture and traditions of science, 21 developing student understanding grades K-4, 141 grades 5-8, 170 grades 9-12, 200 example of classroom activity, 194-196 fundamental concepts underlying standards for grades K-4, 141 grades 5-8, 170-171 grades 9-12, 200-204 grades K-4, content standards for, 141 grades 5-8, content standards for, 170-171 grades 9-12, content standards for, 200-202 student evaluations of scientific inquiries, 202-203 Human biology, 156-157, 186, 187 natural and human-induced hazards, 168-169, 198-199 I Implementation of standards, 243-245 activities in, 244-245 challenges, 2, 9 changing emphases in assessment practice, 100 changing emphases in professional development, 72 changing emphases in teaching practice, 52 content standards, 103, 110, 111-112 equity in, 2, 16, 20 example of system functioning in, 234-237 learning environment for, 13 local contexts and policies in, 8, 29 long-term commitment, 13 as ongoing process, 9 professional development standards, 219 program standards, 210 responsibility for, 244 science content standards, 6-7 science program standards, 7-8 science teaching standards, 29, 137 system-wide participation in, 9, 12, 21 Inquiry. See Scientific inquiry L Laboratories, 220 Lawrence Hall of Science, 14 Leadership continuity in policy and, 231-232 for reform of education of science teachers, 238 science program, 211-212, 223-224 Life science cellular studies, 184-185 characteristics of organisms, 129 developing student understanding grades K-4, 127-129 grades 5-8, 155-156 grades 9-12, 181-184 diversity and adaptation of organisms, 158 environmental studies, 129 evolutionary concepts, 185 fundamental concepts underlying standards for grades K-4, 129 grades 5-8, 156-158 grades 9-12, 184-187 grades K-4, content standards for, 106, 127-129 grades 5-8, content standards for, 106, 155-158 grades 9-12, content standards for, 106, 181-187 interdependence of organisms, 186 life cycles of organisms, 129 living systems studies, 156-157, 186-187 populations and ecosystems, 157-158 regulation and behavior, 157, 187 reproduction and heredity, 157, 185 M Mathematics, 116-117, 148, 175, 176 coordination with science program, 214-218 Measurement, as science practice, 118 skills in grades K-4, 126-127 skills in grades 5-8, 149 Musical instruments, 47-49 N National Association of Biology Teachers, 14 National Committee on Science Education Standards and Assessment (NCSESA), 14-15 National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM), 13, 15, 218 National Education Goals Panel, 13 National Governors Association, 13 National Research Council (NRC), 13, 14, 15 National Science Education Standards conceptual basis, 19-21 guide to using, 15-16, 17 historical evolution, 13-15 role of, 12 terminology, 22-24 See also Goals of standards; Implementation of standards; specific standard National Science Foundation, 14 National Science Resources Center, 14 National Science Teachers Association, 14 Nation at Risk, A, 14

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--> O Opportunity to learn assessment of, 76-78, 79, 82-83 in conceptual basis of standards, 20, 221-222 elements of, 2 program standards, 221-222 See also Equity P Parents in implementation of standards, 245 student progress reports for, 88-89 in system reform, 238 Peer review, student, 174 Pendulums, 146-147 Personal and social perspectives of science challenges of science and technology, 140-141, 199 content standards, 104, 107 developing student understanding grades K-4, 138-139 grades 5-8, 166-168 grades 9-12, 193-197 environmental issues, 140, 198 fundamental concepts underlying standards for grades K-4, 139-141 grades 5-8, 168-170 grades 9-12, 197-199 grades K-4, content standard for, 138-141 grades 5-8, content standard for, 166-170 grades 9-12, content standards for, 193-199 importance of scientific literacy, 1 natural and human-induced hazards, 168-169, 198-199 natural resource issues, 198 personal and community health, 139-140, 169, 197-198 population studies, 140, 168, 198 risk-benefit analysis, 169 technology issues, 140-141, 167-168, 169-170, 197 Photosynthesis, 194-196 Physical science chemical reactions, 179 conservation of energy, 180 developing student understanding grades K-4, 123, 126-127 grades 5-8, 149-154 grades 9-12, 176-178 fundamental concepts underlying standards for grades K-4, 127 grades 5-8, 154-155 grades 9-12, 178-181 grades K-4, content standards for, 106, 123, 126-127 grades 5-8, content standards for, 106, 149-155 grades 9-12, content standards for, 106, 176-181 interactions of energy and matter, 180-181 motions and forces, 127, 154, 179-180 properties of objects and materials, 127, 154, 178-180 structure of atoms, 178 transfer of energy, 155 Population studies, 140, 157-158, 168, 193, 198 Prediction, as science practice, 116-117, 145, 148 Probability, mathematical, 116-117 Professional development of teachers in assessment practice, 67 benefits of, 67-68 college/university science education, 60-61, 238 design and evaluation of assessments, 97-98 field experiences for, 67 as lifelong process, 57, 68-70 opportunities to reflect on practice, 69 participants in, 57-58 program planning and, 51-52 reform of, 56 resources for, 70, 223 settings for, 58, 67, 68, 69-70 teacher responsibilities, 69 See also Professional development standards Professional development standards, 4-5 changes in emphases in, 72 continuous activities in, 57, 68-70 examples of implementation, 34-35, 39, 64-66, 131-133, 150-153, 234-237 focus of, 58-59 grade-specific science knowledge, 60 implementation, 219 for knowledge and understanding of science, 59-61 for knowledge of science teaching, 62-68 for professional development programs, 70-71 role of, 5, 55-56 Standard A, 59-61 Standard B, 62-68 Standard C, 68-70 Standard D, 70-71 system standards and, 230-231 underlying assumptions, 56-58 See also Professional development of teachers Professional societies, 229 Program standards, 7-8 assessment practice in, 211 assumptions underlying, 210 changes in emphases in, 224 content standards and, 212, 213 coordination with mathematics program, 214-218 correspondence with other school subjects, 214 curriculum framework and, 211 curriculum patterns and, 212-214 equity of student access to opportunities, 221-222 examples of implementation, 34-35, 39, 47-49, 64-66, 80-81, 124-125, 131-133, 146-147, 150-153, 162-164, 182-183, 194-196, 215-217, 234-237 field experiences, 220-221 goals and expectations of students, 210, 211 implementation, 8, 210 inquiry as component of, 214 leadership and responsibility, 211-212, 223-224 physical space requirements, 220 professional development of teachers, 70-71, 218-219

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--> relationship to student's lives, 212-213 resources for teaching, 218-221 role of, 209-210 school scheduling, 219 Standard A, 210-212 Standard B, 212-214 Standard C, 214-218 Standard D, 218-221 Standard E, 221-222 Standard F, 222-224 support for teachers and teaching, 211, 219, 222-224 system standards and, 230-231 teaching practice, 211 Public perception and understanding of assessment practice, 85, 89, 211 of system reform, 238 R Race/ethnicity, assessment and, 85-86 Research activities for professional development, 58 Resource management in teaching, 43-45, 168 adaptation of externally produced materials, 213 assessment standards, 79 budget planning, 220 materials-support infrastructure, 220 necessities for scientific inquiry, 220 physical space requirements, 220 policy-making and, 232 for professional development of teachers, 70 program standard, 218-221 resources outside the school, 45, 220-221 responsibility for, 218 science program planning, 51-52 to sustain and encourage reform, 223 teachers as resource, 218-219 time as resource, 219 Risk-benefit analysis, as scientific concept, 167, 169 S Safety, 44 Scheduling of classes, 44, 219 Science for All Americans, 14, 15 Science Olympiad, 39-41 Scientific inquiry, 23-24 abilities for, 145, 148, 175-176 grades K-4, 122-123 grades 5-8, 145-148 grades 9-12, 175-176 adult models of, 37, 50-51 assessment of student achievement, 98-100 characteristics of, 2 classroom environment for, 44 classroom resources for, 220 in college/university preparation of science teachers, 61 defined, 214 developing student abilities and understanding grades K-4, 121-122 grades 5-8, 143-145 grades 9-12, 173-175 in development of teaching and learning models, 31 example of implementation in classroom, 34-35, 146-147 forms of, in classroom, 33 fundamental concepts underlying standards for grades K-4, 123 grades 5-8, 148 grades 9-12, 176 goals for students, 13, 105 grades K-4, content standard for, 105, 121-123 grades 5-8, content standard for, 105, 143-148 grades 9-12, content standard for, 105, 173-176 historical development of, standards for understanding, 104, 107 meaning of, to students, 173-174 peer review of, 174 personal and social development and, 104, 107 professional development standards for teachers, 59 as program component, 214 responsibilities of system personnel in teaching of, 212 in science learning process, 2, 105 scientific method and, 144-145 skills assessment, 6 student collaboration in, 50 student evaluation of scientific studies and results, 171, 202-203 teacher's management of, 33, 36 technology as design and, 107, 166 See also Scientific literacy Scientific knowledge and understanding assessment of, 82 of cause-and-effect, 145 of chemical reactions, 179 college/university education of teachers, 60-61, 238 of constancy and change, 117-118 cultural and traditional elements of, 21 curriculum design for, 213 depth and breadth, 59, 110 of earth and space, 130-134, 158-161, 187-190 of energy, 154, 155, 157, 178, 180-181, 186-187, 189 of environmental and resource issues, 139, 140, 198-199 of evolution and equilibrium, 119 of form and function, 119 goals of standards, 13 of health, 138-140, 141 as human endeavor, 141, 170, 200-201 lifelong learning, 68-69 of living systems and organisms, 127-129, 155-158, 186-187 of measurement, 118, 126-127, 149 of motions and forces, 127, 154, 179-180 of natural selection, 181-184, 185 nature of, 23 pedagogical content knowledge, 62-68 of population issues, 140 of prediction, 116-117, 145, 148 of probability, 116-117

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--> professional development standards for teachers, 59-61 of properties of objects and materials, 123, 126-127, 149-154, 178-179 of risk-benefit analysis, 167, 169 of scientific description, 145, 148, 176 of scientific explanation, 117, 122-123, 145, 148, 174, 175-176, 201 scientific inquiry and, 144-145 sources of, 31 of substance abuse, 140 of systems analysis, 116-117 teacher's, 28 of technological design, 135-138, 161-166, 192-193 unifying concepts and processes in, 104-105, 115-119 use of evidence, 117, 145, 174, 201 use of scientific models, 116, 117, 159, 175 See also Scientific inquiry Scientific literacy characteristics of, 21, 22 cultural and traditional elements of, 21 defined, 22 developmental approach, 18 goals of standards, 13 importance of, 1-2, 11-12 See also Scientific inquiry; Scientific knowledge and understanding Scientists, 233-238, 245 Self-directed learning, 88 Sexual behavior and reproduction, 156, 158, 168, 197-198 Social issues, 138-141 Solar system, 215-217 State government changes in emphases in system standards, 239 in educational system, 227-228, 229 national standards and, 12 resource allocation, 232 system standards, 230-231 in teacher certification, 229, 230 Students assessment reports, 43, 88-89 classroom inquiry, 33, 36 classroom organization of, 31-32 classroom participation, 36-37 as community of science learners, 45-46 determinants of learning, 28, 29 development of goals for, 30 encouraging classroom collaboration and discourse, 36, 50 grouping of, 222 in implementation of standards, 244 involvement in design of learning environment, 45, 46-50 program considerations, 212-213 responsibility for learning, 27, 36 self-assessment, 42, 88 social and cultural considerations in teaching strategies, 32, 37 student-teacher relationship, 29 teacher's respect for, 46 Substance abuse, 140, 168, 197 Systems analysis, 116-117 applied to educational systems, 227-228 earth and space science, 158-161, 187-190 interdependence of organisms, 186 living systems, 156-158, 186-187 System standards, 8 changes in emphases in, 239-240 congruence among standards, 230-231 continuity in policy-making, 231-232 coordination of policies, 231 equity considerations, 232-233 examples of implementation, 34-35, 39, 64-66, 124-125, 150-153, 162-164, 234-237 ongoing evaluation of policy, 233 resource considerations in policy-making, 232 responsibility for reform, 8, 233-238 role of, 227 Standard A, 230-231 Standard B, 231 Standard C, 231-232 Standard D, 232 Standard E, 232-233 Standard F, 233 Standard G, 233-238 T Teacher collaboration for assessment, 67 in college/university preparation of science teachers, 61 for design of professional development programs, 71 for development of pedagogical content knowledge, 63-68 development of scoring rubrics for assessment, 93 mathematics-science, 214-218 new forms of, 67 with outside institutions, 223 for professional development, 57-58 for research on practice, 223 school environment for, 222-223 for science program planning, 32, 51 with scientists, 233-238 for self-assessment, 69 Teaching practice as active learning process, 2, 20, 28 assessment of, 6, 42-43 assessment practice consistent with, 211 classroom organization of students, 31-32 consistent with curriculum framework, 211 culture and traditions of science, 21 determinants of student learning, 28, 29 equitable access to opportunities for students, 221-222 flexibility, 213 good qualities, 12, 218-219 grouping of students, 222