relationship to student's lives, 212-213

resources for teaching, 218-221

role of, 209-210

school scheduling, 219

Standard A, 210-212

Standard B, 212-214

Standard C, 214-218

Standard D, 218-221

Standard E, 221-222

Standard F, 222-224

support for teachers and teaching, 211, 219, 222-224

system standards and, 230-231

teaching practice, 211

Public perception and understanding

of assessment practice, 85, 89, 211

of system reform, 238

R

Race/ethnicity, assessment and, 85-86

Research activities for professional development, 58

Resource management in teaching, 43-45, 168

adaptation of externally produced materials, 213

assessment standards, 79

budget planning, 220

materials-support infrastructure, 220

necessities for scientific inquiry, 220

physical space requirements, 220

policy-making and, 232

for professional development of teachers, 70

program standard, 218-221

resources outside the school, 45, 220-221

responsibility for, 218

science program planning, 51-52

to sustain and encourage reform, 223

teachers as resource, 218-219

time as resource, 219

Risk-benefit analysis, as scientific concept, 167, 169

S

Safety, 44

Scheduling of classes, 44, 219

Science for All Americans, 14, 15

Science Olympiad, 39-41

Scientific inquiry, 23-24

abilities for, 145, 148, 175-176

grades K-4, 122-123

grades 5-8, 145-148

grades 9-12, 175-176

adult models of, 37, 50-51

assessment of student achievement, 98-100

characteristics of, 2

classroom environment for, 44

classroom resources for, 220

in college/university preparation of science teachers, 61

defined, 214

developing student abilities and understanding

grades K-4, 121-122

grades 5-8, 143-145

grades 9-12, 173-175

in development of teaching and learning models, 31

example of implementation in classroom, 34-35, 146-147

forms of, in classroom, 33

fundamental concepts underlying standards for

grades K-4, 123

grades 5-8, 148

grades 9-12, 176

goals for students, 13, 105

grades K-4, content standard for, 105, 121-123

grades 5-8, content standard for, 105, 143-148

grades 9-12, content standard for, 105, 173-176

historical development of, standards for understanding, 104, 107

meaning of, to students, 173-174

peer review of, 174

personal and social development and, 104, 107

professional development standards for teachers, 59

as program component, 214

responsibilities of system personnel in teaching of, 212

in science learning process, 2, 105

scientific method and, 144-145

skills assessment, 6

student collaboration in, 50

student evaluation of scientific studies and results, 171, 202-203

teacher's management of, 33, 36

technology as design and, 107, 166

See also Scientific literacy

Scientific knowledge and understanding

assessment of, 82

of cause-and-effect, 145

of chemical reactions, 179

college/university education of teachers, 60-61, 238

of constancy and change, 117-118

cultural and traditional elements of, 21

curriculum design for, 213

depth and breadth, 59, 110

of earth and space, 130-134, 158-161, 187-190

of energy, 154, 155, 157, 178, 180-181, 186-187, 189

of environmental and resource issues, 139, 140, 198-199

of evolution and equilibrium, 119

of form and function, 119

goals of standards, 13

of health, 138-140, 141

as human endeavor, 141, 170, 200-201

lifelong learning, 68-69

of living systems and organisms, 127-129, 155-158, 186-187

of measurement, 118, 126-127, 149

of motions and forces, 127, 154, 179-180

of natural selection, 181-184, 185

nature of, 23

pedagogical content knowledge, 62-68

of population issues, 140

of prediction, 116-117, 145, 148

of probability, 116-117



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