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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science CHAPTER 5 CURRICULUM PROJECTS PAST AND PRESENT This chapter presents background information on "Curriculum Projects Past and Present"—that is, it provides project descriptions and lists of titles produced by some major funded projects in hands-on elementary school science. The National Science Foundation (NSF) supported several such programs in the late 1960s and early 1970s, as did other agencies and organizations. These notable projects are listed, together with some of the more recent projects of the 1980s and 1990s. Some of the earlier materials listed in this chapter are still commercially available in their original or revised form. Trial editions of some of the NSF-supported materials are available on Science Helper K-8 (see 7.27), a CD-ROM produced by the Knowledge Utilization Project in Science (see 5.7). Materials produced by several of the current projects are annotated in this guide. Readers can locate them through the indexes in the volume. In addition to its value for general readers, the information included here may be of particular interest to curriculum developers. For information about the availability of any of the titles listed in this chapter, readers may wish to contact the developer at the address or phone or fax number provided in the project annotation. 5.1 Activities Integrating Mathematics and Science (AIMS), AIMS Education Foundation, P.O. Box 8120, Fresno, CA 93747-8120 (209) 255-4094; Fax: (209) 255-6396 AIMS conducts research, provides national leadership training and local workshops and seminars, and publishes elementary and intermediate integrated curriculum materials (K-9) that have been written and tested by teachers. AIMS publications provide activities in a flexible format. The AIMS materials for the elementary grades, listed below, are an outgrowth of a National Science Foundation project, under the auspices of Fresno Pacific College. Bats Incredible (Grades 2-4) The Budding Botanist (Grades 3-6) Critters (Grades K-6) Down to Earth (Grades 5-9) Electrical Connections (Grades 4-9) Fall into Math and Science (Grades K-l) Finding Your Bearings (Grades 4-9) Floaters and Sinkers (Grades 5-9) From Head to Toe (Grades 5-9) Fun with Foods (Grades 5-9) Glide into Winter with Math and Science (Grades K-l) Hardhatting in a Geo-World (Grades 3-4) Jawbreakers and Heart Thumpers (Grades 3-4) Machine Shop (Grades 5-9) Magnificent Microworld Adventures (Grades 4-9) Math + Science, A Solution (Grades 5-9) Mostly Magnets (Grades 2-8) Off the Wall Science: A Poster Series Revisited (Grades 3-9) Our Wonderful World (Grades 5-9) Out of This World (Grades 5-9) Overhead and Underfoot (Grades 3-4) Pieces and Patterns, A Patchwork in Math and Science (Grades 5-9)
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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science
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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science Popping with Power (Grades 3-4) Primarily Bears (Grades K-6) Primarily Physics (Grades K-3) Primarily Plants (Grades K-3) Seasoning Math and Science: Fall and Winter (Grade 2) Seasoning Math and Science: Spring and Summer (Grade 2) Sense-able Science (Grades K-1) The Sky's the Limit! (Grades 5-9) Soap Films and Bubbles (Grades 4-9) Spring into Math and Science (Grades K-1) Through the Eyes of the Explorers: Minds-on Math and Mapping (Grades5-9) Water Precious Water (Grades 2-6) 5.2 Conceptually Oriented Program in Elementary Science (COPES), New York University, New York, NY Inactive. Materials are now available on Science Helper K-8 (see 7.27). COPES is a general elementary science program (K-6) published in the early 1970s that focuses on 5 major conceptual schemes: (1) structural units of the universe, (2) interaction and change, (3) conservation of energy, (4) degradation of energy, and (5) a statistical view of nature. Relationships between lessons in the units are based on these themes rather than on familiar subject strands. COPES was funded by the National Science Foundation. Its materials are these: Teacher's Guide for Kindergarten/Grade One Teacher's Guide for Grade Two Teacher's Guide for Grade Three Teacher's Guide for Grade Four Teacher's Guide for Grade Five Teacher's Guide for Grade Six Teacher's Guide for a Conservation of Energy Sequence 5.3 Elementary Science Study (ESS), Education Development Center, 55 Chapel St., Newton, MA 02160 (617) 969-7100; Fax: (617) 965-6325 Inactive. Some trial editions are available on Science Helper K-8 (see 7.27). Trial and commercial editions are available from the ERIC Clearinghouse for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education (see 10.41). Some commercial or revised editions are available from Delta Education (see appendix A). ESS was begun in the 1960s as a curriculum improvement project of the Education Development Center. The original ESS curriculum materials consisted of 56 hands-on units that could be used either as the core of, or as a supplement to, a general elementary science program. Trial editions were extensively revised for commercial publication on the basis of large-scale classroom teaching. In both trial and commercial editions, children experiment with objects and concepts, defining their own questions and setting their own goals. Teachers and children are encouraged to work with materials in their own way. The project was funded by the National Science Foundation, and the commercial editions were originally published by McGraw-Hill. In the following list of ESS titles, those with an asterisk (*) are currently available in a revised edition from Delta Education (see appendix A): Animal Activity (Grades 4-6) Animals in the Classroom (Grades 1-3) *Attribute Games and Problems (Grades K-9) *Balloons and Gases (Grades 5-8) *Batteries and Bulbs (Grades 4-6) Batteries and Bulbs II (Grades 4-8) *Behavior of Mealworms (Grades 4-8) Bones (Grades 1-5) *Brine Shrimp (Grades 1-4) Budding Twigs (Grades 4-6) Butterflies (Grades K-5) Changes (Grades 1-4) *Clay Boats (Grades 3-6) *Colored Solutions (Grades 3-8) Crayfish (Grades 4-6) Daytime Astronomy (Grades 4-8) *Drops, Streams, and Containers (Grades 3-5) *Earthworms (Grades 4-6) *Eggs & Tadpoles (Grades K-6) *Gases and "Airs" (Grades 5-8) Geo Blocks (Grades K-4) *Growing Seeds (Grades K-3) *Heating and Cooling (Grades 6-8) *Ice Cubes (Grades 3-5) *Kitchen Physics (Grades 5-8) The Life of Beans and Peas (Grades 1-4) Light and Shadows (Grades K-3) *Mapping (Grades 5-7) *Match and Measure (Grades K-2) *Microgardening, An Introduction to the World of Mold (Grades 4-6) Mirror Cards (Grades K-6) *Mobiles (Grades K-4) Mosquitoes: A Resource Book for the Classroom (Grades 4-8) The Musical Instrument Recipe Book (Grades K-5) *Mystery Powders (Grades 3-4) *Optics (Grades 4-6) *Pattern Blocks (Grades K-6) *Peas and Particles (Grades 4-6) *Pendulums (Grades 4-6) Pond Water (Grades 3-6) *Primary Balancing (Grades K-4) Printing (Grades K-6) *Rocks and Charts (Grades 3-6) Sand (Grades K-3) *Senior Balancing (Grades 4-8) *Sink or Float (Grades 1-7) *Small Things: An Introduction to the Microscopic World (Grades 4-6) *Spinning Tables (Grades 1-3) Starting from Seeds (Grades 1-6) *Stream Tables (Grades 4-6) *Structures (Grades 2-6) *Tangrams (Grades K-8) Tracks (Grades 3-6) *Water Flow (Grades 5-6) Where Is the Moon? (Grades 3-7) *Whistles and Strings (Grades 3-6)
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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science 5.4 Full Option Science System (FOSS), FOSS Program, Lawrence Hall of Science, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (510) 642-8941; Fax: (510) 642-1055 The FOSS program is designed to engage students in actively constructing scientific concepts through multisensory, hands-on laboratory activities. This K-6 curriculum consists of 27 modules: 5 kindergarten modules organized under topics in the life and physical sciences; 6 modules for grades 1 and 2 organized under topics in the life, physical, and earth sciences; 16 modules for grades 3-6 organized under topics in the life, physical, and earth sciences, and in scientific reasoning and technology. Students in grades 1 and 2 explore 3 modules per year, and each class in grades 3-6 uses 4 modules per year. A multimedia component is available; it is marketed as the Britannica Science System. Development of the FOSS program was funded by the National Science Foundation. The FOSS modules are as follows: Air and Weather (Grades 1, 2) Animals Two by Two (Grade K) Balance and Motion (Grades 1, 2) Earth Materials (Grades 3, 4) Environments (Grades 5, 6) Fabric (Grade K) Food and Nutrition (Grades 5, 6) Human Body (Grades 3, 4) Ideas and Inventions (Grades 3, 4) Insects (Grades 1, 2) Landforms (Grades 5, 6) Levers and Pulleys (Grades 5, 6) Magnetism and Electricity (Grades 3, 4) Measurement (Grades 3, 4) Mixtures and Solutions (Grades 5, 6) Models and Designs (Grades 5, 6) New Plants (Grades 1, 2) Paper (Grade K) Pebbles, Sand, and Silt (Grades 1, 2) Physics of Sound (Grades 3, 4) Solar Energy (Grades 5, 6) Solids and Liquids (Grades 1, 2) Structures of Life (Grades 3, 4) Trees (Grade K) Variables (Grades 5, 6) Water (Grades 3, 4) Wood (Grade K) 5.5 Great Explorations in Math and Science (GEMS), Lawrence Hall of Science, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-5220 (510) 642-7771; Fax: (510) 643-0309 GEMS materials consist of teacher's guides, assembly presenters guides, and exhibit guides, and range in appeal from preschool through high school. These publications integrate mathematics with life, earth, and physical sciences, fostering a "guided discovery" approach to learning. Materials are easily accessible, and lessons are written for teachers with little training in mathematics or science. Funding for the program has been provided by the A. W. Mellon Foundation and the Carnegie Corporation of New York. Following are the titles of GEMS guides for the elementary grades: Acid Rain (Grades 6-10) Animal Defenses (Grades PreK, K) Animals in Action (Grades 5-9) Bubble Festival: A Guide to Presenting Bubble Activities in a Learning Station Format (Grades K-6) Bubble-ology (Grades 5-9) Build It! Festival (Grades K-6) Buzzing a Hive (Grades Pre-K, K-3) Chemical Reactions (Grades 6-10) Color Analyzers (Grades 5-9) Convection: A Current Event (Grades 6-9) Crime Lab Chemistry (Grades 4-8) Discovering Density (Grades 6-10) Earth, Moon, and Stars (Grades 5-9) Earthworms (Grades 6-10) Experimenting with Model Rockets (Grades 6-10) Fingerprinting (Grades 4-8) Frog Math: Predict, Ponder, Play (Grades K-3) Group Solutions: Cooperative Logic Activities (Grades K-4) Height-O-Meters (Grades 6-10) Hide a Butterfly (Grades PreK, K-3) Hot Water and Warm Homes from Sunlight (Grades 4-8) In All Probability (Grades 4-6) Investigating Artifacts: Making Masks, Creating Myths. Exploring Middens (Grades K-6) Involving Dissolving (Grades 1-3) Ladybugs (Grades PreK, K, 1) Liquid Explorations (Grades K-3) The "Magic" of Electricity, (Grades 3-6) Mapping Animal Movements (Grades 5-9) Mapping Fish Habitats (Grades 6-10) Moons of Jupiter (Grades 4-9) More Than Magnifiers (Grades 6-9) Mystery Festival (Grades 2-8) Of Cabbages and Chemistry (Grades 4-8) Oobleck: What Scientists Do (Grades 4-8) Paper Towel Testing (Grades 5-8) Penguins and Their Young (Grades PreK, K, 1) QUADICE (Grades 4-8) River Cutters (Grades 6-9) Shapes, Loops, and Images (Grades K-12) Solids, Liquids, and Gases (Grades 3-6) Terrarium Habitats (Grades K-6) Tree Homes (Grades PreK, K-l) Vitamin C Testing (Grades 4-8) The Wizard's lab (Grades K-12) 5.6 Improving Urban Elementary Science (Insights), Education Development Center, 55 Chapel St., Newton, MA 02160 (617) 969-7100; (800) 225-4276; Fax: (617) 965-6325 Between 1987 and 1992, the Improving Urban Elementary Science project produced the Insights curriculum, which consists of 17 modules, each requiring 6 to 8 weeks to complete, for grades K-6. Topics reflect a balance of life, physical, and earth sciences, and integrate science with the rest of the curriculum, particularly with language arts and mathematics. Insights units are designed to enhance critical thinking, communication, and problem-solving skills. The activities support cultural, racial, and linguistic diversity. Funding was provided by the National Science Foundation. Following are the Insights titles:
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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science Balls and Ramps (Grades K, 1) Bones and Skeletons (Grades 4, 5) Changes of State (Grades 4, 5) Circuits and Pathways (Grades 4, 5) Growing Things (Grades 2, 3) Habitats (Grades 2, 3) Human Body Systems (Grade 6) Lifting Heavy Things (Grades 2, 3) Liquids (Grades 2, 3) Living Things (Grades K, 1) Myself and Others (Grades K, 1) The Mysterious Powder (Grades 4, 5) Reading the Environment (Grades 4, 5) The Senses (Grades K, 1) Sound (Grades 2, 3) Structures (Grade 6) There Is No Away (Grade 6) 5.7 Knowledge Utilization Project in Science (KUPS), Room 302 Norman Hall, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32611 (904) 392-0761; Fax: (904) 392-9193 KUPS has produced a CD-ROM database entitled Science Helper K-8 (see 7.27), which contains plans for 919 elementary science and mathematics lessons and 2,000 activities, compiled from 7 elementary science curriculum projects funded by the National Science Foundation during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. Information is indexed by program, grade level, subject, process skill, keyword, and content theme. Science Helper K-8 contains pre-publication book editions; these lessons sometimes contain up to 30 percent more material than the commercial versions. The Science Helper can operate on either the PC or the Macintosh platform. Funding was provided by the Carnegie Corporation of New York. Following are the projects whose materials it includes: COPES Conceptually Oriented Program for Elementary Science ESS Elementary Science Study (partial) ESSP Elementary School Science Project (Astronomy) MINNEMAST Minnesota Mathematics and Science Teaching Project SAPA Science—A Process Approach SCIS Science Curriculum Improvement Study USMES Unified Science and Mathematics for Elementary Schools (partial) 5.8 Learning about Ecology, Animals, and Plants (Project LEAP), Cornell Instructional Materials Service, Department of Education, Cornell University, 420 Kennedy Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853 (607) 255-9252; Fax (607) 255-7905 LEAP is a conceptually oriented life science program for grades K-6. Concepts are sequential; they build toward the central principle that all life on earth depends on the existence of green plants. There are 4 units for each grade level; each unit addresses a particular set of concepts and principles. A sample concept map is included in each unit except that for kindergarten. Development was supported in part by the National Science Foundation. Following are the titles of LEAP units, by grade level, and in sequence: Kindergarten: Growing Using Our Senses Kinds of Plants and Animals One Life: A Person, A Tree Grade One: What's Alive? Seeds People Use Plants Life Cycles Grade Two Alike and Different: Classification of Living Things What Plants Need Making It Through the Winter: Plants Making It Through the Winter Animals Grade Three: Linking Chains and Weaving Webs Communities Plants in Action Seasons and the Sun's Energy Grade Four: Adaptations Species Flower Power From Pieces to Plants Grade Five: Energy for Green Plants Materials Cycle Populations and Competition Ecosystems: Everything Is Connected Grade Six: Releasing Energy: Respiration Storing Energy Species Change A Green Future 5.9 The Life Lab Science Program, 1156 High St., Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (408) 459-2001; Fax: (408) 459-3483 Life Lab Science is a K-5 program of life, earth, and physical science activities in which learning takes place in the context of an indoor or outdoor garden. The program integrates conceptual learning and practical applications to demonstrate to students how science relates to everyday life. A variety of learning experiences are derived from this work, including some that relate to ecology, ethical issues, and decision making. A teacher resource book is provided for each level at grades K-3, with separate student activity books for grades 1-3. Grades 4 and 5 use a modular format, with 8 units for each grade. Funding has been provided by the National Science Foundation and the U.S. Department of Education. Following are the titles of the Life Lab Science Program:
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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science Change Around Us (Grade 2) Change Over Time (Grade 5) Connections (Grade 4) Earth Is Home (Grade 1) Great Explorations (Grade K) The Growing Classroom (Grades K-5) How Things Work (Grade 3) 5.10 National Geographic Kids Network, Technical Education Research Centers (TERC), 2067 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02140 (617) 547-0430; Fax: (617) 349-3535 The National Geographic Kids Network is a telecommunications-based curriculum begun in 1985. The elementary curriculum series consists of 7 units that focus on exploring students' questions about socially significant scientific topics. Each unit combines classroom activities, telecommunication exchanges, and software tools to enhance students' investigations and understanding of unit topics. Students in grades 4-6 collect, discuss, share, and analyze their data with other students around the world. The project is currently designing units that extend the ideas of the elementary series into a middle grades curriculum. Funding has been provided by the National Science Foundation. Titles in the National Geographic Kids Network are as follows: Acid Rain (Grades 4-6) Hello! (Grades 4-6) The Solar System (Grades 4-6) Too Much Trash? (Grades 4-6) Weather in Action (Grades 4-6) What Are We Eating? (Grades 4-6) What's in Our Water? (Grades 4-6) 5.11 Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies (OBIS), Lawrence Hall of Science, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (510) 642-1016; Fax: (510) 642-1055 OBIS revolves around ecosystems as students investigate the ecological relationships of living organisms and their physical environment. Activities are conducted in outdoor settings. They employ a variety of strategies, such as games, simulations, craft activities, role playing, experiments, and data analysis. OBIS consists of 97 separate activities that are grouped in 27 modules. There is some duplication of activities among the modules. Activities were written for use with 8- to 15-year-olds. The project was funded by the National Science Foundation. The titles of OBIS modules are as follows: Adaptations Animal Behavior Aquatic Animal Behavior Backyard Bio-Crafts Breakwaters and Bays Campsite Child's Play Desert Forest For Eight-to Eleven-Year-Olds For Large Groups For Small Groups and Families Games and Simulations Human Impact Lawns and Fields Neighborhood Woods Nighttime OBIS Sampler Outdoor Study Techniques Pavement and Parks Ponds and Lakes Schoolyard Seashore Streams and Rivers Trail Wintertime 5.12 Science 5/13, Schools Council, School of Education, University of Bristol, Bristol, England Inactive. A complete set of this series is maintained at: Teacher's Laboratory, P.O. Box 6480, Brattleboro, VT 05302-6480 (802) 254-3457; Fax: (802) 254-5233 Science 5/13 was a British project jointly sponsored by the Schools Council, the Nuffield Foundation, and the Scottish Education Department. The purpose of the project was to show teachers how to help children between the ages of 5 and 13 learn science through first-hand experience using a variety of methods. This general science series fosters development of content knowledge and science process skills through independent, hands-on investigations of familiar materials. Science 5/13 was first published in Great Britain in the early 1970s by Macdonald and Company. Following are the titles from the Science 5/13 project: Change: Stages 1 and 2, and Background (Grades 3-7) Change: Stage 3 (Grades 7-12) Children and Plastics: Stages 1 and 2, and Background (Grades 4-7) Coloured Things: Stages 1 and 2 (Grades K-5) Early Experiences (Grades K-2) Holes, Gaps and Cavities (Grades 2-5) Like and Unlike: Stages 1, 2, and 3 (Grades K-7) Metals: Background Information (Grades 6-8) Metals: Stages 1 and 2 (Grades 6-8) Minibeasts: Stages I and 2 (Grades K-7) Ourselves: Stages 1 and 2 (Grades K4) Science from Toys: Stages 1 and 2, and Background (Grades K-7) Science, Models, and Toys: Stage 3 (Grades 7-9) Structures and Forces: Stages 1 and 2 (Grades 3-6) Structures and Forces: Stage 3 (Grades 6-8) Time: Stages 1 and 2, and Background (Grades K-6) Trees: Stages 1 and 2 (Grades K-7) Using the Environment: 1: Early Explorations (Grades K-4) 2: Investigations, Parts 1 and 2 (Grades 3-7) 3: Tackling Problems, Parts I and 2 (Grades 6-9) 4: Ways and Means (Grades K-9) With Objectives in Mind (Grades K-9) Working with Wood: Background Information (Grades 3-6) Working with Wood: Stages 1 and 2 (Grades 3-6)
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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science 5.13 Science Activities for the Visually Impaired/Science Enrichment for Learners with Physical Handicaps (SAVI/SELPH), Center for Multisensory Learning, Lawrence Hall of Science, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-5200 (510) 642-8941; Fax: (510) 642-1055 SAVI/SELPH, published in the late 1970s and early 1980s, consists of 9 modules designed for special-education students in grades 4-7. The activities enable all children to participate successfully in multisensory investigations of the life, earth, and physical sciences, increasing their understanding of science concepts and enhancing their science process skills. The modules work well in a variety of settings and can be directed by teachers with little science background. Funding has been provided by the U.S. Office of Education. Materials are available from the Lawrence Hall of Science. Following are the titles produced by SAVI/SELPH: Communication (Grades 4-7) Environmental Energy (Grades 4-7) Environments (Grades 4-7) Kitchen Interactions (Grades 4-7) Magnetism and Electricity (Grades 4-7) Measurement (Grades 4-7) Mixtures and Solutions (Grades 4-7) Scientific Reasoning (Grades 4-7) Structures of Life (Grades 4-7) 5.14 Science and Technology for Children (STC), National Science Resources Center, Arts and Industries Building, Room 1201, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20560 (202) 357-2555; Fax: (202) 786-2028 The Science and Technology for Children program consists of a series of 24 inquiry-centered curriculum units for grades 1 through 6, with 4 units at each grade level. Students learn about topics in the life, earth, and physical sciences. The technological applications of science and the interactions among science, technology, and society are addressed throughout the program. Units encourage participatory learning and the integration of science with mathematics, language arts, social studies, and art. Development of scientific reasoning skills is emphasized. Funding was provided by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation and the National Science Foundation. The titles produced by the STC project are as follows: Animal Studies (Grade 4) Balancing and Weighing (Grade 2) Changes (Grade 2) Chemical Tests (Grade 3) Comparing and Measuring (Grade 1) Ecosystems (Grade 5) Electric Circuits (Grade 4) Experiments with Plants (Grade 6) Floating and Sinking (Grade 5) Food Chemistry (Grade 5) Land and Water (Grade 4) The Life Cycle of Butterflies (Grade 2) Magnets and Motors (Grade 6) Measuring Time (Grade 6) Microworlds (Grade 5) Motion and Design (Grade 4) Organisms (Grade 1) Plant Growth and Development (Grade 3) Rocks and Minerals (Grade 3) Soils (Grade 2) Solids and Liquids (Grade 1) Sound (Grade 3) Technology of Paper (Grade 6) Weather (Grade 1) 5.15 Science—A Process Approach (SAPA/SAPA II), American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC 20005 (202) 326-6400 Inactive. Original SAPA materials are available on Science Helper K-8 (see 7.27). SAPA II revisions are available from Delta Education (see appendix A). SAPA and SAPA II are general science programs that focus heavily on processes of science rather than on concepts. In both the first and the second versions, activities form a sequential K-6 modular program in which mastery of specific skills is predicated upon the accumulation of experience. Funded by the National Science Foundation, SAPA was published in the 1960s by the Xerox Education Division. It consists of 7 parts, each containing activity modules appropriate to a particular grade. The SAPA II folio version was originally published in the 1970s by Ginn and Company. Its revised edition contains 105 modules. Following are the 7 parts published for SAPA and the distribution by grade of the 105 SAPA II modules: SAPA Part A (Grades K-2) Part B (Grades 1-3) Part C (Grades 2-4) Part D (Grades 3-5) Part E (Grades 4-6) Part F (Grades 5-7) Part G (Grades 6-8) SAPA II Level K: Modules 1-15 Level 1: Modules 16-30 Level 2: Modules 31-45 Level 3: Modules 46-60 Level 4: Modules 61-75 Level 5: Modules 76-90 Level 6: Modules 91-105
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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science 5.16 Science Curriculum Improvement Study (SCIS/SCIS II/SCIIS/ SCIS 3), Lawrence Hall of Science, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (510) 642-8718; Fax: (510) 642-1055 In all stages of its existence, SCIS has focused on the concepts and processes of science for grades K-6. Investigations build from the exploration of materials, through the interpretation of information, to the application of knowledge and skills to new situations. The project was funded by the National Science Foundation in the late 1960s. Both its first and third versions were published by Rand McNally. The second version, SCIS II, was distributed by American Science and Engineering. SCIS 3, developed by Delta Education and two members of the original SCIS team, consists of 13 units: a kindergarten unit and 2 sequences of 6 units each in physical-earth science and life-environmental science for grades 1-6. Following are the titles produced in the 4 SCIS versions: SCIS Beginnings (Grades K-l) Communities (Grade 5) Ecosystems (Grade 6) Energy Sources (Grade 5) Environments (Grade 4) Interaction and Systems (Grade 2) Life Cycles (Grade 2) Material Objects (Grade 1) Models: Electric and Magnetic Interactions (Grade 6) Organisms (Grade 1) Populations (Grade 3) Relative Position and Motion (Grade 4) Subsystems and Variables (Grade 3) SCIS II Communities (Grade 5) Ecosystems (Grade 6) Energy Sources (Grade 5) Environments (Grade 4) Interaction and Systems (Grade 2) Life Cycles (Grade 2) Material Objects (Grade 1) Measurement, Motion and Change (Grade 4) Modeling Systems (Grade 6) Organisms (Grade 1) Populations (Grade 3) Subsystems and Variables (Grade 3) SCIIS/85 Beginnings (Grades K-1) Communities (Grade 5) Ecosystems (Grade 6) Energy Sources (Grade 5) Environments (Grade 4) Interaction and Systems (Grade 2) Life Cycles (Grade 2) Material Objects (Grade 1) Scientific Theories (Grade 6) Organisms (Grade 1) Populations (Grade 3) Relative Position and Motion (Grade 4) Subsystems and Variables (Grade 3) SCIS 3 Beginnings (Grade K) Communities (Grade 5) Ecosystems (Grade 6) Energy Sources (Grade 5) Environments (Grade 4) Interaction and Systems (Grade 2) Life Cycles (Grade 2) Material Objects (Grade 1) Organisms (Grade 1) Populations (Grade 3) Relative Position and Motion (Grade 4) Scientific Theories (Grade 6) Subsystems and Variables (Grade 3) 5.17 Unified Science and Mathematics for Elementary Schools (USMES), Education Development Center, 55 Chapel St., Newton, MA 02160 (617) 969-7100; Fax: (617) 965-6325 Inactive. Some original materials have been reissued on Science Helper K-8 (see 7.27); all are available from the ERIC Clearinghouse for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education (see 10.41). USMES is a series of 23 guides published in the early 1970s for use in grades K through 8. The units focus on long-range investigations of real and practical problems geared to the local environment. Each unit consists of an opening challenge out of which students create their own investigations, honing their problem-solving skills and acquiring an understanding of major concepts. The USMES project includes activity cards and background papers, as well as the guides. Funding was provided by the National Science Foundation. The USMES units are as follows: Advertising (Grades 4-8) Bicycle Transportation (Grades 4-8) Burglar Alarm Design (Grades 3-8) Classroom Design (Grades 1-8) Classroom Management (Grades 1-6) Consumer Research-Product Testing (Grades 1-8) Describing People (Grades 1-8) Designing for Human Proportions (Grades 3-8) Dice Design (Grades 1-8) Electromagnet Device Design (Grades 3-8) Growing Plants (Grades 2-6) Lunch Lines (Grades 1-8) Manufacturing (Grades 4-8) Orientation (Grades 2-8) Pedestrian Crossings (Grades 2-6) Play Area Design and Use (Grades 1-8) School Zoo (Grades K-7) Soft Drink Design (Grades 1-8) Traffic Flow (Grades 1-8) USMES Design Lab Manual (Grades K-8) The USMES Guide (Grades K-8) Ways to Learn/Teach (Grades 2-8) Weather Predictions (Grades 2-8)
Representative terms from entire chapter: