CHAPTER 6
BOOKS ON TEACHING SCIENCE

6.1 George E. Hein and Sabra Price. Active Assessment for Active Science: A Guide for Elementary School Teachers. Portsmouth, N.H.: Heinemann, 1994. 155 pp.

Price: $18.00 (ISBN 0-435-08361-9)

Active Assessment for Active Science is designed for teachers who develop their own assessments for hands-on science. This guide combines practical discussion with well-written theoretical information on the rationale for active assessments. It includes chapters on different forms of assessment, on managing assessment in the classroom, on scoring, on looking for evidence of learning in written student work, on ways that national curriculum developers grapple with and formulate assessments, and on the relationship between assessments and educational values. Rather than providing a system for assessment, the book advocates the development of active assessments that fit a particular teaching style, curriculum, and school climate. Numerous classroom examples of assessments and student work are given.

6.2 David C. Kramer. Animals in the Classroom: Selection, Care, and Observations. Menlo Park, Calif.: Addison-Wesley, 1989. 234 pp.

Price: $23.96 (ISBN 0-201-20679-X)

Animals in the Classroom: Selection, Care, and Observations is for elementary and middle school teachers interested in keeping small animals such as earthworms, praying mantises, frogs, and hamsters in the classroom. The book focuses on 28 individual creatures that represent various levels of the animal kingdom, from worms through mammals. A section on each animal combines text and illustrations to describe where and how the animal lives in nature, how to obtain it, and how to care for it with classroom-tested techniques. The book encourages teachers to stimulate student curiosity and interest in learning about animals. It helps teachers select appropriate animals and care for them humanely, and supplies background information to help answer students' questions and provide meaningful learning experiences with the animals. Suggestions for student observations and activities are given.

6.3 Senta A. Raizen, Joan B. Baron, Audrey B. Champagne, and others. Assessment in Elementary School Science Education. Washington, D.C.: National Center for Improving Science Education, 1989. 149 pp.

Price: $18.00

This report is one of three that served as the basis of the plan for a national program of science education for American elementary school children (see 6.20). The plan was developed by the National Center for



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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science CHAPTER 6 BOOKS ON TEACHING SCIENCE 6.1 George E. Hein and Sabra Price. Active Assessment for Active Science: A Guide for Elementary School Teachers. Portsmouth, N.H.: Heinemann, 1994. 155 pp. Price: $18.00 (ISBN 0-435-08361-9) Active Assessment for Active Science is designed for teachers who develop their own assessments for hands-on science. This guide combines practical discussion with well-written theoretical information on the rationale for active assessments. It includes chapters on different forms of assessment, on managing assessment in the classroom, on scoring, on looking for evidence of learning in written student work, on ways that national curriculum developers grapple with and formulate assessments, and on the relationship between assessments and educational values. Rather than providing a system for assessment, the book advocates the development of active assessments that fit a particular teaching style, curriculum, and school climate. Numerous classroom examples of assessments and student work are given. 6.2 David C. Kramer. Animals in the Classroom: Selection, Care, and Observations. Menlo Park, Calif.: Addison-Wesley, 1989. 234 pp. Price: $23.96 (ISBN 0-201-20679-X) Animals in the Classroom: Selection, Care, and Observations is for elementary and middle school teachers interested in keeping small animals such as earthworms, praying mantises, frogs, and hamsters in the classroom. The book focuses on 28 individual creatures that represent various levels of the animal kingdom, from worms through mammals. A section on each animal combines text and illustrations to describe where and how the animal lives in nature, how to obtain it, and how to care for it with classroom-tested techniques. The book encourages teachers to stimulate student curiosity and interest in learning about animals. It helps teachers select appropriate animals and care for them humanely, and supplies background information to help answer students' questions and provide meaningful learning experiences with the animals. Suggestions for student observations and activities are given. 6.3 Senta A. Raizen, Joan B. Baron, Audrey B. Champagne, and others. Assessment in Elementary School Science Education. Washington, D.C.: National Center for Improving Science Education, 1989. 149 pp. Price: $18.00 This report is one of three that served as the basis of the plan for a national program of science education for American elementary school children (see 6.20). The plan was developed by the National Center for

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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science

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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science ORDERING INFORMATION FOR PUBLICATIONS IN CHAPTER 6 The prices given for books and other publications in chapter 6 do not include the costs of shipping and handling. Before placing an order, readers are advised to contact the publishers of these items for current ordering information, including shipping charges. In some cases, discounts or special rates may be available to schools and educators. Publishers' names are cited in the bibliographic data of the annotations. Their addresses and phone and fax numbers are listed in appendix A, "Publishers and Suppliers." Improving Science Education. This volume discusses the assessment component of the plan in depth. It proposes reforms to make both teacher-controlled and externally mandated assessments support excellence in elementary science programs. According to the report, alternatives to traditional testing need to be an explicit part of assessing student achievement and progress in science. The chapters discuss issues in assessment such as testing what matters, the uses of assessment, what and how to assess, the assessment of program features, and improving assessments. 6.4 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). Barrier-Free in Brief: Laboratories and Classrooms in Science and Engineering. Washington, D.C.: AAAS, 1991. 36 pp. Price: Free of charge (ISBN 0-87168421-6) Barrier-Free in Brief was prepared by the American Association for the Advancement of Science's Project on Science, Technology, and Disability. The booklet is a guide for university research laboratories, but it addresses meeting the needs of students with disabilities in the science classroom in any educational institution. A barrier-free classroom is defined as being fully accessible to people with disabilities. The booklet offers specific suggestions about organizing a barrier-free classroom and teaching students with disabilities. It presents related material such as a building access checklist and a list of organizations to contact for information on helping students with particular disabilities. 6.5 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). Benchmarks for Science Literacy. New York, N.Y.: Oxford University Press, 1993. 418 pp. Price: $21.95 (ISBN 0-19-508986-3); with companion disk, $35.00 Benchmarks for Science Literacy on Disk [text and companion software version] Price: $24.95; with book, $35.00 Created in close consultation with teachers, administrators, and scientists, Benchmarks for Science Literacy and its companion Benchmarks for Science Literacy on Disk suggest guidelines for what all students should know and be able to do in science and mathematics by the end of specific grade levels. Benchmarks is part of the Project 2061 initiative of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). The volume outlines ways of achieving the standards for science literacy recommended in the 1989 AAAS publication Science for All Americans. Rather than being a proposed curriculum or a plan for one, Benchmarks is a compendium of specific goals that educators and policymakers can use to build new curricula. The software version allows users to browse, assemble, and print benchmarks in various formats, examine conceptual strands, use cross-reference features to identify conceptual connections, and brainstorm activities to address random sets of benchmarks from one grade span. 6.6 Carolyn H. Hampton, Carol D. Hampton, David C. Kramer, and others. Classroom Creature Culture: Algae to Anoles. Rev. ed. Arlington, Va.: National Science Teachers Association, 1994. 96 pp. Price: $12.95 (ISBN 0-87355-120-6) Classroom Creature Culture is a collection of 43 articles published in the journals of the National Science Teachers Association. The articles suggest ways of collecting, caring for, and investigating plants and small animals in the elementary school classroom. The plants and animals featured are easily obtainable. They range from simple organisms such as duckweed and daphnia to more complicated organisms such as newts, tree frogs, and snakes. Designed expressly for classroom conditions, the methods and techniques described require the least time and fewest resources possible. Plentiful ideas for classroom activities accompany each

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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science article. The activities encourage the practice of basic science skills such as measuring, observing, and collecting and analyzing data. Other activities focus on behavioral, morphological, and ecological changes. This publication is an updated version of an anthology published in 1986. 6.7 Robert C. Barkman. Coaching Science Stars: Pep Talk and Play Book for Real-World Problem Solving. Tucson, Ariz.: Zephyr Press, 1991. 162 pp. Price: $19.00 (ISBN 0-913705-60-8) Coaching Science Stars advocates the adoption of "pep talk"—a pedagogy typically used on the playing field, in the studio, or on stage—for teaching science in the classroom. The meaning and method of such pep talks are first described. Five basic teaching rules are enunciated: (1) create a need to know, (2) challenge students to know, (3) show how to know, (4) apply know-how, and (5) know how to inspire cooperation. The book then describes creative activities that can be done in groups with pep talk pedagogy. The activities have few resource requirements. They allow students to learn the way scientists do: by recognizing patterns, asking the right questions, making predictions with confidence, and doing experiments. The book gives teachers the tools for creating their own science curriculum based on the pep talk model. 6.8 Peter C. Gega. Concepts and Experiences in Elementary School Science. 2nd ed. New York, N.Y.: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1994. 511 pp. Price: $45.00 (ISBN 0-02-341331-X) Concepts and Experiences in Elementary School Science is a science experience sourcebook for teachers of children ages 5 to 12. It provides basic background information on topics in 12 science areas and presents directions for scores of related activities that enable children to learn science concepts and investigative skills. The many subject areas explored in the activities include light energy and color, plant and animal life, magnetic interactions, simple machines, sound energy, weather, and the human body. Many of the activities offer open-ended problems and topics for students and teachers to explore together. Each section of the book contains a list of books for both younger and older children to encourage further exploration. Brief appendixes suggest publications useful for teaching science and guidelines for caring for animals in the classroom. 6.9 Joyce VanTassel-Baska, Jane M. Bailey, Shelagh Gallagher, and Megan Fettig. A Conceptual Overview of Science Education for High Ability Learners. Williamsburg, Va.: College of William and Mary, Center for Gifted Education, 1993. 29 pp. Price: $5.00 A Conceptual Overview of Science Education for High Ability Learners draws on recent national science education reports and on a review of the special learning needs of gifted learners. The paper outlines and discusses 6 major goals that should be considered when creating science curriculum for high-ability learners in grades K-8. These goals include (1) the development of broad scientific concepts, (2) scientific inquiry skills, (3) a knowledge base in specific science areas, (4) interdisciplinary connections, (5) problem-based learning approaches, and (6) scientific habits of mind. The paper addresses the importance of appropriate curriculum for encouraging girls and minorities to continue studying mathematics and science and the need for any curriculum to be flexible and responsive to change. 6.10 Alfred De Vito. Creative Wellsprings for Science Teaching. 2nd ed. West Lafayette, Ind.: Creative Ventures, 1989. 348 pp. Price: $18.95 (ISBN 0-942034-06-6) This light-hearted but useful book stresses methods for creative teaching to improve the quality of science education for children. Creative Wellsprings for Science Teaching presents three approaches to teaching science—morphological, process, and ideation-generation—and outlines classroom activities that enhance each approach. The book addresses the following topics: educating the gifted in science; science instruction and its enhancement through provocative question asking; the skill of model building; and peripheral enhancements to use in the classroom, such as discrepant events, puzzlers, problems, and tenacious "think abouts." Creative Wellsprings emphasizes ways that teachers can expand basic classroom activities into multiple activities and experiments that stimulate thinking and foster a challenging atmosphere. 6.11 Sally Stenhouse Kneidel. Creepy Crawlies and the Scientific Method: Over 100 Hands-on Science Experiments for Children. Golden, Colo.: Fulcrum Publishing, 1993. 224 pp. Price: $15.95 (ISBN 1-55591-118-8) Creepy Crawlies and the Scientific Method contains 114 experiments, mostly behavioral, with animals that are commonly found in nature. This resource book has 5 sections, with 16 chapters. The first section explains the scientific method as it applies to the experiments in the book. Then it

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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science discusses attracting and maintaining "critters." The remaining sections focus on creatures found in and under logs, creatures that live or start life in the water, terrestrial predators, and insect reproduction. Each chapter first describes the animals (mostly insects) and concludes with experiments. Each experiment follows a 5-step procedure involving a question, a hypothesis, methods, results, and conclusions. The book includes reproducible masters for student data sheets. The materials required are available locally or from commercial suppliers. 6.12 Wynne Harlen and Sheila Jelly. Developing Science in the Primary Classroom. Portsmouth, N.H.: Heinemann Educational Books, 1990. 71 pp. Price: $14.00 (ISBN 0-435-08305-8) This teacher-development book offers guidelines and practical suggestions for creating enjoyable opportunities for children to acquire scientific skills, attitudes, and concepts in the classroom. Designed for teachers who may lack confidence for teaching science, the book discusses how to start, structure, and manage classroom activities on any topic; how to evaluate the success of activities; and how to overcome difficult aspects of a teacher's role during activities (such as handling children's questions). It addresses getting and developing ideas for children's activities, fitting science into an existing curriculum, recognizing and encouraging children's development, and giving attention to concepts and content as well as to process skills. Helpful summary charts and examples reinforce major points and ideas throughout the book. 6.13 Ellen Doris. Doing What Scientists Do: Children Learn to Investigate Their World. Portsmouth, N.H.: Heinemann Educational Books, 1991. 194 pp. Price: $19.50 (ISBN 0-435-08309-0) Doing What Scientists Do is a practical book that presents an approach to teaching discovery science which helps develop the active interest of elementary school children in the world around them. Designed for teachers and administrators, the book discusses the basics of how children learn, how to inspire curiosity and help satisfy it, how to organize classroom space and materials, how to strike a balance between structure and freedom in the classroom, and how to manage the classroom in a way that encourages focus and interest. The book's many examples of actual classroom work and dialogue illuminate certain principles. Methods are provided for individualizing science learning for children with special needs; helpful suggestions are given for evaluation, grading, and conducting successful field trips. An excellent annotated bibliography includes suggestions for classroom reference books, field guides, films and videos, books that integrate science with literature and art, and teacher's reference books. 6.14 Glenn O. Blough and Julius Schwartz. Elementary School Science and How to Teach It. 8th ed. Fort Worth, Tex.: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1990. 664 pp. Price: $41.00 (ISBN 0-03-011559-0) The first 5 chapters of Elementary School Science and How to Teach It look at (1) objectives and current trends in elementary school science, (2) various theories of child development and how they can help educators plan what and how to teach, (3) issues in science curricula and teaching methods, (4) processes of scientific investigation, and (5) the organization of a science program for all students. The second part of the book has 15 parallel "A" and "B" chapters that offer suggested content and methods for teaching specific concepts in 3 major scientific areas: the earth and the universe, living things, and matter and energy. Emphasis is on activities that encourage the hands-on participation of children of all ages in a science program; science as it relates to people and everyday problems is also emphasized. Each chapter on teaching includes practical ideas for preparation and a list of resources. 6.15 Susan Loucks-Horsley, Roxanne Kapitan, Maura D. Carlson, and others. Elementary School Science for the '90s. Alexandria, Va.: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1990 166 pp. ;: $13.95 (ISBN 0-87120-176-3) Elementary School Science or the '90s, a collaborative book from the National Center for Improving Science Education, outlines ways for educators to ensure that good science learning is an important part of all children's educational experience. Synthesized from research and reports, the book offers a series of 13 recommendations for educators and administrators. It addresses questions about science curriculum, instruction, assessment, and teacher development and support. For each recommendation the authors discuss what is known about the topic from research, literature, and practical experience; what action can be taken; what roles can be played by

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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science local and state science leaders; what resources, materials, and exemplary programs exist; and key references. Appendixes list basic science education references and contact information for the resources, models, and exemplary programs described. Examples, checklists, and suggestions are given to prompt readers' ideas and motivation. 6.16 Ann C. Howe and Linda Jones. Engaging Children in Science. New York, N.Y.: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1993. 406 pp. Price: $38.80 (ISBN 0-675-21186-7) Engaging Children in Science is a guide to an activity-based course in methods of science teaching based on the constructivist approach. It describes how children learn science and suggests how certain teaching strategies capitalize on the way they learn best. Introductory chapters discuss the modern view of science, the theoretical foundations of constructivism, and how current research can be applied to science teaching. The book then discusses the use of science processes as the basis for teaching science concepts to children, different methods of planning and presenting lessons (such as direct instruction, guided discovery, and group and individual investigations), the integration of science with other subjects, evaluation of instruction, and reflective teaching. An extended case study follows the interaction between an experienced teacher and a teacher in training as they discuss the challenges of implementing strategies in a real classroom. Engaging Children in Science includes lessons plans, unit plans, and reference to resources for teaching. 6.17 Charles R. Barman. An Expanded View of the Learning Cycle: New Ideas About an Effective Teaching Strategy. Council for Elementary Science International (CESI) Monograph and Occasional Paper Series #4. N.P.: CESI, 1990. 37 pp. Price: $4.00 This monograph introduces its discussion of the learning cycle—a widely used teaching strategy developed for an elementary science program in the 1970s—by providing background information on Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development, on which the learning cycle was modeled. An Expanded View of the Learning Cycle then describes how components of the learning cycle are compatible with other prominent theories of learning—the constructivist view and sociologically and neurologically oriented theories—as well as with current educational themes such as cooperative learning. The appendixes present several learning cycle lessons that illustrate the flexibility of this teaching strategy. 6.18 National Center for Improving Science Education. The Future of Science in the Elementary Schools: Educating Prospective Teachers. Senta A. Raizen and Arie M. Michelsohn, eds. San Francisco, Calif.: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1994. 182 pp. Price: $27.95 (ISBN 1-55542-624-7) The Future of Science in Elementary Schools results from a collaborative effort of the National Center for Improving Science Education and a panel of experts convened to study the improvement of preservice science education for elementary school teachers. With a research-based approach to science and learning, the volume offers a new vision for preparing prospective elementary science teachers to be creative facilitators of learning through investigation of the real world instead of people who merely pass on knowledge developed and conceived by others. The authors describe a 3-part interchangeable model for preparing teachers in science, and outline the basics of what prospective teachers need to learn in science and science-pedagogy courses, including fundamental underlying concepts, habits of mind, and effective instructional strategies. Vignettes illustrate the contrast between different approaches to teaching science and the vision needed to reform it. 6.19 National Environmental Education and Training Foundation. Getting Started: A Guide to Bringing Environmental Education into Your Classroom. David Bones, ed. Ann Arbor, Mich.: National Consortium for Environmental Education and Training, 1994. 138 pp. Price: $9.95 (ISBN 1-884782-00-0) This volume is a collection of real stories about teachers in grades K-12 who started environmental programs in their classrooms. Getting Started contains brief, helpful suggestions, resources, and ideas on bringing environmental education into the classroom. The first section provides a brief overview of the scope, history, and value of environmental education. The second offers suggestions for instructional materials, funding, workshops, courses, and in-service opportunities in environmental education. The third section includes information on networking with other environmental educators; securing grants; managing a growing environmental project; and locating awards, scholarships, and stipends. Rather than outlining a comprehensive program, the guide offers stories and information to inspire teachers and help them creatively find resources to meet their own unique needs.

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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science 6.20 National Center for Improving Science Education. Getting Started in Science: A Blueprint for Elementary School Science Education. 3rd ed. Washington, D.C.: National Center for Improving Science Education, 1989.61 pp. Price: $8.40 This report from the National Center for Improving Science Education (NCISE), which is funded by the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Educational Research and Improvement, advocates a hands-on, inquiry-based, constructivist approach to science. The report synthesizes information from 3 other NCISE reports—on curriculum and instruction (see 6.15), on assessment (see 6.3), and on teacher development and support (see 6.18). The "Blueprint" in the report's subtitle is the NCISE plan, based on those 3 reports, for an elementary (K-6) school education system that will serve the needs of American students for education in science and technology well into the next century. In support of its plan, the report presents recommendations directed to the federal government, state and local governments, and policymaking bodies such as national education associations and science-based organizations. Specific recommendations for science education specialists, administrators, teachers, and parents are to be provided by NCISE in a series of implementation guides. 6.21 Paul F Brandwein and A. Harry Passow, eds. Gifted Young in Science: Potential Through Performance. Washington, D.C.: National Science Teachers Association, 1988. 422 pp. Price: $10.00 (ISBN 0-87355-076-5) Gifted Young in Science presents 34 essays that probe the phenomenon of talent in science, exploring ways that educators can foster science talent in all children. The authors include natural and physical scientists, psychologists, historians, scholars of curriculum and instruction, teachers of teachers, and writers. The subjects they address include the nature of creativity and giftedness; recognizing and nurturing multiple talents; designing schools, programs, and practices that channel children's interest in science from a young age; and the nature and craft of teaching. The book focuses on creating environments and conditions that evoke and nurture the potential of all students. It includes discussions of the importance of open classrooms and a variety of inquiry modes, the role of science centers, and specialized schools. In a separate section, 9 outstanding scientists, scholars, and teachers reflect on the events or people that led them to their life's work. An annotated bibliography highlights books useful for developing programs and practices for the gifted. 6.22 Maria Sosa, Estrella M. Triana, and Valerie L. Worthington, eds. Great Explorations: Discovering Science in the Library. Washington, D.C.: American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1994. 177 pp. Price: $14.95 (ISBN 0-87168-537-X) Great Explorations is a product of the American Association for the Advancement of Science's Science Library Institute, a 5-month project that brought together 28 school and public librarians from the Washington, D.C., area to discuss what librarians can do to bring about science, mathematics, and education reform. Based on presentations at the institute, the book contains articles on components of current science education reform; guidelines for developing media programs, selecting science resources, and creating interdisciplinary and hands-on activities in the library; teaching science in a multicultural context; technology in the library; the importance of librarians in disseminating new materials, practices, and techniques; fund-raising opportunities for libraries; and the benefits of partnerships between public and school librarians. Guidelines for conducting a similar institute in other communities are provided. 6.23 Arthur A. Carin. Guided Discovery Activities for Elementary School Science. 3rd ed. New York, N.Y.: Macmillan Publishing Company. 1993. 268 pp. Price: $26.60 (ISBN 0-02-319383-2) Guided Discovery Activities for Elementary School Science contains simple hands-on science activities to develop children's creative problem-solving skills, awareness of the marvels of the universe, and appreciation for how science and scientists work. Rather than being a curriculum, the activities are a resource for facilitating children's own construction of science and technology concepts. The activities involve a wide range of topics—the environment, ecology, human anatomy and physiology, and health and nutrition. They can be done in any order. Directions, illustrations, useful questions, and references are provided for each activity. Guided Discovery Activities emphasizes cooperative learning, but the activities can also be teacher-directed or conducted by individual students. A special series of guided discovery activities for students with special needs is included.

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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science 6.24 David L. Haury and Peter Rillero. Hands-On Approaches to Science Teaching: Questions and Answers from the Field and Research. Ohio State University, Columbus, June 30, 1992. Distributed by ERIC Clearinghouse for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education, Columbus, Ohio, 1992. 32 pp. Price: $5.25 This brief document uses a question-and-answer format to pose and respond to 10 basic questions often asked by teachers about hands-on science teaching and learning. The questions include, for example: What is hands-on learning? How can practicing teachers gain experience with hands-on methods? How is hands-on learning evaluated? Each question is answered from three perspectives. The first and second responses are provided, respectively, by individual teachers and curriculum developers, identified by name. Following their comments, "Notes from the literature" provide another rich source of information in the form of brief responses to each question from the research literature. Full citations to all references are provided. 6.25 Peter C. Gega. How to Teach Elementary School Science. 2nd ed. New York, N.Y.: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1994. 244 pp. Price: $30.00 (ISBN 0-02-341333-6) This book explains and shows how to teach science to children in grades K-6. It first reviews the importance of elementary science education and then introduces a broad cluster of teaching skills through step-by-step descriptions and the use of real-life examples. The chapters and exercises should enable teachers to decide what science is basic, useful, and learnable for children; recognize and understand how children learn; use closed-ended and open-ended teaching activities; locate and use a variety of resources; arrange and manage learning centers; and organize and assess science teaching. The first of 5 appendixes presents a sampler of science activities and open-ended investigations to show the kinds of concrete experiences children need in order to learn science. Other appendixes include information about publications, science supply sources, and child development stages. This complete volume is also contained in Part I of the companion book Science in Elementary Education (7th ed.) (see 6.44). 6.26 Elizabeth Meng and Rodney L. Doran. Improving Instruction and Learning Through Evaluation: Elementary School Science. Columbus, Ohio: ERIC Clearinghouse for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education, 1993. 182 pp. Price: $16.75 Improving Instruction and Learning Through Evaluation is designed to help teachers and supervisors expand and improve their assessment efforts. The book addresses different reasons for assessing science learning and discusses the kinds of information that can be gathered. Methods of collecting information, such as written tests, practical tests, observations, and interviews, are presented. The advantages and disadvantages of different methods are considered, and, finally, there is discussion of how to use the information gathered in light of the original purpose. Many examples of assessment items that have been used with science programs are included. The book also gives tips on how to develop assessment instruments. 6.27 Rosemary Althouse. Investigating Science with Young Children. New York, N.Y.: Teachers College Press, 1988. 200 pp. Price: $18.95 (ISBN 0-8077-2912-4) Teaching science using an open-ended process approach can be an exciting adventure for both teachers and children. With this approach there is neither a predetermined sequence of events for children nor a specific set of directions for the teacher. Investigating Science with Young Children outlines 85 activities that teachers can use in guiding 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds in fruitful, open-ended exploration. The first part of the book presents a theoretical explanation of the benefits of the process approach and the role of the science teacher. The second part describes the activities. For each activity there is a list of materials, suggestions for getting started, and questions and comments teachers can use to guide children as an activity progresses. The activities include such things as exploring water, mixing colors, experimenting with balance, and investigating sand. They can be done in any order. 6.28 Michael J. Caduto and Joseph Bruchac. Keepers of Life: Discovering Plants Through Native American Stories and Earth Activities for Children. Golden, Colo.: Fulcrum Publishing, 1994. 265 pp. Price: $22.95 (ISBN 1-55591-186-2) This book, about learning to understand, live with, and care for plants, draws on Native American history and culture and uses an interdisciplinary approach. Eighteen carefully selected Native North American stories are combined with imaginative hands-on activities to promote children's understanding of, appreciation for, empathy with, and stewardship of plants. The indoor and

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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science outdoor activities in the 15 chapters cover a wide range of concepts: botany; plant ecology; environmental and stewardship issues that are important to plants; and the natural history of North American plants and plantlike organisms. Children are introduced to the greenhouse effect, global warming, ozone depletion, acid rain, endangered species, and extinction. Each chapter includes extensive background information, suggested discussion questions, and extensions. The hook emphasizes the complex and interconnected nature of all living things. An index of activities arranged by subject describes the specific lessons taught by each activity. A teacher's guide is available; it lists books, guides to environmental and outdoor education, and interdisciplinary studies. 6.29 Michael J. Caduto and Joseph Bruchac. Keepers of the Animals: Native American Stories and Wildlife Activities for Children. Golden, Colo.: Fulcrum Publishing, 1991. 266 pp. Price: $22.95 (ISBN 1-55591-088-2) This volume is about learning to understand, live with, and care for animals. combining 24 carefully selected Native American animal stories with interdisciplinary activities, it guides children through a study of the concepts and topics of wildlife ecology; issues in environmental stewardship; issues that are particularly important to animals; and the natural history and habitat of North American animals, from mollusk to mammal. The activities arc designed to provoke curiosity and facilitate discovery of animals and their environments. They involve children in creative arts, theater, reading, writing, listening, science, social studies, mathematics, and sensory awareness. Each chapter includes extensive science background information, discussion questions, and extensions. An index of activities arranged by subject describes the specific lessons taught by each activity. A companion teacher's guide that discusses the nature of Native North American stories and cultures is available. That volume provides lists of books for further reading and suggests guides to environmental and outdoor education. 6.30 Michael J. Caduto and Joseph Bruchac. Keepers of the Earth: Native American Stories and Environmental Activities for Children. Golden, Colo.: Fulcrum Publishing, 1989. 209 pp. Price: $22.95 (ISBN 1-55591-027-0) This book features a collection of North American Indian stories and related hands-on environmental activities designed to inspire children and to help them feel that they are a part of their surroundings. The emphasis is on an interdisciplinary approach to teaching about the earth and Native American cultures. A wide range of topics is explored: for example, trees, the seasons, soil, water, weather, pollination, life, and death. Each chapter opens with a story, followed by background science information, directions for related indoor and outdoor activities, suggested discussion questions, and extensions. The activities focus on sensory awareness and on understanding and caring for the earth and its inhabitants. An index of activities arranged by subject describes the specific lessons taught by the activities. A teacher's guide is available. It discusses the nature of Indian myths and the cultures from which the stories in Keepers of the Earth originated. 6.31 Francis X. Sutman, Virginia French Allen, and Francis Shoemaker. Learning English Through Science: A Guide to Collaboration for Science Teachers, English Teachers, and Teachers of English as a Second Language. Washington, D.C.: National Science Teachers Association, 1986. 43 pp. Price: $4.00 (ISBN 0-87355-061-7) Addressing the difficulties that multilingual students face in trying to learn science, this booklet offers approaches and advice that facilitate the learning of both the English language and various fields of science. Gathered from research and teaching experience, general strategies are presented for teaching classes that include limited-English-proficient (LEP) students. Also presented are specific methods for preparing LEP students to read science materials, hands-on activities that are particularly effective for teaching science concepts to LEP students, and 3 detailed examples of science lessons that teach both science content and English. The book presents a model for developing and conducting lessons that stress hands-on activities for multilingual students. 6.32 Rosalind Charlesworth and Karen K. Lind. Math and Science for Young Children. Albany, N.Y.: Delmar, 1990. 664 pp. Price: $26.95 (ISBN 0-8273-3402-8) Math and Science for Young Children offers information to help teachers create developmentally appropriate and integrated mathematics and science curriculum for preschool and primary children. The book suggests activities in a sequence designed to support young children's construction of the concepts and skills essential to a basic understanding of mathematics and science. The activities are organized chronologically by

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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science student age. Emphasis is placed on enriching three types of learning opportunities: naturalistic, informal, and structured. A developmentally appropriate and individualized approach to assessment is stressed. Appendixes include a series of developmentally appropriate assessment tasks, a list of children's books with mathematics and science concepts, and finger plays and songs. 6.33 DeAnna Banks Beane. Mathematics and Science: Critical Filters for the Future of Minority Students. Washington, D.C.: The Mid-Atlantic Equity Center, The American University, 1988. 62 pp. Price: $3.25 The goal of Mathematics and Science: Critical Filters is to provide information helpful for creating equity-based elementary school science instruction. The resource manual reviews the important role of the school principal in effecting change. It describes factors influencing the underrepresentation of minorities in advanced mathematics and science courses and details the components of successful strategies and programs for addressing underrepresentation. The manual provides materials for curriculum assessment and planning, such as data collection forms and checklists, and offers an annotated list of resources. 6.34 National Research Council. National Science Education Standards. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1995. 300 pp. Price: $19.95 (ISBN 0-309-05326-9) In an effort to guide the science education system in the United States, this document offers a vision of what it means to be scientifically literate and describes what students nationwide should know and be able to do in science as a result of their learning experiences. The volume is the result of a 3-year effort that involved contributions from thousands of teachers, parents, scientists, and others. The standards address what students should be able to do and understand at different grade levels, exemplary practices of science teaching and teacher training, criteria for assessing and analyzing learning, the nature and design of the school and district science program, and the support and resources needed to provide all students with the opportunity to learn science. The standards suggested in this document reflect the principles that learning science should be an inquiry-based process, that science in schools should reflect the intellectual trends of contemporary science, and that all Americans have a role in science education reform. 6.35 DeAnna Banks Beane. Opening Up the Mathematics and Science Filters: Our Schools Did It, So Can Yours! Chevy Chase, Md.: Mid-Atlantic Center, Mid-Atlantic Equity Consortium, 1992. 104 pp. Price: $3.25 Opening Up the Mathematics and Science Filters tells the story of the Mid-Atlantic Equity Center's successful 4-year project to increase the participation and performance of African-American and Hispanic students in elementary school mathematics and science. The project brought together 3 school districts and demonstrated that urban and suburban school districts can pool resources, expertise, and expectations to form powerful problem-solving entities. It showed that teachers and counselors can be empowered as reformers for school instructional and student support programs and that school-based intervention in mathematics and science can improve the participation and performance of minority and other students. The guide includes detailed information on the successful project's components and structure, first-hand accounts of project participants, a 9-step guide to implementing a similar program, reflections on things project organizers might have done differently, a list of consultants, and a program checklist. 6.36 Jos Elstgeest, Wynne Harlen, Sheila Jelly, and others. Primary Science. . . Taking the Plunge: How to Teach Primary Science More Effectively. Portsmouth, N.H.: Heinemann Educational Books, 1985. 116 pp. Price: $18.50 (ISBN 0-435-57350-0) The current emphasis on scientific process skills and attitudes increases the importance of what teachers do and say as classroom activities are carried out. Primary Science offers practical advice for increasing the effectiveness of the teacher's role in science activities. The book's 8 chapters deal with many aspects of teaching that often cause concern: making a start, handling difficult questions, encouraging children to write things down, helping them raise questions and observe carefully, planning investigations, and taking into account children's own ideas. The book's many suggestions are based on research into the teaching and learning of science. Simple, real-life anecdotes and examples illustrate the authors' points. Each chapter includes a short outline, a detailed summary, and a list of specific guidelines for practice.

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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science 6.37 Robert A. Dean, Melanie Messer Dean, Jack A. Gerlovich, and Vivian Spiglanin. Safety in the Elementary Science Classroom. 2nd ed. Washington, D.C.: National Science Teachers Association, 1993. 22 pp. Price: $5.95 (ISBN 0-87355-117-6) Safety in the Elementary Science Classroom gives teachers engaged in science activities basic directions and suggestions on how to provide a safe environment for their students. The guide is easy to use and concise. It covers the following areas in detail: In Case of an Accident, Animals in the Classroom, Plants in the Classroom, Eye Protection, First Aid, Field Trips, Fire Prevention and Control, Storage and Labeling, Safe Use of Equipment and Materials, and Safety Checklist. The suggestions are minimum safeguards and should be used with appropriate standards, regulations, state requirements, and federal codes. The guide is printed on a flip chart for posting in the classroom. 6.38 Johanna Scott, ed. Science and Language Links: Classroom Implications. Portsmouth, N.H.: Heinemann, 1993.91 pp. Price: $14.50 (ISBN 0-435-08338-4) This brief volume examines the role of language in science learning and the ways science can be used to develop children's language abilities. It discusses theoretical issues in the context of the classroom and offers numerous concrete examples of involving children actively in science and language learning. The book's 7 chapters, all by individual authors who are teachers or teacher educators, are presented in 3 sections: (1) Science and Talking, (2) Science and Writing, and (3) Science and Reading. Chapter topics include reflective questions, hands-on science as an ideal choice for learning a second language, and ways of writing science. The volume originated in Australia. It includes many references to Australian and British source material. 6.39 Rodger W. Bybee, C. Edward Buchwald, Sally Crissman, and others. Science and Technology Education for the Elementary Years: Frameworks for Curriculum and Instruction. Washington, D.C.: The National Center for Improving Science Education, 1989. 132 pp. Price: $14.40 Science and Technology Education for the Elementary Years is a policy statement on science education in elementary schools synthesized by a study panel from findings, recommendations, and perspectives of studies and reports. Emphasizing the importance of developing children's basic attitudes and understanding of science and technology from an early age, this report presents suggestions for educators forming curricular and instructional frameworks. In terms of a curricular framework, the report advocates hands-on activities that relate to the students' world, the development of scientific and technological concepts and skills within a personal and social context, and the study of a few concepts in depth. Regarding an instructional framework, the report recommends a 4-stage constructivist approach to learning, with students building their concepts and skills through a variety of experiences. It also identifies 9 major concepts that should be at the core of an elementary science program, and discusses goals, rationale, and the importance of the educational environment. Appendixes list several exemplary science education programs. 6.40 Eleanor Duckworth, Jack Easley, David Hawkins, and Androula Henriques. Science Education: A Minds-On Approach for the Elementary Years. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1990. 191 pp. Price: $39.95 (ISBN 0-8058-0543-5) In this volume, 4 authors from different professional backgrounds discuss elementary science education from their respective vantage points. They present approaches to teaching strongly influenced by Piaget that they developed and then put into practice and evaluated. Their results are shared with readers. The authors encourage teachers to be researchers in their own classrooms, investigating phenomena with their students and learning with them. The book illustrates how elementary science can and needs to begin with explorations of events in the everyday world so that students learn how to investigate scientifically to form the basis for later learning of science concepts. 6.41 National Science Teachers Association (NSTA). Science for All Cultures: A Collection of Articles from NSTA's Journals. Arlington, Va.: NSTA, 1993. 64 pp. Price: $16.50 (ISBN 0-87355-122-2) This booklet presents 14 previously published articles that together provide a basic understanding of multicultural science education, its implications for teacher education and for individual and national well-being, and suggestions for using such an approach as part of teachers' instructional process. The articles include discussions of the underrepresentation of women, African-Americans, Native Americans, and Hispanic people and the significant but unnoted contributions of other cultures to scientific advancement.

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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science 6.42 Edward Victor and Richard D. Kellough. Science for the Elementary School. 7th ed. New York, N.Y.: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1993. 863 pp. Price: $67.00 (ISBN 0-02-422901-6) Science for the Elementary School serves two major purposes: (1) it offers methods and strategies for teaching elementary science, and (2) it provides an overview of science content in clear outline form. More than 750 science activities for the classroom are included. A completely reorganized and rewritten Part I focuses on the developmental elements of teaching. Detailed discussions are presented on the history of science education, goals of elementary school science, the knowledge and skills needed to teach science effectively, characteristics of elementary school children and their intellectual development, teacher behaviors that facilitate student learning in a variety of settings, ways of planning curriculum and lessons, assessments and reporting student achievement, and the importance of continuing and evaluating teachers' professional development. The book emphasizes how teachers can help children gain skills, experiences, and knowledge. Guidelines are included on the use of different aids and media, and information is given about where to obtain classroom materials and resources. 6.43 Marvin Druger, ed. Science for the Fun of It: A Guide to Informal Science Education. Washington, D.C.: National Science Teachers Association, 1988. 141 pp. Price: $11.00 (ISBN 0-87355-074-9) Science for the Fun of It is a collection of articles highlighting some of the many science learning opportunities that exist outside the classroom. Such resources include zoos, museums, television programs, magazines and books, and a variety of creative programs and projects. Written by people who are involved with informal science education, the articles are designed to help readers become more aware of these resources, of their educational benefits, and of how they can be used effectively. Checklists of helpful hints for using the resources are included. Besides information on the positive aspects of the resources it features, the book gives background information on cognitive psychology, science learning, and audience research for informal learning. 6.44 Peter C. Gega. Science in Elementary Education. 7th ed. New York, N.Y.: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1994. 713 pp. Price: $61.00 (ISBN 0-02-341302-6) This two-part book, Science in Elementary Education, combines practical methods, background information, and activities for teaching science to children. Part I discusses the importance of elementary science education and introduces a broad cluster of teaching skills through step-by-step descriptions and the use of real-life examples. The chapters help teachers decide what science is fundamental, useful, and learnable for children; recognize and understand how children learn; use closed-ended and open-ended teaching activities; locate and use a variety of resources; arrange and manage learning centers; and organize and assess science teaching. (Part I is also published as a separate book under the title How to Teach Elementary School Science; see 6.25). Part II contains 12 chapters of subject matter background in different areas, with hundreds of related hands-on activities and investigations to use with children. The activities and investigations use readily obtainable materials and allow children both to learn concepts and procedures and to explore open-ended problems and topics. 6.45 Mike Watts. The Science of Problem-Solving: A Practical Guide for Science Teachers. Portsmouth, N.H.: Heinemann, 1991. 160 pp. Price: $18.50 (ISBN 0-435-08314-7) Problem solving has been promoted as a way of making education in schools more relevant to students' everyday lives. This book is a practical guide and background reader for teachers in middle and secondary schools. It examines the multiplicity of approaches to problem solving in science and technology and considers the skills, processes, and methods involved. The book explores the background and language of problem solving and discusses the skills, processes, and methods involved. It addresses factors that affect learning in individuals and groups as they solve problems; the transfer and ownership of learning; and managing and incorporating into a curriculum open-ended problem solving where there are multiple solutions. Many examples of problems included in the book are for teachers to use with students. An appendix contains ''additional problems." 6.46 Carol M. Butzow and John W. Butzow. Science Through Children's Literature: An Integrated Approach. Englewood, Colo.: Teacher Ideas Press/Libraries Unlimited, 1989. 240 pp. Price: $24.50 (ISBN 0-87287-667-5) Science Through Children's Literature: An Integrated Approach explains how children's fiction that is well-selected and conceptually and factually correct can be used to teach elementary science. Although the method is most easily applied with picture books for grades K-3, it can be used in higher grades with short chapters or excerpts from longer sources. The first part of the volume discusses the developmental needs of young children and shows

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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science how well-chosen fiction can help them understand and remember scientific concepts. It presents criteria for judging books for possible classroom use and suggests appropriate activities to accompany their use. It suggests ways to work with media specialists in selecting materials, and outlines a sample unit to show how a classic children's book can be the basis for science instruction in the classroom. The second part of Science Through Children's Literature lists classroom activities based on 33 popular children's books that cover life science, earth and space science, and physical science. 6.47 Wendy Saul, Jeanne Reardon, Anne Schmidt, and others. Science Workshop: A Whole Language Approach. Portsmouth, N.H.: Heinemann, 1993. 158 pp. Price: $17.50 (ISBN 0-435-08336-8) Science Workshop: A Whole Language Approach borrows some of the ideas and methods developed in the reading-and-writing workshop approach to teaching and applies them to science instruction. Focusing on a discussion of 3 characteristics of whole language classrooms—authenticity, autonomy, and community—a group of education professionals share their first-hand experiences at promoting student involvement in science using the workshop model. The book includes a theoretical overview of the science workshop; practical advice on getting started, arranging materials, and setting up a classroom; and an excellent resource guide with suggestions for materials and sources of information on a number of science topics. 6.48 Amy Bain, Janet S. Richer, Janet A. Weckman, and Margaret Redman. Solomon Resource Guide: Science. Vols. 1 and 2. Cincinnati, Ohio: Solomon Publishing, 1993. Vol. 1:443 pp. Vol. 2:485 pp. Price: $170.00 Developed for teachers who wish to teach without using textbooks, Solomon Resource Guide offers references and ideas for creating more than 40 thematic K-8 science education units that utilize hands-on activities and children's literature. The guide contains lists of books, coded by reading ability, that can used to teach one or several topics. It offers descriptions of fiction and nonfiction children's books that relate to basic themes and can be used to stimulate curiosity or language development. It provides simple activities and experiments that use everyday household items, and creative writing and arts activities appropriate for a variety of ability levels. Key concepts that can be used to prepare lessons plans for different grade levels (primary, intermediate, upper) and sample tests are included. Volume 1 is for units on weather, the solar system, plants, animals, energy, and machines. Volume 2 is for units on the earth, habitats, the human body, matter, and ecology. 6.49 Joseph Abruscato. Teaching Children Science. 3rd ed. Boston, Mass.: Allyn and Bacon, 1992. 428 pp. Price: $54.00 (ISBN 0-205-13650-8) Teaching Children Science, a book for preservice and in-service teachers, offers a broad review of elementary school science and ways of teaching it. The first 8 chapters explore theoretical and practical aspects of planning for learning. Topics include child development goals; discovery learning and science process skills; how to plan for units, daily lessons, and assessments; teaching strategies, textbooks, and classroom management techniques for discovery learning; integrating science with other subjects; and working with children with special needs. The second part of the book provides basic background in science content and concepts for lessons in the life, physical, and earth sciences, together with related discovery activities and demonstrations. 6.50 Arthur A. Carin. Teaching Modern Science. 6th ed. New York, N.Y.: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1993. 380 pp. Price: $44.00 (ISBN 0-02-319381-6) Teaching Modern Science is designed to introduce novice teachers to the specialized content and teaching strategies for teaching science and technology effectively. Although the book describes several approaches to teaching and learning, it emphasizes a minds-on/hands-on activity-based approach. Practical, classroom-tested ideas are presented on planning, organizing, managing, and assessing an integrated guided-discovery, teaching/learning program for grades K-8. The book includes step-by-step guidelines for creating lessons and suggestions for weaving science and technology themes into activities that are relevant to children's everyday lives. Appendixes list sources for science supplies, equipment, and materials; food requirements for various classroom animals; basic steps for creating a successful learning center; a sample chart for problem solving; and directions for constructing storage areas and homes for living things.

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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science 6.51 Helen Ross Russell. Ten-Minute Field Trips: A Teacher's Guide to Using the School grounds for Environmental Studies. 2nd ed. Washington, D.C.: National Science Teachers Association, 1990. 163 pp. Price: $16.95 (ISBN 0-87355-098-6) This imaginative book suggests field trips that are short and close-to-school (or home) and hands-on activities that can initiate or enhance classroom learning about the environment. The wide range of engaging investigative experiences—which do not require elaborate equipment or vast knowledge about natural history—involve teachers and children in learning about the world by observing, thinking, and doing. Topics include animals, weather and weather prediction, seasonal changes, building materials, rocks, soil formation, water and its effects, and recycling and natural decomposition. Each general topic is introduced with brief background information. Related introductory (or follow-up) classroom activities and preparations are then presented. Many tips are provided on how to motivate young people to invest time and creative energy in exploring how nature works. 6.52 Wendy Saul and Sybille A. Jagusch, eds. Vital Connections: Children, Science and Books. Portsmouth, N.H.: Heinemann, 1992. 165 pp. Price: $14.95 (ISBN 0-435-08332-5) Vital Connections is a collection of 15 papers from a symposium sponsored by the Children's Literature Center of the Library of Congress. The theme of the volume is the role of science trade books in helping children realize the pleasures, potential, and limits of science. Representing the views of authors, editors, reviewers, and specialists in children's literature and science, the papers consider a variety of topics: what role science books should play in the lives of children, how children learn science, when science books should be introduced, who decides what children should know, why some topics are prevalent in science books, how science authors approach their work, and what is entailed in selecting and editing science books. The editors note that the volume offers few definitive answers and promotes no conclusive account of ways to write, evaluate, or use juvenile science literature. Instead, it outlines important issues and offers thoughtful discussion.