professional development standards for teachers, 59-61

of properties of objects and materials, 123, 126-127, 149-154, 178-179

of risk-benefit analysis, 167, 169

of scientific description, 145, 148, 176

of scientific explanation, 117, 122-123, 145, 148, 174, 175-176, 201

scientific inquiry and, 144-145

sources of, 31

of substance abuse, 140

of systems analysis, 116-117

teacher's, 28

of technological design, 135-138, 161-166, 192-193

unifying concepts and processes in, 104-105, 115-119

use of evidence, 117, 145, 174, 201

use of scientific models, 116, 117, 159, 175

See also Scientific inquiry

Scientific literacy

characteristics of, 21, 22

cultural and traditional elements of, 21

defined, 22

developmental approach, 18

goals of standards, 13

importance of, 1-2, 11-12

See also Scientific inquiry;

Scientific knowledge and understanding

Scientists, 233-238, 245

Self-directed learning, 88

Sexual behavior and reproduction, 156, 158, 168, 197-198

Social issues, 138-141

Solar system, 215-217

State government

changes in emphases in system standards, 239

in educational system, 227-228, 229

national standards and, 12

resource allocation, 232

system standards, 230-231

in teacher certification, 229, 230

Students

assessment reports, 43, 88-89

classroom inquiry, 33, 36

classroom organization of, 31-32

classroom participation, 36-37

as community of science learners, 45-46

determinants of learning, 28, 29

development of goals for, 30

encouraging classroom collaboration and discourse, 36, 50

grouping of, 222

in implementation of standards, 244

involvement in design of learning environment, 45, 46-50

program considerations, 212-213

responsibility for learning, 27, 36

self-assessment, 42, 88

social and cultural considerations in teaching strategies, 32, 37

student-teacher relationship, 29

teacher's respect for, 46

Substance abuse, 140, 168, 197

Systems analysis, 116-117

applied to educational systems, 227-228

earth and space science, 158-161, 187-190

interdependence of organisms, 186

living systems, 156-158, 186-187

System standards, 8

changes in emphases in, 239-240

congruence among standards, 230-231

continuity in policy-making, 231-232

coordination of policies, 231

equity considerations, 232-233

examples of implementation, 34-35, 39, 64-66, 124-125, 150-153, 162-164, 234-237

ongoing evaluation of policy, 233

resource considerations in policy-making, 232

responsibility for reform, 8, 233-238

role of, 227

Standard A, 230-231

Standard B, 231

Standard C, 231-232

Standard D, 232

Standard E, 232-233

Standard F, 233

Standard G, 233-238

T

Teacher collaboration

for assessment, 67

in college/university preparation of science teachers, 61

for design of professional development programs, 71

for development of pedagogical content knowledge, 63-68

development of scoring rubrics for assessment, 93

mathematics-science, 214-218

new forms of, 67

with outside institutions, 223

for professional development, 57-58

for research on practice, 223

school environment for, 222-223

for science program planning, 32, 51

with scientists, 233-238

for self-assessment, 69

Teaching practice

as active learning process, 2, 20, 28

assessment of, 6, 42-43

assessment practice consistent with, 211

classroom organization of students, 31-32

consistent with curriculum framework, 211

culture and traditions of science, 21

determinants of student learning, 28, 29

equitable access to opportunities for students, 221-222

flexibility, 213

good qualities, 12, 218-219

grouping of students, 222



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