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CHAPTER 3PHYSICAL SCIENCE

PHYSICAL SCIENCE-CORE MATERIALS

3.1 Balance and Motion. FOSS. (Developed by Lawrence Hall of Science, Berkeley, Calif.) Chicago, III.: Encyclopaedia Britannica Educational Corp., 1993.

Grades: 1, 2 In Balance and Motion, children discover how objects balance, spin, and roll. They explore balance, counterbalance, and stability by using counterweights to balance cardboard shapes and to make a pencil stand on its point. They apply their understanding of balance and stability by making mobiles. Students investigate spinning—rotational motion—by constructing tops, zoomers, and twirlers. They explore rolling motion by rolling objects down slopes; constructing and experimenting with wheel-and-axle systems; observing the way paper cups roll, then exploring ways to make them roll straight and weighting them to see how their rolling changes. In a final activity, students make one long runway through which a marble can roll nonstop.

The 3 activity folios in Balance and Motion require a minimum of 13 class sessions to complete. The teacher's guide includes a module overview, the 3 individual activity folios, duplication masters (in English and Spanish) for student sheets, and an annotated bibliography.

The module includes science background information, detailed instructions on planning for and conducting each activity, an extensive assessment component, and extensions for integration and enrichment. Materials are available in a kit.

Prices: Teacher's Guide (ISBN 07826-1142-7), \$101. Complete module, \$339. Publisher/supplier: Encyclopaedia Britannica Educational Corp. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in module.

3.2 Balancing and Weighing. STC. Field-test ed. Washington, D.C.: National Science Resources Center, 1993.

Grade: 2 Balancing and Weighing presents activities that help young students explore the relationship between balance and weight. Working in groups of two to four, children manipulate objects, use a beam balance, and build mobiles to explore balance. They use an equal-arm balance to compare objects and then place them in serial order according to weight. They learn through experimentation that weighing is simply the process of balancing an object against a certain number of other units. Children apply what they have learned about balancing and weighing to explore the relationships among density, weight, and volume by working with cupfuls of food. In a final activity, they use equal-arm balances to find out which of five

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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science CHAPTER 3 PHYSICAL SCIENCE PHYSICAL SCIENCE-CORE MATERIALS 3.1 Balance and Motion. FOSS. (Developed by Lawrence Hall of Science, Berkeley, Calif.) Chicago, III.: Encyclopaedia Britannica Educational Corp., 1993. Grades: 1, 2 In Balance and Motion, children discover how objects balance, spin, and roll. They explore balance, counterbalance, and stability by using counterweights to balance cardboard shapes and to make a pencil stand on its point. They apply their understanding of balance and stability by making mobiles. Students investigate spinning—rotational motion—by constructing tops, zoomers, and twirlers. They explore rolling motion by rolling objects down slopes; constructing and experimenting with wheel-and-axle systems; observing the way paper cups roll, then exploring ways to make them roll straight and weighting them to see how their rolling changes. In a final activity, students make one long runway through which a marble can roll nonstop. The 3 activity folios in Balance and Motion require a minimum of 13 class sessions to complete. The teacher's guide includes a module overview, the 3 individual activity folios, duplication masters (in English and Spanish) for student sheets, and an annotated bibliography. The module includes science background information, detailed instructions on planning for and conducting each activity, an extensive assessment component, and extensions for integration and enrichment. Materials are available in a kit. Prices: Teacher's Guide (ISBN 07826-1142-7), \$101. Complete module, \$339. Publisher/supplier: Encyclopaedia Britannica Educational Corp. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in module. 3.2 Balancing and Weighing. STC. Field-test ed. Washington, D.C.: National Science Resources Center, 1993. Grade: 2 Balancing and Weighing presents activities that help young students explore the relationship between balance and weight. Working in groups of two to four, children manipulate objects, use a beam balance, and build mobiles to explore balance. They use an equal-arm balance to compare objects and then place them in serial order according to weight. They learn through experimentation that weighing is simply the process of balancing an object against a certain number of other units. Children apply what they have learned about balancing and weighing to explore the relationships among density, weight, and volume by working with cupfuls of food. In a final activity, they use equal-arm balances to find out which of five

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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science

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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science ABOUT THE ANNOTATIONS IN "PHYSICAL SCIENCE—CORE MATERIALS" Entry Numbers Curriculum materials are arranged alphabetically by title in each category (Core Materials, Supplementary Materials, and Science Activity Books) in chapters 1 through 4 of this guide. In addition, each annotation has a two-part entry number. For each entry number, the chapter number is given before the period; the number after the period locates the entry within that chapter. For example, the first entry number in chapter 1 is 1.1; the second entry in chapter 2 is 2.2, and so on. The entry numbers within each curriculum chapter run consecutively through Core Materials, Supplementary Materials, and Science Activity Books. Order of Bibliographic Information Following is the arrangement of the facts of publication in the annotations in this section: Title of publication. Series title, or series acronym if commonly used. Authors (either individual names or organizational author). Name and location of developer (in parentheses), if different from publisher. Place of publication, publisher, and date of publication. Series Acronyms Following are acronyms of series titles in "Physical Science—Core Materials." (Series titles that are spelled out are not included in this list.) FOSS Full Option Science System SCIS 3 Science Curriculum Improvement Study STC Science and Technology for Children Price and Acquisition Information Ordering information is presented in a block immediately below the annotation. Included are the following: Prices of teacher's guides, activity books, and kits or units. The name of a principal publisher/supplier (not necessarily the sole source) for the items listed in the price category. (The address and phone and fax numbers for each publisher and supplier appear in appendix A, "Publishers and Suppliers.") An indication of the various sources from which one might obtain the required materials. containers holds a certain number of marbles. Throughout the unit children gather and organize data in graphs and tables and make weight comparisons. Balancing and Weighing is a 16-lesson unit requiring 8 weeks to complete. The teacher's guide includes a unit overview, the 16 lesson plans, reproducible masters for teacher's record charts of student progress, and an annotated bibliography. An optional consumable notebook for students accompanies the unit. The module includes science background information, detailed instructions on planning for and conducting each activity, an extensive assessment component, and extensions for integration and enrichment. Materials are available in a kit Prices: Teacher's Guide, \$14.95. Consumable Student Notebook, \$2.00. Unit, \$399.95. Publisher/supplier: Carolina Biological Supply. Materials : Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in unit. 3.3 Balls and Ramps. Insights. Newton, Mass.: Education Development Center, 1994. Grades: K, 1 In Balls and Ramps, children learn about the properties and characteristics of balls and the things that affect the way balls move. Working in both small and large groups, students investigate the bounciness of balls of different size, weight, and composition; the effects of shape, size, weight, and smoothness on how a ball rolls; the relationship between the height of the starting point and the energy of a ball when it leaves a ramp; and the effect of the weight and size of a ball on how quickly it reaches the bottom of a ramp and how far it goes. Concepts such as gravity, friction, inertia, and

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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science 3.6 Circuits and Pathways. Insights. Newton, Mass.: Education Development Center, 1994. Grades: 4, 5 In Circuits and Pathways, students learn about electricity and how it works by exploring its properties in simple circuits. In the first half of the module, they explore ways to wire a motor to a battery to make the motor spin in different directions; they light a bulb in different ways, using only a battery, a bulb, and a wire; they observe the inner structure of a bulb and trace the pathway the electric current follows through the bulb; and they discover what materials conduct or do not conduct electricity. In the second half of the module, students explore and create series and parallel circuits, construct bulb-brightness meters, make switches, investigate electric resistance, and build fuses to determine how they function in a circuit. In a culminating activity, students use what they have learned to design mystery boxes. Circuits and Pathways consists of 15 Learning Experiences, requiring a total of at least 20 sessions, or about 6 to 8 weeks to complete. The teacher's guide includes a unit overview, the 15 Learning Experiences, reproducible masters for student sheets, and annotated lists of additional resources to use with the module. The module includes science background information, detailed instructions on planning for and conducting each activity, an extensive assessment component, and extensions for integration and enrichment. Materials are available in a kit. Prices: Teacher's Guide (ISBN 089292-176-5), \$65. Materials kit, \$428. (Prices differ in California, Nevada, and Indiana.) Publisher/supplier : Optical Data. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in kit. 3.7 Electric Circuits. STC. (Developed by National Science Resources Center, Washington, D.C.) Burlington, N.C.: Carolina Biological Supply Co., 1991. Grade: 4 Electric Circuits introduces students to the basic properties of electricity as they construct and test electric circuits using wires, light bulbs, and cells (batteries). Working in teams of two to four, students explore different kinds of circuits and switches, learn about conductors and insulators, construct circuit testers, light bulbs and then a flashlight, and discover the properties of diodes. For the final activity, students apply what they have learned to wire a cardboard box house, lighting each room. Throughout this unit, students also collect, record, and interpret data and learn to use the data and observations to predict results of additional experiments. Electric Circuits is a 16-lesson unit that requires 6 to 8 weeks to complete. The teacher's guide includes a unit overview; the 16 lesson plans; an annotated bibliography; and illustrated instructions on using a wire stripper, removing the base from a light bulb, and making circuit boxes. A student activity book with simple illustrations and instructions accompanies the unit. The module includes science background information, detailed instructions on planning for and conducting each activity, an extensive assessment component, and extensions for integration and enrichment. Materials are available in a kit. Prices: Teacher's Guide, \$14.95. Student Activity Book, \$3.50. Unit, \$349.95. Publisher/supplier: Carolina Biological Supply. Materials : Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in unit. 3.8 Energy Sources. SCIS 3. Herbert D. Thier and Robert C. Knott. Hudson, N.H.: Delta Education, 1992. Grade: 5 Energy Sources provides students with opportunities to learn about the energy transfers that accompany the interaction of matter in solid, liquid, and gaseous forms. Students explore multiple energy transfers as they conduct controlled experiments with rotoplanes (propeller-driven rotating platforms); observe the transfer of energy from warm water to cold water; conduct experiments in which they melt and preserve ice; focus on motion as evidence of energy transfer by working with spheres that roll down ramps and collide with a moving target; and explore the use of sunlight as an energy source. Throughout the unit students measure and record distances and temperatures, display their data in histograms and on line graphs, and use their measurements to make quantitative comparisons. Energy Systems is organized in 5 sections consisting of a total of 20 chapters. The teacher's guide includes an introduction to the unit, lesson plans for each of the 5 sections, a glossary, and blackline masters for a student journal. The module includes science background information, detailed instructions on planning for and conducting each activity, an extensive assessment component, and extensions for integration and enrichment. Materials are available in a kit. Prices: Teacher's Guide (ISBN 087504-939-7), \$39.50. Kit, \$760.00. Publisher/supplier: Delta Education. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in kit.

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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science 3.15 Magnetism and Electricity. FOSS. (Developed by Lawrence Hall of Science, Berkeley, Calif.) Chicago, Ill.: Encyclopaedia Britannica Educational Corp., 1993. Grades: 3, 4 Electricity and Magnetism consists of 4 multipart activities designed to allow students to discover the properties of permanent magnets, the flow of electricity in circuits and the characteristics of conductor and insulator, and the relationship between electricity and magnetism. Students measure the force of attraction between magnets, construct an electrical circuit, and build electromagnets of different strengths. Finally, they apply what they have learned as they wire a telegraph. Assessment devices, which include hands-on, pictorial, and reflective-question assessment, are included in a separate section of the teacher's guide. Each activity allows for links to other disciplines and for further study. Electricity and Magnetism consists of 4 activities, requiring 6 to 8 weeks to complete. The teacher's guide includes a module overview, the 4 individual activity folios, duplication masters (in both English and Spanish) for student sheets, and an annotated bibliography. The module includes science background information, detailed instructions on planning for and conducting each activity, an extensive assessment component, and extensions for integration and enrichment. Materials are available in a kit. Prices: Teacher's Guide (ISBN 07826-0034-4), \$101. Complete module, \$559. Publisher/supplier: Encyclopaedia Britannica Educational Corp. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in module. 3.16 Magnets and Motors. STC. (Developed by National Science Resources Center, Washington, D.C.) Burlington, N.C.: Carolina Biological Supply Co., 1991. Grade: 6 In Magnets and Motors, students are introduced to electromagnetism and electromagnetic motors. They experiment with magnets, make a compass, and observe and investigate magnetism's connection with electricity. They develop an understanding of how a motor works, and they experiment with three different electric motors, including two that they make. During the unit, students apply previous learning to make and test hypotheses and learn how to design and conduct controlled experiments. Students use activity sheets and a science journal to record their questions, ideas, observations, and results of experiments. Magnets and Motors is a 16-lesson unit that requires 6 to 8 weeks to complete. The teacher's guide includes a unit overview, the 16 lesson plans, an annotated bibliography, and reproducible masters. A well-organized student activity book provides instructions for carrying out the activities. Appendixes include background information and instructions for setting up a classroom learning center. The module includes science background information, detailed instructions on planning for and conducting each activity, an extensive assessment component, and extensions for integration and enrichment. Materials are available in a kit. Prices: Teacher's Guide, \$14.95. Student Activity Book, \$3.50. Unit, \$404.95. Publisher/supplier: Carolina Biological Supply. Materials : Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in unit. 3.17 Material Objects. SCIS 3. Herbert D. Thier and Robert C. Knott. Hudson, N.H.: Delta Education, 1992. Grade: 1 In Material Objects, young students are introduced to the concept of matter as they investigate the properties of solids, liquids, and gases. Children first sort and group objects by properties such as shape, size, and texture, and then they categorize objects according to the materials of which they are made, such as metal, wood, and plastic. Students apply the concept of material by comparing soil and rock samples. The woods and metals are later classified into subgroups. Students are introduced to the concept of serial ordering as they arrange wooden dowels according to length and thickness. By comparing wood pieces, wood shavings, and wood dust, they observe that an object's shape and appearance can change while the material it is made of remains the same. Students sort liquids by property and then mix liquids and describe the properties of the resulting mixture. They are introduced to floating and sinking. By comparing air-filled balloons with helium-filled balloons, they are introduced to the gaseous phase of matter and to the idea that gases (like solids and liquids) have properties. Material Objects is organized in 5 sections consisting of a total of 20 chapters requiring about 29 class sessions. The teacher's guide includes an introduction to the unit, lesson plans for each of the sections, a glossary, and blackline masters for a student journal. The module includes science background information, detailed instructions on planning for and conducting each activity, an extensive assessment component, and extensions for integration and enrichment. Materials are available in a kit. Prices: Teacher's Guide (ISBN 087504-931-1), \$39.50. Kit, \$650.00. Publisher/supplier: Delta Education. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in kit.

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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science 3.18 Mixtures and Solutions. FOSS. (Developed by Lawrence Hall of Science, Berkeley, Calif.) Chicago, Ill.: Encyclopaedia Britannica Educational Corp., 1993. Grades: 5, 6 Mixtures and Solutions introduces students to some concepts of basic chemistry—mixture, solution, concentration, saturation, and chemical reaction. Activities include separating mixtures using the techniques of sifting, dissolving, filtering, and evaporating. Other activities involve making saturated solutions of salt and citric acid and then comparing the solubility of these two substances in water; determining the relative concentration of salt solutions; and observing chemical reactions that result in the formation of a gas and a precipitate and then applying the techniques of filtering and evaporation to separate some of the reaction products. Mixtures and Solutions consists of 4 activities, requiring a total of 13 class sessions, or about 7 weeks, to complete. The teacher's guide includes a module overview, the 4 individual activity folios, duplication masters (in both English and Spanish) for student sheets, and an annotated bibliography. The module includes science background information, detailed instructions on planning for and conducting each activity, an extensive assessment component, and extensions for integration and enrichment. Materials are available in a kit. Prices: Teacher's Guide (ISBN 07826-0081-6), \$101. Complete module, \$469. Publisher/supplier: Encyclopaedia Britannica Educational Corp. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in module. 3.19 Mysterious Powder. Insights. Newton, Mass.: Education Development Center, 1994. Grades: 4, 5 In Mysterious Powder, students discover how scientists investigate and learn about unknown substances. The module emphasizes problem solving and the use of the scientific process as a way of understanding the natural world. By investigating a simulated environmental event (the mysterious appearance of a white powder in a school yard), students learn that substances possess characteristic physical and chemical properties and that knowledge of these properties can be used to solve problems. To solve the mystery, students use their senses (sight, touch, and smell) to explore six unknown white powders, all common household items, that might have covered the school yard. They analyze the six powders using four liquids (water, alcohol, oil, and vinegar) and three indicators (iodine, phenolphthalein, and phenol red). A Neighborhood Map reveals possible sources of the mysterious powder. At the end of the module, using information they have gathered and organized, students are able to identify the mystery powder. They write an environmental report to the school board about what the powder is, whether it is dangerous, and where it could have come from. Mysterious Powder consists of 13 Learning Experiences, requiring 16 to 20 class sessions to complete. The teacher's guide includes a unit overview, the 13 Learning Experiences, reproducible masters for student sheets, and annotated lists of additional resources to use with the module. The module includes science background information, detailed instructions on planning for and conducting each activity, an extensive assessment component, and extensions for integration and enrichment. Materials are available in a kit. Prices: Teacher's Guide (ISBN 089292-178-1), \$65. Materials kit, \$332. (Prices differ in California, Nevada, and Indiana.) Publisher/supplier : Optical Data. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in kit. 3.20 Paper. FOSS. (Developed by Lawrence Hall of Science, Berkeley, Calif.) Chicago, Ill.: Encyclopaedia Britannica Educational Corp., 1993. Grade: K In the module Paper, kindergartners examine the properties of paper, explore the different ways it can be folded and fastened together to make various objects, observe how paper interacts with water, and investigate ways paper can be recycled. Activities include comparing samples of several different kinds of paper, going on a paper hunt, and making paper collages. Students use crayons, pencils, and markers to determine what makes paper suitable for writing and drawing. They fold paper into envelopes and boxes, and they make a piece of recycled paper. Paper consists of 3 activities, requiring about 15 class sessions of 20 to 30 minutes each. The teachers guide includes a module overview, the 3 individual activity folios, duplication masters (in both English and Spanish) for student sheets, and an annotated bibliography. The module includes science background information, detailed instructions on planning for and conducting each activity, an extensive assessment component, and extensions for integration and enrichment. Materials are available in a kit. Prices: Teacher's Guide (ISBN 07826-1148-6), \$101. Complete module, \$345. Publisher/supplier: Encyclopaedia Britannica Educational Corp. Materials: Available locally. from commercial suppliers, or in module.

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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science 3.24 Solids and Liquids. FOSS. (Developed by Lawrence Hall of Science, Berkeley, Calif.) Chicago, Ill.: Encyclopaedia Britannica Educational Corp., 1993. Grades: 1, 2 Solids and Liquids engages students in 4 multiphase activities that allow them to develop science process skills while learning the properties and characteristics of solids and liquids. Students first observe, describe, and sort pieces of wood, metal, plastic, and other solid materials according to their properties. Then they use the materials and their new knowledge to construct towers, bridges, and tunnels. They work with beans, rice, and cornmeal to find out how solids behave when the pieces are small. They pour the solids from container to container and separate a mixture of them using screens of different sizes. Next, students investigate the properties of seven different liquids and play games to reinforce vocabulary associated with liquids. In the final set of activities, students mix familiar solids with water, observe the mixtures, and then describe and graph the changes. They also observe what happens when the liquids examined earlier are mixed with water. In the last activity of the set, students investigate to determine if toothpaste is a solid or a liquid. Solids and Liquids consists of 4 activities, requiring about 19 class sessions of 20 to 45 minutes each. The teacher's guide includes a module overview, the 4 individual activity folios, duplication masters (in both English and Spanish) for student sheets, and an annotated bibliography. The module includes science background information, detailed instructions on planning for and conducting each activity, an extensive assessment component, and extensions for integration and enrichment. Materials are available in a kit. Prices: Teacher's Guide (ISBN 0-78261140-0, \$101. Complete module, \$575. Publisher/supplier: Encyclopaedia Britannica Educational Corp. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in module. 3.25 Sound. Insights. Newton, Mass.: Education Development Center, 1994. Grades: 2, 3 The module Sound begins by having students identify sounds from a tape recording and closes with a classroom recital of students' songs played on instruments they made from lengths of wood, flowerpots and string, or dried beans and a can. During the unit, students investigate some of the main characteristics of sound, including pitch, volume, and quality. Activities include constructing a kazoo to demonstrate that sounds are caused by vibrations; exploring the relationship between pitch and tension using rubber bands, pegboards, and golf tees; and comparing the sounds generated by different-sized washers hanging from strings to determine the relationship between pitch and the size of the vibrating object. Students also build their own "telephones" and explore which materials work best and which variables affect sound transmission. Sound consists of 14 Learning Experiences, requiring about 24 class sessions to complete. The teacher's guide includes a unit overview, the 14 Learning Experiences, reproducible masters for student sheets, and annotated lists of additional resources to use with the module. The module includes science background information, detailed instructions on planning for and conducting each activity, an extensive assessment component, and extensions for integration and enrichment. Materials are available in a kit. Prices: Teacher's Guide (ISBN 089292-173-0), \$65. Materials kit, \$299. (Prices differ in California, Nevada, and Indiana.) Publisher/supplier : Optical Data. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in kit. 3.26 Sounds. STC. Field-test ed. Washington, D.C.: National Science Resources Center, 1991. Grade: 3 In this unit on Sounds, students investigate the causes and characteristics of sound and explore how people can hear sounds better. They investigate the characteristics of sound by experimenting with a variety of simple devices. They observe that vibrations produce sounds; they investigate how sound travels through different materials; they explore how humans produce sounds; and they discover the effect of the length of the sound-producing material on the pitch of the sound and the effect of tension on pitch. They demonstrate these concepts by making simple sound-producing devices. Students then expand their investigations of pitch to include both length and tension and apply what they learned to building a string instrument. Students build a model eardrum, read about how the ear is constructed, and learn how to protect their ears from damage. Sounds is a 16-lesson unit, requiring 6 to 8 weeks to complete. The teacher's guide includes a unit overview, the 16 lesson plans, an annotated bibliography, and reproducible masters. A well-organized student activity book provides instructions for carrying out the activities. Appendixes include information on coping with hearing impairments. The module includes science background information, detailed instructions on planning for and conducting each activity, an extensive assessment component, and extensions for integration and enrichment. Materials are available in a kit. Prices: Teacher's Guide (ISBN 089278-695-7, California revision), \$14.95. Student Activity Book, \$3.50. Unit, \$421.00. Publisher/supplier : Carolina Biological Supply. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in unit.

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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science 40 to 50 minutes each. The teacher's guide includes a module overview, a list of objectives for each activity, a planning schedule, background information, and preparation and materials management strategies. A complete lesson plan is provided for each activity. An assessment activity and reproducible masters of student data sheets are also included. Prices: Teacher's Guide (ISBN 087504-119-1), \$24.95. Kit, \$260.00. Publisher/supplier: Delta Education. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in kit. 3.48 Sink or Float. DSM. Hudson, N.H.: Delta Education, 1988. Grades: 2, 3 In Sink or Float, students investigate the concept of buoyancy and principles governing the behavior of boats. Working in pairs, they build a variety of floating vessels. Students first predict the buoyancy of pieces of clay formed in various shapes as they learn how shape influences buoyancy. Then they experiment with a variety of materials and designs to identify variables affecting the load capacities of floating vessels. The module culminates in a cargo contest in which students construct boats designed for maximum capacity. Sink or Float consists of 7 activities that require about 3 weeks to complete. Each activity includes a vocabulary list, a list of materials needed, preparation steps, teaching suggestions, and reinforcement activities. Reproducible masters for student worksheets are included. Prices: Teacher's Guide (ISBN 087504-742-4), \$9.95. Kit, \$121.00. Publisher/supplier: Delta Education. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in kit. 3.49 Solids, Liquids, and Gases: States of Matter and How They Change. Scholastic Science Place. (Developed in cooperation with New York Hall of Science, Corona, N.Y.) New York, N.Y.: Scholastic, 1993. Grade: 1 In Solids, Liquids, and Gases, students learn that matter changes in a variety of ways. The unit's lessons are grouped in 3 subconcepts: (1) matter has properties by which it can be observed and described; (2) properties of matter, such as shape, color, and state, can change; and (3) changes in matter require adding or taking away energy. Examples of activities in this unit include the following: students listen to a story about what scientists do; they take a video trip that introduces them to solids, liquids, and gases; they compare the way liquids and solids behave; they observe what happens when different types of liquids are mixed together; and they melt ice to observe that matter changes form with the help of energy. Solids, Liquids, and Gases has 17 lessons (typically 20 to 40 minutes in duration). The conceptual goals of the unit are presented in the lesson-by-lesson story line in the teacher's guide. Each lesson also includes background information; a complete lesson plan, including suggestions for assessing performance and integrating the curriculum; and a list of the print, video, and software support materials required for the lesson. Prices: Teacher's Guide (ISBN 0-59026204-1), \$20.70. Student Book (ISBN 0-590-26136-3), \$6.50. Complete kit, \$375.00. Consumables kit, \$59.00. Publisher/supplier: Scholastic. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in unit. 3.50 Sound. DSM. Hudson, N.H.: Delta Education, 1988. Grades: 2-4 Sound introduces students to the concept of sound and what causes it. The unit opens with an activity called Sound Detectives, in which students try to identify objects by the sounds the objects produce. Students develop an operational definition of volume, compare how sound travels through air and through a solid, and manipulate variables to determine which ones can alter the pitch of a sound. Sound consists of 10 activities, requiring 12 class sessions to complete. Each activity includes a vocabulary list, a list of materials needed, preparation steps, teaching suggestions, and reinforcement activities. Prices: Teacher's Guide (ISBN 087504-747-5), \$9.95. Kit, \$147.00. Publisher/supplier: Delta Education. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in kit. 3.51 STAR Flight Lab. STAR. Washington, D.C.: Reading Is Fundamental, 1995. Grades: 5-6+ STAR Flight Lab introduces activities on the science of flight with a collection of historical anecdotes tracing the development of flight science and technology. Students experiment with kites, parachutes, airfoils, gliders, and balloon rockets to understand 4 forces acting on an aircraft in flight—lift, drag, thrust, and gravity. They measure altitude, wind speed, rate of descent, and flight distance. Information, procedures, and test data are recorded in student flight logs. Examples of cross-curricular activities include analyzing the elements of science fiction stories; constructing a flight history timeline; calculating and comparing flight

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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science times for airplanes throughout history; and drawing a scene as viewed from a hot air balloon. STAR Flight Lab provides a list of resources, including books, computer software, and audiovisual materials. Prices: Teacher's Guide, \$21.90. Mentor's Guide, \$3.90. Publisher/supplier : Kendall/Hunt. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers. 3.52 STAR Inventor's Lab. STAR. Washington, D.C.: Reading Is Fundamental, 1994. Grades: 3-6 The story of Lewis Latimer, an African-American inventor who was a colleague of Thomas Edison, provides the context for a series of investigations using electrical circuitry in STAR Inventor's Lab. As apprentices, students construct simple electric circuits and an electromagnet. As journeymen they apply their skills and knowledge to build a model cottage with electrical sources, an electromagnetic crane, or an electronic quiz game. As inventors they are challenged to create an invention or a prototype of an invention. The unit includes additional activities to tie the inventor's lab to reading, social studies, art, and mathematics, including learning more about inventors by reading about their lives and careers, wiring a dollhouse, and building a better book bag. STAR Inventor's Lab provides a list of resources, including books, computer software, and audiovisual materials. Prices: Teacher's Guide, \$21.50. Mentor's Guide, \$3.90. Publisher/supplier : Kendall/Hunt. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers. 3.53 States of Matter. DSM. Hudson, N.H.: Delta Education, 1988. Grades: 2-4 In States of Matter, students discover the effects of temperature on changes in states of matter. They predict and then measure the time required to melt an ice cube and infer variables that affect the rate of melting. Then they design and conduct experiments to increase the rate of melting and construct insulated containers to prevent ice from melting. Through simple experiments, students learn that not all substances change state at the same rate and that different substances have different freezing points. States of Matter consists of 7 activities. Each activity includes a vocabulary list, a list of materials needed, preparation steps, teaching suggestions, and reinforcement activities. Prices: Teacher's Guide, \$9.95. Kit, \$169.00. Publisher/supplier: Delta Education. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in kit.

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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science PHYSICAL SCIENCE-SCIENCE ACTIVITY BOOKS 3.54 Adventures in Science and Mathematics: Integrated Activities for Young Children. Julie G. Whitney and Linda J. Sheffield. New Rochelle, N.Y.: Cuisenaire Company of America, 1991. Grade: 2 In Adventures in Science and Mathematics, students use the scientific method to investigate a variety of concepts, primarily in the physical sciences. In the first of the 5 units in this guide, they develop their observational skills by identifying and comparing the characteristics of a variety of rocks. In the second and third units, they explore the relationship between force, energy, and motion through simple experiments using blocks, balloon rockets, pendulums, pulleys, and balls. In the fourth unit, students study motion in fluids by investigating the behavior of waves, testing the viscosity of various fluids, and simulating soil erosion. Students learn about light in the fifth unit by experimenting with mirrors, prisms, and screens. Every activity is designed to follow the same basic process: experiment and observe, discuss, hypothesize, test hypotheses, discuss results, and explore further. Each of the 5 units in Adventures in Science and Mathematics begins with an overview and background information about each activity in that unit. The 22 activities can be done in small groups or in pairs, in combination with class discussion. Price: \$9.95 (ISBN 0-938587-18-8). Publisher/supplier: Cuisenaire Company of America. Materials: Available locally. ABOUT THE ANNOTATIONS IN "PHYSICAL SCIENCE—SCIENCE ACTIVITY BOOKS" Entry Numbers Curriculum materials are arranged alphabetically by title in each category (Core Materials, Supplementary Materials, and Science Activity Books) in chapters 1 through 4 of this guide. In addition, each annotation has a two-part entry number. For each entry number, the chapter number is given before the period; the number after the period locates the entry within that chapter. For example, the first entry number in chapter 1 is 1.1; the second entry in chapter 2 is 2.2, and so on. The entry numbers within each curriculum chapter run consecutively through Core, Supplementary, and Science Activity Books. Order of Bibliographic Information Following is the arrangement of the facts of publication in the annotations in this section: Title of publication. Series title, or series acronym if commonly used. Authors (either individual names or organizational author). Name and location of developer (in parentheses), if different from publisher. Place of publication, publisher, and date of publication. Series Acronyms Following are acronyms of series titles in "Physical Science—Science Activity Books." (Series titles that are spelled out are not included in this list.) AIMS Activities Integrating Mathematics and Science CESI Council for Elementary Science International GEMS Great Explorations in Math and Science Price and Acquisition Information Ordering information is presented in a block immediately below the annotation. Included are the following: Prices of teacher's guides, activity books, and kits or units. The name of a principal publisher/supplier (not necessarily the sole source) for the items listed in the price category. (The address and phone and fax numbers for each publisher and supplier appear in appendix A, "Publishers and Suppliers.") An indication of the various sources from which one might obtain the required materials.

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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science balloon rockets, and a vinegar rocket launcher. Each of the 8 activities in Flight Power includes an explanation of how the construction works, together with reproducible investigation sheets for recording information and observations. Also included are challenge sheets and problem pages that encourage critical thinking and creativity. Price: \$10.95 (ISBN 0-947138-87-0). Publisher/supplier: Mondo. Materials : Available locally. 3.64 Flights of Imagination: An Introduction to Aerodynamics. Wayne Hosking. Rev. ed. Washington, D.C.: National Science Teachers Association, 1990. Grades: 5-6+ Flights of Imagination provides instructions for activities using student-constructed kites, gliders, and airfoils to investigate fundamental principles of aerodynamics. Students explore questions such as how the wind makes a kite rise; why some kites require a tail; how a dihedral adds stability; and what effect different materials have on a kite's durability, construction time, and flight performance. The more quantitative investigations on topics such as aspect ratio, weight-to-area factor, wind speed and lift, and angle of elevation are more appropriate for secondary school students but may be of interest to teachers who wish to improve their background knowledge. Flights of Imagination consists of 18 activities. Appendixes on when, where, and how to fly a kite are included, along with a safety code, glossary, and resource list. Price: \$10.50 (ISBN 0-87355-067-6). Publisher/supplier: National Science Teachers Association. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers. 3.65 Gears. Enfield, Conn.: LEGO Dacta, 1993. Grades: 4-6 This booklet contains information about gears, simple hands-on gear activities, and appropriate diagrams and illustrations. It is designed to be used with the LEGO DACTA Gear Set, which uses the popular LEGO construction blocks to teach about gears. Students first learn the definition of a gear. Then they build models that will gear up (increase speed) and gear down (increase force). They arrange gears so they turn in the same direction, in opposite directions, or at 90-degree angles to each other. They discover that how fast or how slowly one gear makes another turn depends on the number of teeth on the gear. Students are challenged to design and build a spinning sign and a moving target. Each activity in Gears states the main idea involved and provides illustrated instructions, additional information, and extension ideas. The guide lists the process and critical thinking skills involved in the activities. Prices: Teacher's Guide (ISBN 0914831-82-8), \$5. Gear Classroom Pack, \$175. Individual Gear Set, \$15. Publisher/supplier: LEGO Dacta. Materials : Available from LEGO Dacta. 3.66 Idea Factory's Whodunits: Mysteries for Science Class Detectives. Marilyn Blackmer and Sandi Schlichting. Riverview, Fla.: Idea Factory, 1991. Grades: 2-4 Idea Factory's Whodunits: Mysteries for Science Class Detectives is a collection of "mysteries" and problems occurring at home, at school, and on the playground that can be solved with a little science knowledge. Each mystery includes a short story followed by the question to be investigated. One mystery is included for each of the following topics: fingerprinting, mirror images, chromatography, magnetism, capillary action, the characteristics of matter, conductors and nonconductors of electricity, physical properties and chemical changes, colors, body proportions, properties of air, crystals, inertia, and density. Each lesson can stand alone or can be used as part of an on-going unit. The book's introduction offers teachers suggestions for grouping students, approaches to problem-solving, brainstorming tips and rules, and a section on science safety. Each lesson includes objectives, background information, a list of materials, brainstorming ideas, procedure, extension activities, and appropriate student data sheets. Price: \$10.95. Publisher/supplier: Idea Factory. Materials: Available locally. 3.67 In the Air. Science Spirals. Julie Fitzpatrick. London, England: Evans Brothers, 1991. Grades: 2-4 In the Air is a little book filled with student-directed activities on the subject of air. Aided by simple instructions, easily obtained materials, and colorful illustrations, students make flying tails, bags-on-a-stick, parachutes, and kites. They test the effects of altering the shape and weight of materials on the speed with which they fall through the air. They make and test the flights of paper gliders of various sizes and weights, and they use balloons to simulate the effects of a jet engine. A master materials list is included. Price: \$13.95 (ISBN 0-237-60207-5). Publisher/supplier: Trafalgar Square. Materials: Available locally.

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