how to design and manage them to create the best possible opportunities for students to learn science.

[See Program Standard F]

STRUCTURE THE TIME AVAILABLE SO THAT STUDENTS ARE ABLE TO ENGAGE IN EXTENDED INVESTIGATIONS. Building scientific understanding takes time on a daily basis and over the long-term. Schools must restructure schedules so that teachers can use blocks of time, interdisciplinary strategies, and field experiences to give students many opportunities to engage in serious scientific investigation as an integral part of their science learning. When considering how to structure available time, skilled teachers realize that students need time to try out ideas, to make mistakes, to ponder, and to discuss with one another. Given a voice in scheduling, teachers plan for adequate blocks of time for students to set up scientific equipment and carry out experiments, to go on field trips, or to reflect and share with each other. Teachers make time for students to work in varied groupings—alone, in pairs, in small groups, as a whole class—and on varied tasks, such as reading, conducting experiments, reflecting, writing, and discussing.

CREATE A SETTING FOR STUDENT WORK THAT IS FLEXIBLE AND SUPPORTIVE OF SCIENCE INQUIRY. The arrangement of available space and furnishings in the classroom or laboratory influences the nature of the learning that takes place. Teachers of science need regular, adequate space for science. They plan the use of this space to allow students to work safely in groups of various sizes at various tasks, to maintain their work in progress, and to display their results. Teachers also provide students with the opportunity to contribute their ideas about use of space and furnishings.

[See Program Standard D]

ENSURE A SAFE WORKING ENVIRONMENT. Safety is a fundamental concern in all experimental science. Teachers of science must know and apply the necessary safety regulations in the storage, use, and care of the materials used by students. They adhere to safety rules and guidelines that are established by national organizations such as the American Chemical Society and the Occu

Effective science teaching depends on the availability and organization of materials, equipment, media, and technology.

pational Safety and Health Administration, as well as by local and state regulatory agencies. They work with the school and district to ensure implementation and use of safety guidelines for which they are responsible, such as the presence of safety equipment and an appropriate class size. Teachers also teach students how to engage safely in investigations inside and outside the classroom.

[See Program Standard D and System Standard D]

MAKE THE AVAILABLE SCIENCE TOOLS, MATERIALS, MEDIA, AND TECHNOLOGICAL RESOURCES ACCESSIBLE TO STUDENTS. Effective science teaching depends on the availability and organization of materials, equipment, media, and technology. An effective science learning environment requires a broad range of basic scientific materials, as well as specific tools for particular topics and learning experiences.

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