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About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please BEYOND THE ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT 196 According to FWS (1992), recovery is the process by which the decline of an endangered or threatened species is arrested or reversed, and threats to its survival are neutralized. The goal of the process is to achieve sufficient self-sustaining wild populations of listed species to ensure their survival in nature. FWS aims to (1) identify ecosystems and organisms facing the greatest degree of threat, (2) determine steps necessary to reduce or eliminate the threats, and (3) apply the resources available to the highest priority recovery tasks. Restoration to the point where species can be delisted is the ultimate objective, although removal from the list is not a reasonable measure of short-term success (FWS, 1992). FWS asserts that a more realistic metric of recovery efforts is the number of species whose decline has been arrested and the population stabilized. The recovery process starts with development of a recovery plan. The purpose is to develop species-specific recovery goals; identify needed biological information, including the status of the species; and set forth management tasks required to recover the species. FWS maintains that coordination among federal, state, and local agencies; academic researchers; conservation organizations; private individuals; and major land users might be the most essential ingredient for the development and implementation of an effective recovery program. The agency further states that it emphasizes cooperation and teamwork among all involved parties. As described in Chapter 4, the resource agencies had approved 411 recovery plans covering 513 species as of March 1993—54% of the 956 U.S. species listed at that time. The percentage of species having approved recovery plans has dropped somewhat from 1990, when 352 out of 581 listed species (61%) were covered (FWS, 1990). This is probably attributable to recent accelerated listing actions and agency preoccupation with several manpower-intensive listing and recovery efforts (J. Bartell, FWS, pers. commun.). Chapter 4 also describes FWS's recovery backlog, which is likely to expand in future years as the pace of listings increases in response to the recent settlement over Category 1 candidates and "warranted but precluded" species. Because most recovery plans were prepared before the 1988 amendments were passed, we only recently began to see the effects of the new requirements. In April 1993, 80 species had revised plans that were intended to comply with the 1988 amendments; another 63 species had draft first plans or draft revised plans. FWS broke out the listed species covered in its 1990 (581 species) and 19921 (711 species) reports to Congress into the following groups: use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution. 1The latest information available to the committee.

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About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please BEYOND THE ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT 200 Service, the Bureau of Land Management, the Army Corps of Engineers, the Forest Service, the Natural Resources Conservation Service (formerly the Soil Conservation Service), the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Bureau of Reclamation. THE FUTURE: BEYOND THE ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT The ESA and other existing programs will not by themselves prevent all future extinctions of species in the United States. It appears to the committee that Congress intended the ESA to be a safety net to protect endangered species, and the committee concludes that that is its proper role. However—and this is not entirely the fault of the ESA—species often will be in serious trouble by the time they receive ESA protection. The director of the Fish and Wildlife Service, Mollie Beattie, holds a similar view. She said (as quoted by the Jackson Hole News, February 8, 1995): ''The Endangered Species Act is . . . a law that plays in when local planning and zoning, state fish and wildlife efforts, the Clean Water Act, and Clean Air Act haven't worked. It is the emergency room of conservation policy." If species extinctions are to be prevented, a broader management approach will be needed to complement the ESA's protections. A few thoughts on that broader approach— ecosystem management—are appropriate here. The goal of an ecosystem-based approach to managing natural resources is to maintain biological diversity by recognizing the value of protecting an array of biological communities and habitat types within a larger landscape context (Hunter, 1990). Ecosystem-focused programs are probably most useful when individual elements of biological communities are not in so much trouble that they need narrowly targeted management efforts. Using an ecosystem perspective2 for endangered-species-conservation planning offers several advantages. First, species needs are viewed in the context of surrounding land uses, rather than within the limits of their currently occupied habitat. Because surrounding land uses and the distribution of habitat patches among them can strongly influence species welfare (Hunter, 1990), resource managers can identify future opportunities and constraints. Second, the complexity of the problems facing managers who develop and implement strategies for conservation of endangered species requires new concepts (LaRoe, 1993). The expected rapid pace of new listings coupled with funding limitations places a premium on approaches that address the needs of different species simultaneously. Recently developed tools, such as advances in remote sensing, population-viability- analysis models, decision-analysis methods (see Chapter 8), and geographic information sys use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution. 2See discussion of ecosystem management in Chapter 9.

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About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please BEYOND THE ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT 202 the strict requirements of the Endangered Species Act have not yet been applied. It is important to include the major interested parties without having so many interests involved that consensus is difficult to reach. • Revised economic accounting. Too often, economic calculations underlying public and private decision making are incomplete. Often, they cover too short a time span, and they often exclude nonmarket values. A short-term loss might turn into a long-term gain: for example, losing an economic activity today might provide opportunities for greater economic activities of different types at some time in the future. Again, the validity of expanding economic accounting to cover longer periods and to include nonmarket values is becoming more widely recognized, but it is still in the early stages of development. SCIENCE, POLICY, AND THE ESA This committee was asked to review the scientific aspects of the ESA, and it has done so. It has not uncovered any major scientific issue that seriously hinders the implementation of the act, although its review has suggested several scientific improvements. Many of the conflicts and disagreements about the ESA do not appear to be based on scientific issues. Instead, they appear to result because the act—in the committee's opinion designed as a safety net or act of last resort—is called into play when other policies and management strategies or their failures, or human activities in general, have led to the endangerment of species and populations. In some cases, policies and programs have been based on sound science, but other factors have prevented them from working. The committee does not see any likelihood that those endangerments will soon cease to occur or that the ESA can or should be expected to prevent them from occurring. It therefore concludes that any coherent, successful program to prevent species endangerments and to protect the nation's biological diversity is going to require more enlightened commitments on the part of all major parties to achieve success. To conserve natural habitats, approaches must be developed that rely on cooperation and innovative procedures; examples provided by the ESA are habitat conservation plans and natural community conservation planning. But those are only a beginning. Many other approaches have been discussed in various forums. They include cooperative management (sharing decision-making authority among several governmental and nongovernmental groups), transfer of development credits, mitigation banks, tax incentives, and conservation easements. An analysis of these and other policy and management options is beyond this committee's charge, but sound science alone will not lead to successful prevention of many species extinctions, conservation of biologi use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution.

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About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please BEYOND THE ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT 203 cal diversity, and reduced economic and social uncertainty and disruption. But sound science is an essential starting point. Combined with innovative and workable policies, it can help to solve these and related problems. REFERENCES CEQ (Council on Environmental Quality). 1990. Twenty-first Annual Report. Washington. D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Clark, T.W., and A.H. Harvey. 1988. Implementing endangered species recovery policy: Learning as we go. Endangered Species Update 5:35-42. Culbert, R., and R.B. Blair. 1989. Recovery planning and endangered species. Endangered Species Update 6:2-8. Desiderio, M. 1993. The ESA: Facing hard truths and advocating responsible reform. Nat. Resour. Environ. 8:37, 41-42. DOI (U.S. Department of the Interior) Office of the Inspector General. 1990. Audit Report: The Endangered Species Program, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C. Etnier, D.A., and W.C. Starnes. 1993. The Fishes of Tennessee. Knoxville, Tenn.: University of Tennessee Press. Fitzgerald, J., and G.M. Meese. 1986. Saving Endangered Species, Amending and Implementing the Endangered Species Act. Defenders of Wildlife, Washington, D.C. 36 pp. FWS (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service). 1990. Report to Congress, Endangered and Threatened Species Recovery Program. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. FWS (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service). 1992. Report to Congress, Endangered and Threatened Species Recovery Program. Washington, D.C.: U. S. Government Printing Office. GAO (General Accounting Office). 1988. Endangered Species Management Improvements Could Enhance Recovery Programs. U.S. General Accounting Office, Washington, D.C. GAO (General Accounting Office). 1994. National Wildlife Refuge System: Contributions Being Made to Endangered Species Recovery. U.S. General Accounting Office, Washington, D.C. Hunter, M.L. 1990. Wildlife, Forests, and Forestry, Principles of Managing Forests for Biological Diversity. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Regents/ Prentice Hall. 370 pp. Irvin, W.R. 1993. The Endangered Species Act: Keeping Every Cog and Wheel. Nat. Resour. Environ. 8:36, 38-40, 76. Jackson, T.C. 1992. All creatures great and small. Legal Times (Dec. 7):20-23. LaRoe, E.T., III. 1993. Implementation of an Ecosystem Approach to Endangered Species Conservation. Endangered Species Update 10:3-6. Morrison, M.L., B.G. Marcot, and R.W. Mannan. 1992. Wildlife-Habitat Relationships, Concepts and Applications. Madison, Wisc.: University of Wisconsin Press. 343 pp. NRC (National Research Council). 1995. Upstream: Salmon and Society in the Pacific Northwest. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press Rohlf, D.J. 1991. Six biological reasons why the Endangered Species Act doesn't work—and what to do about it. Conserv. Biol. 5:273-282. Scott, J.M., B. Csuti, J.D. Jacobi, and J.E. Estes. 1987. Species richness. Bioscience 39:782-788. Snyder, N.F.R., J.W. Wiley, and C.B. Kepler. 1987. The Parrots of Luquillo: Natural History and Conservation of the Puerto Rican Parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology, Los Angeles, Calif. 384 pp. Taylor, R.J. 1993. Biological Uncertainty in the Endangered Species Act. Nat. Resour. Environ. 8:6-9, 58-59. Taylor, S. 1993. Practical ecosystem management for plants and animals. Endangered Species Update 10:26-29. use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution.

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