geochemical cycles, 189

grades K-4, content standards for, 106, 130-134

grades 5-8, content standards for, 106, 158-161

grades 9-12, content standards for, 106, 187-190

nature of change, 134

objects in space, 134

origin and evolution of universe, 190

properties of earth materials, 134

solar system, 160-161, 215-217

Earth Science Education Coalition, 14

Earthworms, 34-35

Ecosystem studies, 157-158

Education, Department of, 14

Educational system, 8

communication within, 231

components of, 8, 228-229

coordination and cooperation in, 8, 51

government functioning in, 228

reform of, 9, 21, 28, 52, 211

role of, 228

role of assessments in, 5, 76

role of national standards in, 12

science program planning, 51-52

state functioning in, 227-228, 229

structure and functioning, 8, 227-228

support for science teaching, 4, 27, 28, 37, 211, 222-224

See also System standards

Education Development Center, 14

Egg drop experiment, 162-164

English as second language, 37

Environmental studies, 139, 140, 167, 168

ecosystems, 157-158, 193-197

environmental quality issues, 198

interdependence of organisms, 186, 193

natural and human-induced hazards, 168-169, 198-199

natural resource management, 11, 198

Equity, 2

fairness in assessment practice, 85-86

in science education policy-making, 232-233

science teaching standards and, 4, 16, 20

student access to opportunities, 221-222

Evaporation, 124-125

Everybody Counts: A Report to the Nation on the Future of Mathematics Education, 13

Evolution, scientific concept of

adaptation, 156, 158

example of classroom activity, 182-183

grades 9-12 content standards, 185

natural selection, 181-184, 185

as unifying concept, 119

Examples of implementation

of assessment standards, 39-41, 47-49, 80-81, 136, 146-147, 162-164, 202-203

of content standards, 34-35, 39, 47-49, 64-66, 80-81, 124-125, 131-133, 136, 146-147, 150-153, 162-164, 182-183, 194-196, 202-203, 215-217

of professional development standards, 34-35, 64-66, 131-133, 150-153, 234-237

of program standards, 34-35, 39, 47-49, 64-66, 80-81, 124-125, 131-133, 146-147, 150-153, 162-164, 182-183, 194-196, 215-217, 234-237

student science achievement assessment, 91-99

of system standards, 34-35, 39, 64-66, 124-125, 150-153, 162-164, 234-237

of teaching standards, 34-35, 39, 47-49, 64-66, 80-81, 124-125, 131-133, 136, 146-147, 150-153, 162-164, 182-183, 194-196, 202-203, 215-217

F

Federal government

changes in emphases in system standards, 239

in educational system, 228

system standards, 230-231

in teacher certification, 229, 230

Field experiences, 44, 220-221

for development of pedagogical content knowledge, 67

Form and function, scientific concept of, 119

Fossils, 182-183

G

Gender issues, in assessment, 85-86

Genetics, 64-66, 157, 185

Goals of standards, 2, 10, 13, 21

for professional development of teachers, 55-56

for science teaching, 27

for student assessment, 75, 76

for student inquiry skills, 105

Grades K-4

content standards, 110

earth and space science content standard, 130-134

history and nature of science, content standard for understanding, 141

life science content standard, 127-129

personal and social perspectives of science, content standard for, 138-141

physical science content standard, 123-127

science and technology content standard, 135-138

scientific inquiry in, content standards for, 121-123

teacher knowledge, 60

unifying concepts and processes in, 104-105, 115-119

Grades 5-8

content standards, 110

earth and space science content standard, 158-161

history and nature of science, content standard for understanding, 170-171

personal and social contexts of science, content standard for understanding, 166-170

physical science content standard, 149-155

science and technology content standard, 161-166

science as inquiry in, content standards for, 143-148

unifying concepts and processes in, 105, 115-119

Grades 9-12

content standards, 110

earth and space science content standards, 187-190

graduation requirements, 231



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